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Bipolar and Depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319690/depression-and-executive-functioning-deficits-predict-poor-occupational-functioning-in-a-large-longitudinal-sample-with-bipolar-disorder
#1
Lisa A O'Donnell, Patricia J Deldin, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Melvin G McInnis, Jenna Weintraub, Kelly A Ryan, Joseph A Himle
BACKGROUND: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is characterized by impairments in psychosocial functioning with occupational disability being one of the most significant. Depression and neurocognitive deficits are features of BD most commonly associated with poor occupational functioning (OF). Few studies have examined these features over an extended period of time focusing on distinct aspects of work functioning. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 273 adults with bipolar I disorder (N=173), bipolar II disorder (N=69), and bipolar not otherwise specified (N=31)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318898/distribution-and-levels-of-5-ht1b-receptors-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia-an-autoradiography-study
#2
Emma R Veldman, Marie M Svedberg, Per Svenningsson, Johan Lundberg
The serotonin 1B receptor has recently received more interest as a possible new target for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the binding distribution and levels of the serotonin 1B receptor in-depth in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and provide more insight in its functional role in bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Serotonin 1B receptor binding distribution was visualized with high resolution autoradiography (ARG), using the radioligand [(3)H]AZ10419369, in postmortem ACC tissue from patients diagnosed with BD (n=14), MDD (n=12), SZ (n=13) and healthy subjects (n=13)...
March 15, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318493/-bipolar-disorders-in-oncology-characteristics-and-management
#3
Michel Reich, Nuria Kotecki
Bipolar disorders belong to the spectrum of mood disorders and represent a serious psychiatric comorbidity. Behaviors adopted by bipolar patients can foster cancer occurrence but also impact its management, especially during acute depressive or manic episode. Oncologists must adapt their protocols in order to obtain the best compliance for treatment and avoid any possible mood destabilization, with the inherent risk of suicidal attempt. Potential interactions between mood-stabilizing agents (lithium, divalproate, atypical antipsychotics, and anticonvulsivants) and oncologic treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, corticotherapy) will be particularly watched...
March 15, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317329/predicting-psychological-distress-of-informal-carers-of-individuals-with-major-depression-or-bipolar-disorder
#4
David Wasley, Samantha Eden
Caring for someone with a mental illness is associated with high levels of burden and psychological distress. Understanding these factors could be important to prevent the development of physical and mental health problems in carers. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of coping styles and social support in predicting the psychological distress reported by informal carers (IC) of individuals with major depression or bipolar disorder. IC (n = 72) of adults with a diagnosed depressive illness were recruited from mental health organizations within the community setting...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316877/progression-of-pro23his-retinopathy-in-a-miniature-swine-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#5
Patrick A Scott, Juan P Fernandez de Castro, Paul J DeMarco, Jason W Ross, Josephat Njoka, Eric Walters, Randall S Prather, Maureen A McCall, Henry J Kaplan
PURPOSE: We characterize the progression of retinopathy in Filial 1 (F1) progeny of a transgenic (Tg) founder miniswine exhibiting severe Pro23His (P23H) retinopathy. METHODS: The F1 TgP23H miniswine progeny were created by crossing TgP23H founder miniswine 53-1 with wild type (WT) inbred miniature swine. Scotopic (rod-driven) and photopic (cone-driven) retinal functions were evaluated in F1 TgP23H and WT littermates using full field electroretinograms (ffERGs) at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age, as well as the Tg founder miniswine at 6 years of age...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315578/longitudinal-sleep-phenotypes-among-offspring-of-bipolar-parents-and-community-controls
#6
Jessica C Levenson, Adriane Soehner, Brian Rooks, Tina R Goldstein, Rasim Diler, John Merranko, David Axelson, Ben I Goldstein, David A Brent, Danella Hafeman, Mary Beth Hickey, Kelly Monk, Dara Sakolsky, David J Kupfer, Boris Birmaher
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are a prominent feature of bipolar disorder (BP). However, it remains unclear how sleep phenotypes may evolve among at-risk youth, and their relevance to BP onset. METHODS: Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS) offspring (ages 10-18) and their parents completed assessments approximately every two years pertaining to current psychopathology and offspring sleep habits. A latent transition analysis (LTA) identified latent sleep groups within offspring based on their ratings of six sleep domains using the School Sleep Habits Survey...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303578/compulsory-community-and-involuntary-outpatient-treatment-for-people-with-severe-mental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Steve R Kisely, Leslie A Campbell, Richard O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: It is controversial whether compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI) reduces health service use, or improves clinical outcome and social functioning. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (2003, 2008, 2012, 8 November 2013, 3 June 2016)...
