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biomarkers in Head and neck cancers

Karl Payne, Rachel Spruce, Andrew Beggs, Neil Sharma, Anthony Kong, Timothy Martin, Satyesh Parmar, Prav Praveen, Paul Nankivell, Hisham Mehanna
The use of circulating biochemical molecular markers in head and neck cancer holds the promise of improved diagnostics, treatment planning, and posttreatment surveillance. In this review, we provide an introduction for the head and neck surgeon of the basic science, current evidence, and future applications of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker and liquid biopsy to detect tumor genetic heterogeneity in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Roshanak Derakhshandeh, Sonia Sanadhya, Kyu Lee Han, Haiyan Chen, Olga Goloubeva, Tonya J Webb, Rania H Younis
The search for stromal biomarkers in carcinoma patients is a challenge in the field. Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), known for its various developmental, physiological and pathological effects, plays a role in pro and anti-inflammatory responses. It is expressed in many epithelial tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Recently, we found that HNSCC-associated Sema4D modulates an immune-suppressive, tumor-permissible environment by inducing the expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of Sema4D as a biomarker for the peri-tumoral stromal phenotype in human HNSCC...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Luca Mazzarella, Alessandro Guida, Giuseppe Curigliano
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent signaling plays a crucial role in epithelial cancer biology, and dictated the development of several targeting agents. The mouse-human chimeric antibody Cetuximab was among the first to be developed. After about two decades of clinical research it has gained a significant place in the management of advanced colorectal and head and neck cancers, whereas its development in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not led to a place in routine clinical practice, because of marginal clinical benefit despite statistically significant Phase III trials...
March 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Xueheng Zhao, Marion G Brusadelli, Sharon L Sauter, Melinda Butsch Kovacic, Wujuan Zhang, Lindsey E Romick-Rosendale, Paul F Lambert, Kenneth D Setchell, Susanne I Wells
PURPOSE: Mutations in Fanconi anemia (FA) genes are common in sporadic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and we have previously demonstrated that FA pathway depletion in HNSCC cell lines stimulates invasion. The goal of our studies was to use a systems approach in order to define FA pathway-dependent lipid metabolism, and to extract lipid-based signatures and effectors of invasion in FA-deficient cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We subjected FA-isogenic HNSCC keratinocyte cell lines to untargeted and targeted lipidomics analyses to discover novel biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets in FA-deficient cells...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Dennis Poel, Tineke E Buffart, Jolanda Oosterling-Jansen, Henk Mw Verheul, Jens Voortman
Circulating microRNAs (ci-miRNAs) in blood have emerged as promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cancer. Many clinical studies currently incorporate studies that assess ci-miRNAs. Validation of the clinical significance of candidate biomarker miRNAs has proven to be difficult, potentially resulting from vast discrepancies in the detection methodology as well as biological variability. In the current study, the influence of several methodological factors on ci-miRNA detection was evaluated as well as short-term biological variability in patients with head and neck cancer...
