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Bipolar and Depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922594/cacna1c-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-depression-related-behaviors-via-redd1
#1
Zeeba D Kabir, Anni S Lee, Caitlin E Burgdorf, Delaney Fischer, Aditi M Rajadhyaksha, Ethan Mok, Bryant Rizzo, Richard C Rice, Kamalpreet Singh, Kristie T Ota, Danielle M Gerhard, Kathryn C Schierberl, Michael Glass, Ronald S Duman, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
The CACNA1C gene that encodes the L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) Cav1.2 subunit has emerged as a candidate risk gene for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, all marked with depression-related symptoms. Although cacna1c heterozygous (HET) mice have been previously reported to exhibit an antidepressant-like phenotype, the molecular and circuit-level dysfunction remains unknown. Here we report that viral vector-mediated deletion of cacna1c in the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice recapitulates the antidepressant-like effect observed in cacna1c HET mice using the sucrose preference test (SPT), the forced swim test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST)...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920534/perceptions-and-impact-of-bipolar-disorder-in-japan-results-of-an-internet-survey
#2
Koichiro Watanabe, Eiji Harada, Takeshi Inoue, Yuka Tanji, Toshiaki Kikuchi
Bipolar disorder is a recurrent and episodic illness. This survey study assessed experiences and identified clinical insights of individuals with bipolar disorder. An Internet-based monitor system database was screened for patients with bipolar disorder in Japan (February and March 2013). Of 1,050 patients, 457 completed surveys, and results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Approximately one-fourth of respondents were diagnosed with bipolar disorder on their first visit to medical institutions, although the most common initial diagnosis was depression/depressive state (65%)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918949/an-exploration-of-metacognitive-beliefs-and-thought-control-strategies-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
Tiril Østefjells, Ingrid Melle, Sofie R Aminoff, Tone Hellvin, Roger Hagen, Trine Vik Lagerberg, June Ullevoldsæter Lystad, Jan Ivar Røssberg
BACKGROUND: Metacognitive factors influence depression, but are largely unexplored in bipolar disorders. We examined i) differences in metacognitive beliefs and thought control strategies between individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, and ii) to what extent clinical characteristics were related to levels of metacognitive beliefs and thought control strategies in bipolar disorder. METHOD: Eighty patients with bipolar disorder were assessed for age at onset of affective disorder, number of affective episodes, symptoms of mania and depression, metacognitive beliefs (MCQ-30) and thought control strategies (TCQ)...
November 23, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918536/genome-wide-analyses-for-personality-traits-identify-six-genomic-loci-and-show-correlations-with-psychiatric-disorders
#4
Min-Tzu Lo, David A Hinds, Joyce Y Tung, Carol Franz, Chun-Chieh Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Olav B Smeland, Andrew Schork, Dominic Holland, Karolina Kauppi, Nilotpal Sanyal, Valentina Escott-Price, Daniel J Smith, Michael O'Donovan, Hreinn Stefansson, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Kari Stefansson, Linda K McEvoy, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen, Chi-Hua Chen
Personality is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and associated with mental health. However, the underlying genetic determinants are largely unknown. We identified six genetic loci, including five novel loci, significantly associated with personality traits in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (N = 123,132-260,861). Of these genome-wide significant loci, extraversion was associated with variants in WSCD2 and near PCDH15, and neuroticism with variants on chromosome 8p23.1 and in L3MBTL2...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913259/-postoperative-delayed-paradoxical-depression-pdpd-after-uncomplicated-intracranial-aneurysm-surgery
#6
Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Wuyang Yang, Andrew S Luksik, Alejandro Ruiz-Valls, Rafael John Tamargo, Justin Caplan, Rafael J Tamargo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delayed paradoxical depression (PDPD) is a psychiatric condition described in patients who undergo a major surgery without complications, do not have a history of mood disorders, but nevertheless become clinically depressed. PDPD has been recognized in major surgical interventions such as coronary artery bypass surgery. We sought to determine the incidence and potential factors associated with PDPD after surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: The cohort of 105 patients was derived from a prospective observational dataset of 3788 consecutive cases of intracranial aneurysms accrued from 1991-2015...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#7
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909826/profile-and-determinants-of-disability-in-psychotic-disorders-in-nigeria
#8
Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan, Olatunde Ayinde
We compared profile and predictors of disability among 210 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar I disorder with psychosis and depression with psychosis, respectively in a Nigerian clinical population, using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule, (2.0). Severity of psychosis was determined with Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, medication adherence with the Medication Adherence Questionnaire. Analyses were by SPSS 20...