March 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301802/illness-severity-and-biomarkers-in-depression-using-a-unidimensional-rating-scale-to-examine-bdnf
#8
Marco A Caldieraro, Edgar A Vares, Lívia H Souza, Lucas Spanemberg, Tadeu A Guerra, Bianca Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Pâmela Ferrari, Andrew A Nierenberg, Marcelo P Fleck
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported reduced peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depression (MD). However, most of these studies used multidimensional depression rating scales, and failed to identify a relationship between BDNF levels and depression severity. Unidimensional scales are a more valid measure of syndrome severity. In these scales, items are ordered in increasing severity, so that as scores increase, syndrome severity increases; thus, each item adds unique information, and items can be totaled to a meaningful sum...
March 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300949/increased-affective-empathy-in-bipolar-patients-during-a-manic-episode
#9
Anna Bodnar, Janusz K Rybakowski
Objective: To assess both cognitive and affective empathy in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during an acute manic or depressive episode. Methods: The study included 25 patients with BD (aged 35±14 years) during an acute manic episode, 25 bipolar patients (aged 41±14 years) during a depressive episode, and 25 healthy control subjects (aged 36±11 years). Cognitive and affective empathy were assessed using the Multifaceted Empathy Test. Results: In both manic and depressive patients, a significant deficit in cognitive empathy was demonstrated...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295013/impact-of-familial-loading-on-prefrontal-activation-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-study
#10
Kazutaka Ohi, Takamitsu Shimada, Hiroaki Kihara, Toshiki Yasuyama, Kazuyuki Sawai, Yukihisa Matsuda, Kazuaki Oshima, Hiroaki Okubo, Yusuke Nitta, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
Family history (FH) is predictive of the development of major psychiatric disorders (PSY). Familial psychiatric disorders are largely a consequence of genetic factors and typically exhibit more severe impairments. Decreased prefrontal activity during verbal fluency testing (VFT) may constitute an intermediate phenotype for PSY. We investigated whether familial PSY were associated with a greater severity of prefrontal dysfunction in accordance with genetic loading. We measured prefrontal activity during VFT using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ, n = 45), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 26) or bipolar disorder (BIP, n = 22) and healthy controls (HC, n = 51)...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294084/continuous-circular-cycling-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-response-in-bipolar-disorders-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-current-literature
#11
Antonio Tundo, Paola Cavalieri
Evidence from the literature suggests that, on average, 27% of patients with a bipolar disorder (BD) experience a continuous cycling course (CCC) and that this subgroup differs significantly from patients with a noncontinuous cycling course (N-CCC) with respect to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. The aim of the present paper is to review the studies that evaluated short- and long-term treatment responses in BD patients with CCC. The retrieved studies indicate that CCC is a significant predictor of poor response to long-term treatment with lithium (the odds of a response in the CCC group were 57% less than in the N-CCC group; p<0...
March 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293778/evaluating-the-quality-of-rural-intensive-case-management-services-using-administrative-data-an-exploratory-study
#12
Somaia Mohamed
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) for people with severe mental illness is an effective approach that is increasingly implemented in rural areas. Low-cost methods of evaluating fidelity to program models are needed to assure services are delivered as intended. In 2007, the Veterans Health Administration implemented an ACT-like Mental Health Intensive Case Management (ACT/ICM) program for SMI veterans in rural areas. This study demonstrates the use of administrative data, reflecting patient characteristics and intensity of service delivery, to characterize services delivered by these programs, to compare them to general mental health programs at the same VA medical centers, and to each other...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292650/frontal-and-temporal-cortical-functional-recovery-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-depression-a-longitudinal-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#13
Jinichi Hirano, Akihiro Takamiya, Bun Yamagata, Syogo Hotta, Yukiko Miyasaka, Shenghong Pu, Akira Iwanami, Hiroyuki Uchida, Masaru Mimura
While the efficacy and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression has been well established, the acute effects of ECT on brain function remain unclear. Particularly, although cognitive dysfunction has been consistently observed after ECT, little is known about the extent and time course of ECT-induced brain functional changes, as observed during cognitive tasks. Considering the acute antidepressant effects of ECT on depression, aberrant brain functional responses during cognitive tasks in patients with depression may improve immediately after this treatment...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291058/comparing-affiliate-stigma-between-family-caregivers-of-people-with-different-severe-mental-illness-in-taiwan
#14
Chih-Cheng Chang, Cheng-Fang Yen, Fong-Lin Jang, Jian-An Su, Chung-Ying Lin
