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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667248/establishment-of-a-radiotelemetric-recording-technique-in-mice-to-investigate-gastric-slow-waves-modulatory-role-of-putative-neurotransmitter-systems
#1
Huichuan Wang, Zengbing Lu, Yuen Hang Liu, Yayi Sun, Longlong Tu, Man P Ngan, Chi-Kong Yeung, John A Rudd
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Gastric slow waves originating from interstitial cells of Cajal-smooth muscle syncytium are usually studied in culture or in tissue segments, but no studies have made recording of slow waves from conscious freely moving mice. Can radiotelemetry be used to record slow waves, and do they respond predictably to drug treatment? What is the main finding and its importance? Radiotelemetry may be used to record slow waves from conscious freely moving mice permitting an examination of drug action in vivo, which is critical to drug discovery projects characterizing drugs and metabolites on gastrointestinal function...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667095/can-postoperative-deltoid-weakness-after-cervical-laminoplasty-be-prevented-by-using-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring
#2
Muneharu Ando, Tetsuya Tamaki, Takuji Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Maio, Masatoshi Teraguchi, Noboru Takiguchi, Hiroki Iwahashi, Makiko Onishi, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Shunji Tsutsui, Masanari Takami, Hiroshi Yamada
Laminoplasty, frequently performed in patients with cervical myelopathy, is safe and provides relatively good results. However, motor palsy of the upper extremities, which occurs after decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy, often reduces muscle strength of the deltoid muscle, mainly in the C5 myotome. The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively whether postoperative deltoid weakness (DW) can be predicted by performing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) during cervical laminoplasty and to clarify whether it is possible to prevent palsy using IONM...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666602/myasthenia-gravis-induced-by-ipilimumab-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-melanoma
#3
Vera Montes, Sandra Sousa, Fernando Pita, Rui Guerreiro, Cátia Carmona
In daily clinical practice, there is a growing number of patients receiving new biological agents used in the treatment of malignancies. Ipilimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody approved for patients with melanoma. It acts as an immune checkpoint inhibitor, binding and blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 in order to increase the antitumor immune response. There are several reports of autoimmune responses after its use. A 74-year-old man developed a mild rash and pruritus a few hours after the second infusion of ipilimumab and 24 h after the third dose of ipilimumab, he presented with shortness of breath, proximal limb muscle weakness, and diplopia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665364/casticin-inhibits-pdgf-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Ying Dai, Ruiduo Cheng, Jie Gao, Ying Li, Chunyan Lou, Yanyang Li
Casticin (3', 5-dihydroxy-3, 4', 6, 7-tetramethoxyflavone), one of the main components from Vitex rotundifolia L., was reported to possess several pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anti-asthma activities. However, the effects of casticin on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation and migration have not been explored. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of casticin on the proliferation and migration of ASMCs, and study the possible molecular mechanism...
April 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665013/planhab-hypoxia-does-not-worsen-the-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-induced-by-bed-rest-alone
#5
Desy Salvadego, Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Lorenza Brocca, Stefano Lazzer, Irene Mavelli, Jörn Rittweger, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Bruno Grassi
KEY POINTS: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O2 delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663549/ostreolysin-induces-browning-of-adipocytes-and-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis
#6
Lili Nimri, Katerina Staikin, Irena Peri, Einav Yehuda-Shnaidman, Betty Schwartz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with all features of the metabolic syndrome. Deposition of excess triglycerides in liver cells, a hallmark of NAFLD, is associated with loss of insulin sensitivity. Ostreolysin (Oly) is a 15-kDa fungal protein known to interact with cholesterol-enriched raft-like membrane domains. We aim to test whether a recombinant version of Oly (rOly) can induce functional changes in vitro in adipocytes or in vivo in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663395/adaptations-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-to-obesity-exercise-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#7
REVIEW
Phoebe B Chen, Jason S Yang, Yeonhwa Park
Mitochondria intricately modulate their energy production through the control of mitochondrial adaptation (mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and/or fission) to meet energy demands. Nutrient overload may result in dysregulated mitochondrial biogenesis, morphology toward mitochondrial fragmentation, and oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle. In addition, physical activity and diet components influence mitochondrial function. Exercise may stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and promote mitochondrial fusion/fission in the skeletal muscle...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662923/effects-of-electrical-stimulation-on-skeletal-muscle-of-old-sedentary-people
#8
Simone Mosole, Sandra Zampieri, Sandra Furlan, Ugo Carraro, Stefan Löefler, Helmut Kern, Pompeo Volpe, Alessandra Nori
Physical activity plays an important role in preventing muscle atrophy and chronic diseases in adults and in the elderly. Calcium (Ca2+ ) cycling and activation of specific molecular pathways are essential in contraction-induced muscle adaptation. This study attains human muscle sections and total homogenates prepared from biopsies obtained before (control) and after 9 weeks of training by electrical stimulation (ES) on a group of volunteers. The aim of the study was to investigate about the molecular mechanisms that support functional muscle improvement by ES...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662023/serum-is-not-necessary-for-prior-pharmacological-activation-of-ampk-to-increase-insulin-sensitivity-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#9
Nicolas O Jørgensen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Rasmus Kjøbsted
Exercise, contraction, and pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) have all been shown to increase muscle insulin sensitivity for glucose uptake. Intriguingly, improvements in insulin sensitivity following contraction of isolated rat and mouse skeletal muscle and prior AICAR stimulation of isolated rat skeletal muscle seem to depend on an unknown factor present in serum. One study recently questioned this requirement of a serum factor by showing serum-independency with muscle from old rats...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661126/gnao1-mutation-induced-pediatric-dystonic-storm-rescue-with-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation
#10
C Michael Honey, Armaan K Malhotra, Maja Tarailo-Graovac, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Gabriella Horvath, Adi Sulistyanto
Dystonic storm or status dystonicus is a life-threatening hyperkinetic movement disorder with biochemical alterations due to the excessive muscle contractions. The medical management can require pediatric intensive care unit admission and a combination of medications while the underlying trigger is managed. Severe cases may require general anesthesia and paralytic agents with intubation and may relapse when these drugs are weaned. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidum has been reported to terminate dystonic storm in several pediatric cases...