December 1, 2016: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902528/increased-brain-lactate-during-depressive-episodes-and-reversal-effects-by-lithium-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-bipolar-disorder-a-3-t-1h-mrs-study
#9
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Marcus V Zanetti, Maria C Otaduy, Rafael T De Sousa, Marcio G Soeiro-de-Souza, Alana C Costa, Andre F Carvalho, Claudia C Leite, Geraldo F Busatto, Carlos A Zarate, Wagner F Gattaz
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism impairment are key components in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and may involve a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Measurement of brain lactate in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) represents an important tool to evaluate mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction during mood episodes, as well as to monitor treatment response. To date, very few studies have quantified brain lactate in BD...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902448/rasgrp1-promotes-amphetamine-induced-motor-behavior-through-a-rhes-interaction-network-rhesactome-in-the-striatum
#10
Neelam Shahani, Supriya Swarnkar, Vincenzo Giovinazzo, Jenny Morgenweck, Laura M Bohn, Catherina Scharager-Tapia, Bruce Pascal, Pablo Martinez-Acedo, Kshitij Khare, Srinivasa Subramaniam
The striatum of the brain coordinates motor function. Dopamine-related drugs may be therapeutic to patients with striatal neurodegeneration, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but these drugs have unwanted side effects. In addition to stimulating the release of norepinephrine, amphetamines, which are used for narcolepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), trigger dopamine release in the striatum. The guanosine triphosphatase Ras homolog enriched in the striatum (Rhes) inhibits dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, is implicated in HD and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, and has a role in striatal motor control...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900342/cacna1c-protecting-young-hippocampal-neurons-in-the-adult-brain
#11
Héctor De Jesús-Cortés, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha, Andrew A Pieper
Neuropsychiatric disease is the leading cause of disability in the United States, and fourth worldwide.(1,2) Not surprisingly, human genetic studies have revealed a common genetic predisposition for many forms of neuropsychiatric disease, potentially explaining why overlapping symptoms are commonly observed across multiple diagnostic categories. For example, the CACNA1C gene was recently identified in the largest human genome-wide association study to date as a risk loci held in common across 5 major forms of neuropsychiatric disease: bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898323/peripheral-blood-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-major-psychiatric-disorders
#12
Shuquan Rao, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Yao Yao, Zhiyun Guo, Qi Xu, Suiyan Li, Xianli Zhou, Fuquan Zhang
Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays crucial roles in promoting neural growth and survival, and mediating synaptic and morphological plasticity. Several studies investigated the correlation between peripheral NGF levels and major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD); however, the findings were inconsistent. This meta-analysis sought to investigate blood NGF levels in patients with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy subjects and examined potential effects of blood fraction, medication and disease status...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898206/doomed-for-disorder-high-incidence-of-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-offspring-of-depressed-and-anxious-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Petra J Havinga, Lynn Boschloo, Annelene J P Bloemen, Maaike H Nauta, Sybolt O de Vries, Brenda W J H Penninx, Robert A Schoevers, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895505/evaluating-increased-resource-use-in-fibromyalgia-using-electronic-health-records
#14
Jay M Margolis, Elizabeth T Masters, Joseph C Cappelleri, David M Smith, Steven Faulkner
OBJECTIVE: The management of fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR) database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database...