The family caregivers of people with mental illness may internalize the public stereotypes into the affiliate stigma (i.e., the self-stigma of family members). This study aimed to compare the affiliate stigma across schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, and to investigate potential factors associated with affiliate stigma. Each caregiver of family members with schizophrenia (n = 215), bipolar disorder (n = 85), and major depressive disorder (n = 159) completed the Affiliate Stigma Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Caregiver Burden Inventory, Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, and Beck Anxiety Inventory...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291043/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-treatment-emergent-mania-and-hypomania-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Fady Rachid
BACKGROUND: This review focuses on treatment-emergent mania/hypomania (TEM) associated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). METHODS: English-language studies involving possible rTMS-induced mania/hypomania published between 1966 and 2015 were retrieved through a Medline search using the search terms mania, hypomania, mixed affective state, treatment-emergent, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and rTMS. Fifteen case series and controlled studies describing TEM associated with rTMS treatment have been published involving 24 individuals, most of whom were diagnosed with either bipolar I or II disorder or major depressive disorder...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291034/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-5-and-10%C3%A2-hz-with-modified-parameters-in-the-treatment-of-resistant-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-in-a-private-practice-setting
#16
Fady Rachid, Clotilde Moeglin, Othman Sentissi
BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have investigated the safety and efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of resistant depression in an outpatient private practice setting. We hypothesized that rTMS would be safe and effective in the treatment of resistant depression in a nonresearch population. METHODS: We treated 22 outpatients with unipolar or bipolar depression who were experiencing a moderate to severe treatment-resistant major depressive episode (MDE)...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290733/comparing-mental-health-literacy-and-physical-health-literacy-an-exploratory-study
#17
Robert Wickstead, Adrian Furnham
BACKGROUND: This study compared mental health and physical health literacy using five health problems from each area. AIMS: The aim was to determine whether the same group had better physical than mental health literacy Method: A sample of 263 participants completed an online questionnaire requiring them to name a problem/illness described in 10 vignettes and suggest treatment options. Five vignettes described mental health problems (anxiety, bipolar-disorder, depression, OCPD and schizophrenia) and five physical problems (angina, COPD, diabetes, a heart attack, and sinusitis)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289782/neuro-psychopharmacological-perspective-of-orphan-receptors-of-rhodopsin-class-a-family-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
BACKGROUND: In the central nervous system (CNS), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most fruitful targets for neuropsychopharmacological drug development. Rhodopsin (class A) is the most studied class of GPCR and includes orphan receptors for which the endogenous ligand is not known or is unclear. Characterization of orphan GPCRs has proven to be challenging, and the production pace of GPCR-based drugs has been incredibly slow. OBJECTIVE: Determination of the functions of these receptors may provide unexpected insight into physiological and neuropathological processes...
March 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289283/the-dopamine-hypothesis-of-bipolar-affective-disorder-the-state-of-the-art-and-implications-for-treatment
#19
REVIEW
A H Ashok, T R Marques, S Jauhar, M M Nour, G M Goodwin, A H Young, O D Howes
Bipolar affective disorder is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are incompletely understood, the dopamine hypothesis has been a key theory of the pathophysiology of both manic and depressive phases of the illness for over four decades. The increased use of antidopaminergics in the treatment of this disorder and new in vivo neuroimaging and post-mortem studies makes it timely to review this theory. To do this, we conducted a systematic search for post-mortem, pharmacological, functional magnetic resonance and molecular imaging studies of dopamine function in bipolar disorder...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287195/-pilot-study-on-nutritional-and-eating-disorders-in-children-and-mood-disorders-comorbidity-or-prodromal-traits
#20
Paola Cimbolli, Álvaro Quiñones, Carla Ugarte, Adele De Pascale
INTRODUCTION: Both children affected by nutritional and eating disorders (ED) and adults with bipolar disorder (BD) display symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation, which can present in different forms. If we observe the clinical and developmental histories of individuals affected by EDs and BD, based on a cognitive systemic post-rationalist approach, we can hypothesise a continuum between the two disorders. The aim of this pilot study is to support the hypothesis - from an explanatory rather than a non-descriptive approach - that EDs and BD are the possible result of issues tied to biological and psychological self-regulation...
January 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
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