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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636672/metabolomic-profile-and-nucleoside-composition-of-cordyceps-nidus-sp-nov-cordycipitaceae-a-new-source-of-active-compounds
#1
Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632944/deconstructing-the-landscape-of-fear-in-stable-multi-species-societies
#2
A E Martínez, E Parra, L F Collado, V T Vredenburg
Animal distributions are influenced by variation in predation risk in space, which has been described as the "landscape of fear." Many studies suggest animals also reduce predation risk by eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls, allowing them to occupy otherwise risky habitats. One unexplored area of study is understanding how different species' alarms vary in quality, and how this variation is distributed in the landscape. We tested this phenomenon in a unique system of avian mixed species flocks in Amazonian rainforests: flock mates (eavesdropping species) strongly associate with alarm-calling antshrikes (genus Thamnomanes), which act as sentinel species...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630672/circularly-polarized-reflection-from-the-scarab-beetle-chalcothea-smaragdina-light-scattering-by-a-dual-photonic-structure
#3
Luke T McDonald, Ewan D Finlayson, Bodo D Wilts, Pete Vukusic
Helicoidal architectures comprising various polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose, have been reported in biological systems. In some cases, these architectures exhibit stunning optical properties analogous to ordered cholesteric liquid crystal phases. In this work, we characterize the circularly polarized reflectance and optical scattering from the cuticle of the beetle Chalcothea smaragdina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) using optical experiments, simulations and structural analysis. The selective reflection of left-handed circularly polarized light is attributed to a Bouligand-type helicoidal morphology within the beetle's exocuticle...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627760/reproductive-phenology-of-melastomataceae-species-with-contrasting-reproductive-systems-contemporary-and-historical-drivers
#4
Vinícius L G Brito, Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia, Fernando A O Silveira, Carla Magioni Fracasso, José Pires Lemos-Filho, G Wilson Fernandes, Renato Goldenberg, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Marlies Sazima, Vanessa G Staggemeier
Flowering and fruiting are key events in the life history of plants, and both are critical to their reproductive success. Besides the role of evolutionary history, plant reproductive phenology is regulated by abiotic factors and shaped by biotic interactions with pollinators and seed dispersers. In Melastomataceae, a dominant Neotropical clade, the reproductive systems vary from allogamous with biotic pollination to apomitic, and seed dispersal varies from dry (self-dispersed) to fleshy fruits (animal-dispersed)...
June 19, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616506/the-hookworm-ancylostoma-ceylanicum-an-emerging-public-health-risk-in-australian-tropical-rainforests-and-indigenous-communities
#5
Felicity A Smout, Lee F Skerratt, James R A Butler, Christopher N Johnson, Bradley C Congdon, R C Andrew Thompson
Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610333/a-new-morphologically-cryptic-species-of-phyllomedusa-anura-phyllomedusidae-from-amazonian-forests-of-northern-peru-revealed-by-dna-sequences
#6
Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Jörn Köhler, Ignacio DE LA Riva, José M Padial
We describe and name Phyllomedusa chaparroi sp. nov., a medium-sized species (snout-vent length in adult males 67.9-77.5 mm) of monkey frog from Amazonian rainforests of northern Peru. Although morphologically most similar to P. boliviana and P. camba (indistinguishable from the latter in external qualitative and quantitative traits), phylogenetic analysis of combined mitochondrial and nuclear markers place the new species sister to a clade containing P. neildi, P. tarsius, and P. trinitatis. Phyllomedusa chaparroi can be readily differentiated from these species by having a dark reddish-brown iris with indistinct tiny orange spots versus an orange iris with marked dark reticulation found in P...
May 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610199/morphological-and-molecular-evidence-for-a-new-species-of-freshwater-crab-of-the-genus-i-sudanonautes-i-bott-1955-brachyura-potamoidea-potamonautidae-from-cameroon-with-notes-on-its-ecology
#7
Pierre A Mvogo Ndongo, Christoph D Schubart, Thomas VON Rintelen, Joseph L Tamesse, Neil Cumberlidge
A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Sudanonautes Bott, 1955, is described from the tropical rainforests of Edea and Tiko in southern Cameroon, Central Africa. Sudanonautes tiko n. sp. is recognized by a unique combination of characters of the carapace, thoracic sternum, chelipeds, and male first gonopod, and by distinct mtDNA sequences for two loci (COI and 16S rRNA). A diagnosis, illustrations, and a tree of phylogenetic relationships based on mtDNA sequences are provided, along with a comparison to similar species from the region...