2016: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894241/a-novel-relationship-for-schizophrenia-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorder-part-6-a-hint-from-chromosome-6-high-density-association-screen
#15
X Chen, F Long, B Cai, X Chen, G Chen
Convergent evidence from genetics, symptomatology and psychopharmacology imply that there are intrinsic connections between schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), for example, any two or even three of these disorders could co-exist in some families. A total of 56.400 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on chromosome 6 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 on 119 SCZ, 253 BPD (type-I), 177 MDD patients and 1000 controls. Associated SNP loci on chromosome 6 were comprehensively revealed and outstanding susceptibility genes were identified including JARID2 (Homo sapiens jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) which plays an essential role in embryonic development and neural tube fusion process...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894237/new-insight-in-improving-therapeutic-efficacy-of-antipsychotic-agents-an-overview-of-improved-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-performance-efficacy-upgradation-and-future-prospects
#16
Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that rigorously affect patient personality, critical thinking, and perceptional ability. High prevalence, global dissemination and limitations of conventional pharmacological approaches compel a significant burden to the patient, medical professionals and the healthcare system. To date, numerous orally administered therapies are available for the management of depressive disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, bipolar disorders and autism spectrum problems. However, poor water solubility, erratic oral absorption, extensive first-pass metabolism, low oral bioavailability and short half-lives are major factors which limit the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of these agents...
November 25, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892736/therapeutics-of-postpartum-depression
#17
Michael Thomson, Verinder Sharma
Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder affecting many women of reproductive age. Despite increasing public awareness, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated leading to significant maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. When identified, postpartum depression is usually treated as major depressive disorder. Many studies have identified the postpartum as a period of high risk for first presentations and relapses of bipolar disorder. Areas Covered: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder, bipolar depression and major depressive disorder with mixed features...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890303/cognitive-effects-of-creatine-monohydrate-adjunctive-therapy-in-patients-with-bipolar-depression-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
REVIEW
Ricardo Alexandre Toniolo, Francy de Brito Ferreira Fernandes, Michelle Silva, Rodrigo da Silva Dias, Beny Lafer
BACKGROUND: Depressive episodes and cognitive impairment are major causes of morbidity and dysfunction in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder (BD). Novel treatment approaches that target clinical and cognitive aspects of bipolar depression are needed, and research on pathophysiology suggests that mitochondrial modulators such as the nutraceutical creatine monohydrate might have a therapeutic role for this condition. METHODS: Eighteen (N=18) patients with bipolar depression according to DSM-IV criteria who were enrollled in a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of creatine monohydrate 6g daily as adjunctive therapy were submitted to neuropsychological assessments (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition, Stroop Color-Word Test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, FAS Verbal Fluency Test) at baseline and week 6...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885309/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-use-in-the-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-brief-review
#19
Sarah M Szymkowicz, Molly E McLaren, Uma Suryadevara, Adam J Woods
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has grown in popularity over the past two decades as an alternative treatment option for various neuropsychiatric disorders. tDCS modulates cortical excitability through the application of a weak direct current to the scalp via electrodes placed over cortical regions of interest. It has been shown to be a promising and relatively safe treatment tool with few adverse events. In this article, we will briefly review the efficacy of tDCS in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder...
November 2016: Psychiatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882645/long-term-lithium-treatment-increases-intracellular-and-extracellular-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-cortical-and-hippocampal-neurons-at-subtherapeutic-concentrations
#20
Vanessa J De-Paula, Wagner F Gattaz, Orestes V Forlenza
OBJECTIVES: The putative neuroprotective effects of lithium treatment rely on the fact that it modulates several homeostatic mechanisms involved in the neurotrophic response, autophagy, oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Lithium is a well-established therapeutic option for the acute and long-term management of bipolar disorder and major depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of subtherapeutic and therapeutic concentrations of chronic lithium treatment on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) synthesis and secretion...
November 24, 2016: Bipolar Disorders
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