May 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660307/gonadotropin-receptors-of-labeo-rohita-cloning-and-characterization-of-full-length-cdnas-and-their-expression-analysis-during-annual-reproductive-cycle
#11
Avinash Pradhan, Madhusmita Nayak, Mrinal Samanta, Rudra Prasanna Panda, Suresh Chandra Rath, Shiba Shankar Giri, Ashis Saha
Follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh), secreted from pituitary, stimulate gonadal function by binding to their cognate receptors FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH/ choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR). Rohu (Labeo rohita) is a commercially important seasonal breeder freshwater fish species, but till date, the regulation of expression of gonadotropins and their receptors gene during different phases of annual reproductive cycle has not been investigated. We envisaged the critical role of these molecules during seasonal gonadal development in this carp species...
April 13, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659600/reconstruction-of-a-10-mm-long-median-nerve-gap-in-an-ischemic-environment-using-autologous-conduits-with-different-patterns-of-blood-supply-a-comparative-study-in-the-rat
#12
Diogo Casal, Eduarda Mota-Silva, Inês Iria, Sara Alves, Ana Farinho, Cláudia Pen, Nuno Lourenço-Silva, Luís Mascarenhas-Lemos, José Silva-Ferreira, Mário Ferraz-Oliveira, Valentina Vassilenko, Paula Alexandra Videira, João Goyri-O'Neill, Diogo Pais
The aim of this study was to evaluate in the Wistar rat the efficacy of various autologous nerve conduits with various forms of blood supply in reconstructing a 10-mm-long gap in the median nerve (MN) under conditions of local ischemia. A 10-mm-long median nerve defect was created in the right arm. A loose silicone tube was placed around the nerve gap zone, in order to simulate a local ischemic environment. Rats were divided in the following experimental groups (each with 20 rats): the nerve Graft (NG) group, in which the excised MN segment was reattached; the conventional nerve flap (CNF) and the arterialized neurovenous flap (ANVF) groups in which the gap was bridged with homonymous median nerve flaps; the prefabricated nerve flap (PNF) group in which the gap was reconstructed with a fabricated flap created by leaving an arteriovenous fistula in contact with the sciatic nerve for 5 weeks; and the two control groups, Sham and Excision groups...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659527/anti-diabetic-effects-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-laminaria-japonica-and-hizikia-fusiforme-in-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-model
#13
Sae-Ym Kang, Eunyoung Kim, Inhae Kang, Myoungsook Lee, Yunkyoung Lee
Laminaria japonica ( LJ ) and Hizikia fusiforme ( HF ) are brown seaweeds known to have various health-promoting effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects and possible mechanism(s) of LJ and HF by using both in vitro and in vivo models. C2C12 myotubes, mouse-derived skeletal muscle cells, treated with LF or HF extracts were used for the in vitro model, and muscle tissues from C57BL/6N mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% LF or HF for 16 weeks were used for the in vivo model...
April 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659444/cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-facilitates-excitability-of-spinal-reflex-but-does-not-affect-cerebellar-inhibition-and-facilitation-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia
#14
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yutaka Kikuchi, Kenta Kaneko, Yuta Seko, Masato Odagaki
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cerebellum facilitates the spinal reflex in healthy humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such cerebellar spinal facilitation (CSpF) appears in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) presenting with atrophy in the cerebellar gray matter and dentate nucleus. One patient with SCA type 6 and another with SCA type 31 participated in this study. TMS over the right primary motor cortex was used to induce motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, which were detected using electromyography...