March 9, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Atessa Pakfetrat, Zohreh Dalirsani, Seyed Issac Hashemy, Ala Ghazi, Leyla Vazifeh Mostaan, Kazem Anvari, Atekeh Movaghari Pour
Background and Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of oral cancer, and it is important for it to be diagnosed in early stages. Researchers are interested in exploring the possibility of using biomarkers in the diagnosis of SCC in early stages. One of the detectable biomarkers in the serum is glutathione. Glutathione includes two forms: reduced form (or GSH) and oxidized form (or GSSG). The GSH/GSSG ratio tends to decrease in severe oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to assess the serum levels of GSH and GSSG as well as GSH/GSSG as total antioxidant capacity in patients with head and neck SCC (HNSCC) and to subsequently compare them with healthy controls...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
T Nonaka, D T W Wong
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It remains one of the leading causes of death, and its early detection is crucial. Liquid biopsy has emerged as a promising tool for detecting and monitoring the disease status of patients with early and advanced cancers. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and exosomal miRNAs have received enormous attention because of their apparent clinical implications. Analyses of these circulating biomarkers have paved the way for novel therapeutic approaches and precision medicine...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Khalil Saleh, Roland Eid, Fady Gh Haddad, Nadine Khalife-Saleh, Hampig Raphaël Kourie
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a heterogeneous group of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies, is the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were the most identified risk factors of HNSCC. However, human papilloma virus, a sexually transmitted infection, has been determined as another primary cause of HNSCC. Early-stage disease is treated with surgery or radiotherapy. Recurrent or metastatic HNSCC is associated with poor prognosis with a median overall survival of 10 months...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Teng Huang, Wei Huang, Hong Lu, Bi-Yun Zhang, Jun Ma, Di Zhao, Yi-Jun Wang, Da-Hai Yu, Xia He
BACKGROUND: The role of transforming growth factorβ (TGF-β)-induced tumor progression in advanced malignancy is well established, but the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in TGF-β signaling remains unclear. This study aimed to identify TGF-β-associated lncRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Expression profiling of lncRNAs was obtained using Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of EPB41L4A-AS2 in HNSCC cell line...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Guoming Hu, Shimin Wang
The prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating CD57-positive lymphocytes (CD57+ lymphocytes) in human solid tumors remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis including 26 published studies with 7656 patients identified from PubMed and EBSCO to assess the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating CD57+ lymphocytes in human solid tumors. We found that CD57+ lymphocyte infiltration significantly improved overall survival (OS) including 1 - year, 3 - year and 5 - year survival, and disease - free survival (DFS) in all types of solid tumors...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Marion Savina, Sophie Gourgou, Antoine Italiano, Derek Dinart, Virginie Rondeau, Nicolas Penel, Simone Mathoulin-Pelissier, Carine Bellera
BACKGROUND: In cancer randomized controlled trials (RCT), alternative endpoints are increasingly being used in place of overall survival (OS) to reduce sample size, duration and cost of trials. It is necessary to ensure that these endpoints are valid surrogates for OS. Our aim was to identify meta-analyses that evaluated surrogate endpoints for OS and assess the strength of evidence for each meta-analysis (MA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify MA of cancer RCTs assessing surrogate endpoints for OS...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
S Camacho-Aguilar, V Ramírez-Amador, P Rosendo-Chalma, M Guido-Jiménez, A García-Carrancá, G Anaya-Saavedra
BACKGROUND: Although HPV emerged as a crucial carcinogenic and prognostic biomarker in head and neck cancer, and considering the increase in HPV-associated oral lesions (HPV-OLs) in HIV individuals, molecular information about HPV-OLs is scarce; thus, our aim was to determine viral loads in HPV-OLs from HIV/AIDS individuals. METHODS: HIV/AIDS subjects with HPV-OL were included in this cross-sectional study. Following informed consent, biopsies were obtained. HPV detection and typing were carried out by PCR and sequencing (MY09/11, GP5+/6+)...
March 2018: Oral Diseases
Glenn J Hanna, Patrick Lizotte, Megan Cavanaugh, Frank C Kuo, Priyanka Shivdasani, Alexander Frieden, Nicole G Chau, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Jochen H Lorch, Ravindra Uppaluri, Laura E MacConaill, Robert I Haddad
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have efficacy in treating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), but objective response rates are low. PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression alone is not considered a robust predictor of response and additional biomarkers are needed. This 3-year observational cohort followed 126 SCCHN patients treated with anti-PD-1/L1 therapy. Prior to treatment, 81 (64%) had targeted massively parallel tumor sequencing. Of these, 42 (52%) underwent fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry for tumor immunoprofiling...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Siddharth Sheth, Jared Weiss
Until recently, palliative options for the treatment of platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) have been cytotoxic chemotherapy and EGFR inhibitors. These agents offer limited efficacy with substantial toxicity. The development of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors has challenged the standard treatment. Pembrolizumab is a potent and highly selective humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1, an immune checkpoint receptor and its ligands PD-L1 and -2...
February 21, 2018: Future Oncology
Shariq S Ansari, Ashwini K Sharma, Michael Zepp, Elizabet Ivanova, Frank Bergmann, Rainer König, Martin R Berger
The TCGA database was analyzed to identify deregulation of cell cycle genes across 24 cancer types and ensuing effects on patient survival. Pan-cancer analysis showed that head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ranks amongst the top four cancers showing deregulated cell cycle genes. Also, the median gene expression of all CDKs and cyclins in HNSCC patient samples was higher than that of the global gene expression. This was verified by IHC staining of CCND1 from HNSCC patients. When evaluating the quartiles with highest and lowest expression, increased CCND1/CDK6 levels had negative implication on patient survival...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
B Wu, J Liu, B Wang, X Liao, Z Cui, N Ding
OBJECTIVE: More and more evidence has shown that the critical functions of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) polymorphism in the carcinogenicity mechanism of a variety of cancers. The association between lncRNA HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) polymorphism and the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Chinese population has not been reported. To investigated the effects of HOTAIR polymorphism on cancer susceptibility, the influence of HOTAIR variants on the risk of HNSCC was analyzed in this study...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Audrey Monneur, Anthony Gonçalves, François Bertucci
The development of immune checkpoints inhibitors represents one of the major recent advances in oncology. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) provides durable disease control, particularly in melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder and head and neck cancers. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current data on the expression of PD-L1 in breast cancer and on the preliminary clinical results of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer patients. In breast cancer, PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the presence of poor-prognosis factors, such as young age, high grade, ER-negativity, PR-negativity, and HER-2 overexpression, high proliferative index, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple negative, basal-like, HER-2-overexpressing)...
February 15, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Jian-Jun Xie, Yan-Yi Jiang, Yuan Jiang, Chun-Quan Li, Lim-Mei Chee, Omer An, Anand Mayakonda, Ling-Wen Ding, Lin Long, Chun Sun, Le-Hang Lin, Li Chen, Jian-Yi Wu, Zhi-Yong Wu, Qi Cao, Wang-Kai Fang, Wei Yang, Stephen J Meltzer, Henry Yang, Melissa Fullwood, Li-Yan Xu, En-Min Li, De-Chen Lin, H Phillip Koeffler
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in tissue-specific pattern, but it is not clear how these are regulated. We aimed to identify squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-specific lncRNAs and investigate mechanisms that control their expression and function. METHODS: We studied expression patterns and functions of 4 SCC-specific lncRNAs. We obtained 113 esophageal SCC (ESCC) and matched non-tumor esophageal tissues from a hospital in Shantou City, China, and performed quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays to measure expression levels of LINC01503...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
Chun-Wei Yang, Shu-Fang Wang, Xiang-Li Yang, Lin Wang, Lin Niu, Ji-Xiang Liu
One of the most common head and neck cancers is laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). LSCC exhibits high mortality rates and has a poor prognosis. The molecular mechanisms leading to the development and progression of LSCC are not entirely clear despite genetic and therapeutic advances and increased survival rates. In this study, a total of 116 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 11 upregulated genes and 105 downregulated genes, were screened from LSCC samples and compared with adjacent noncancerous...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Eva-Maria Birkman, Adam Elzagheid, Terhi Jokilehto, Tuulia Avoranta, Eija Korkeila, Jarmo Kulmala, Kari Syrjänen, Jukka Westermarck, Jari Sundström
Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy, (C)RT, is an essential part of the treatment of rectal cancer patients, but tumor response to this therapy among patients is variable. Thus far, there are no clinical biomarkers that could be used to predict response to (C)RT or to stratify patients into different preoperative treatment groups according to their prognosis. Overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) has been demonstrated in several cancers and is frequently associated with reduced survival...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
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