April 13, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659184/the-human-laryngeal-innervation-revisited-the-role-of-the-neural-connections
#15
C Martín-Oviedo, E Maranillo, J R Sañudo, P Pérez-LLoret, E Verdú, T Martínez-Guirado, O Álvarez-Montero, J M Gómez Martín-Zarco, T Vázquez
In spite that vascular inconvenients or immunological rejections have been solved in relation with larynx transplant, a successful functional reinnervation has not been achieved. Some studies have suggested that laryngeal nerve connection may contain motor fibers, which could explain unexpected evoked responses in electromyographic studies or the different positions adopted of the vocal folds after similar nerve lesions. Ten patients with unexpected evoked responses after laryngeal nerve stimulation were selected...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659146/curcumin-accelerates-cutaneous-wound-healing-via-multiple-biological-actions-the-involvement-of-tnf-%C3%AE-mmp-9-%C3%AE-sma-and-collagen
#16
Yu-Hsiu Yen, Chi-Ming Pu, Chen-Wei Liu, Ya-Chun Chen, Yu-Chen Chen, Chan-Jung Liang, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, Hui-Fu Huang, Yuh-Lien Chen
Curcumin, a constituent of the turmeric plant, has antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but its effects on wound healing are unclear. We created back wounds in 72 mice and treated them with or without topical curcumin (0.2 mg/mL) in Pluronic F127 gel (20%) daily for 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 days. Healing in wounds was evaluated from gross appearance, microscopically by haematoxylin and eosin staining, by immunohistochemistry for tumour necrosis factor alpha and alpha smooth muscle actin, and by polymerase chain reaction amplification of mRNA expression levels...
April 16, 2018: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658882/transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-rhythmic-and-clock-driven-pathways-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#17
Laurent Perrin, Ursula Loizides-Mangold, Stéphanie Chanon, Cédric Gobet, Nicolas Hulo, Laura Isenegger, Benjamin D Weger, Eugenia Migliavacca, Aline Charpagne, James A Betts, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Iain Templeman, Keith Stokes, Dylan Thompson, Kostas Tsintzas, Maud Robert, Cedric Howald, Howard Riezman, Jerome N Feige, Leonidas G Karagounis, Jonathan D Johnston, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Frédéric Gachon, Etienne Lefai, Charna Dibner
Circadian regulation of transcriptional processes has a broad impact on cell metabolism. Here, we compared the diurnal transcriptome of human skeletal muscle conducted on serial muscle biopsies in vivo with profiles of human skeletal myotubes synchronized in vitro. More extensive rhythmic transcription was observed in human skeletal muscle compared to in vitro cell culture as a large part of the in vivo mRNA rhythmicity was lost in vitro. siRNA-mediated clock disruption in primary myotubes significantly affected the expression of ~8% of all genes, with impact on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism...
April 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658395/delaying-initiation-of-electroconvulsive-treatment-after-administration-of-the-anaesthetic-agent-and-muscle-relaxant-reduces-the-necessity-of-re-stimulation
#18
Márton Asztalos, Peter Matzen, Rasmus W Licht, Kristian Bjørn Hessellund, Alexander Sartorius, René Ernst Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of delaying initiation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) after administration of anaesthetic agent and muscle relaxant. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study utilizing a case-based analysis comparing number of re-stimulations, length of seizures, number of ECTs per series and stimulation dosage before and after introducing a new treatment regimen. In 2013, ECT was initiated approximately 60-90 seconds after administration of thiopental and succinylcholine...
April 16, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658187/overview-of-intensive-care-unit-related-physical-and-functional-impairments-and-rehabilitation-related-devices
#19
REVIEW
Katie Koester, Heidi Troeller, Sara Panter, Emily Winter, Jayshil J Patel
Rehabilitation after critical illness requires a multidisciplinary effort. Nutrition support of critically ill patients aims to correct the imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation to maximize strengthening and muscle mass, whereas physical and occupational therapists focus on optimizing strength and mobility through functional activity to help intensive care (ICU) patients return to their precritical illness level of function and improve quality of life. Early mobility has become the new standard of care for ICU patients...
April 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657085/structural-determinants-for-small-molecule-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-ampk-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-by-the-glucose-importagog-sc4
#20
Kevin R W Ngoei, Christopher G Langendorf, Naomi X Y Ling, Ashfaqul Hoque, Swapna Johnson, Michelle C Camerino, Scott R Walker, Ylva E Bozikis, Toby A Dite, Ashley J Ovens, William J Smiles, Roxane Jacobs, He Huang, Michael W Parker, John W Scott, Mark H Rider, Richard C Foitzik, Bruce E Kemp, Jonathan B Baell, Jonathan S Oakhill
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) αβγ heterotrimer regulates cellular energy homeostasis with tissue-specific isoform distribution. Small-molecule activation of skeletal muscle α2β2 AMPK complexes may prove a valuable treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Herein, we report the small-molecule SC4 is a potent, direct AMPK activator that preferentially activates α2 complexes and stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake. In parallel with the term secretagog, we propose "importagog" to define a substance that induces or augments cellular uptake of another substance...
April 7, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
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