March 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610195/three-new-species-of-i-pergalumna-i-acari-oribatida-galumnidae-from-the-tropical-rainforest-of-veracruz-mexico
#8
José G Palacios-Vargas, Fernando Villagomez
Three new species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna from a tropical rain forest in Veracruz, Mexico are described. Pergalumna hypergranulosa sp. nov. differs from Pergalumna granulatus Balogh & Mahunka, 1967 by unilaterally barbulated bothridial setae, elongated notogastric porose areas, and also a more profuse granulation of the cerotegument. Pergalumna obsidiana sp. nov. differs from P. granulatus by the unilateral barbulation of bothridial setae and the presence of protuberances on the genital plates; from Pergalumna paralongisetosa Ermilov & Kalúz, 2012 by a diverging cerotegumental granulation on the notogaster...
March 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610141/new-species-and-new-behavioral-data-of-i-phlugiola-i-karny-1907-orthoptera-tettigoniidae-meconematinae-from-the-brazilian-amazonian-rainforest
#9
Diego Matheus DE Mello Mendes, Jomara Cavalcante DE Oliveira, João Rafael Alves-Oliveira, José Albertino Rafael
Phlugiola Karny, 1907 is a genus of small predatory katydids with six included species distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Suriname. In this paper two new Brazilian species are described, Phlugiola longipedes sp. nov. (type locality: Amazonas, Tefé) and Phlugiola igarape sp. nov., (type locality: Acre, Bujari) both from tropical rainforests. Behavioral data and natural history notes are provided.
March 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609921/first-report-of-the-genus-i-tettigonia-i-linnaeus-orthoptera-tettigoniidae-tettigoniinae-and-record-of-i-tettigonia-i-i-caudata-i-i-caudata-i-charpentier-1842-from-india
#10
Rajendra Nagar, R Swaminathan
The genus Tettigonia Linnaeus (Tettigoniidae; Tettigoniinae) with the type species, Gryllus (Tettigonia) viridissima Linnaeus, 1758 belongs to the tribe Tettigoniini, which is represented by 15 genera and 27 species worldwide (Cigliano et al., 2017). According to the annotated checklist, the subfamily Tettigoniinae includes the only tribe Platycleidini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 with 2 genera and 3 species as reported from India by Shishodia et al. (2010). In a review of Orthoptera from the Eastern Palearctic region, the genus Tettigonia Linnaeus was reported by Storozhenko (1994); additionally, some new species of Tettigonia have been described by Ogawa (2003), Greenwalt and Rust (2014), Chobanov et al...
April 28, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609869/two-new-giant-pill-millipede-species-of-the-genus-zoosphaerium-endemic-to-the-bemanevika-area-in-northern-madagascar-diplopoda-sphaerotheriida-arthrosphaeridae
#11
Christina Sagorny, Thomas Wesener
Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z...
May 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609854/a-revision-of-the-ewartia-oldfieldi-distant-species-complex-hemiptera-cicadidae-cicadettinae-with-five-new-species-from-eastern-and-northern-australia
#12
Lindsay W Popple
The identity of Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) is re-examined and this species is redescribed. Five new species belonging to the genus Ewartia Moulds are described. Ewartia oldfieldi s. str. occurs in association with wattles (Acacia spp.; Mimosaceae) with large or fleshy phyllodes growing in soils derived from sandstone and coarse-grained metasediments throughout the south-eastern third of Queensland. Ewartia roberti n. sp. is associated with wattles that possess narrow or delicate phyllodes, growing in loam soils in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales...
May 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598366/isolation-of-monoterpene-dihydrochalcones-from-piper-montealegreanum-yuncker-piperaceae
#13
Harley da Silva Alves, Wilma Raianny Vieira da Rocha, Raimundo Braz-Filho, Maria Célia de Oliveira Chaves
Four new compounds were isolated from the branches of Piper montealegreanum Yuncker, a shrub found in the Amazon rainforest, including two new dihydrochalcones named claricine (1) and maisine (2), a cinnamic acid derivative 3 and a phenylalkanoid 4, along with a porphyrin identified as the known compound phaeophytin a (5). The structures were established using spectroscopic experiments, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments, performed on the two monoterpene dihydrochalcones and their monoacetyl derivatives...
June 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592502/the-mouse-lemur-a-genetic-model-organism-for-primate-biology-behavior-and-health
#14
REVIEW
Camille Ezran, Caitlin J Karanewsky, Jozeph L Pendleton, Alex Sholtz, Maya R Krasnow, Jason Willick, Andriamahery Razafindrakoto, Sarah Zohdy, Megan A Albertelli, Mark A Krasnow
Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans...
June 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572992/putting-the-waste-out-a-proposed-mechanism-for-transmission-of-the-mycoparasite-escovopsis-between-leafcutter-ant-colonies
#15
Juliana O Augustin, Talitta G Simões, Jan Dijksterhuis, Simon L Elliot, Harry C Evans
The attine ant system is a remarkable example of symbiosis. An antagonistic partner within this system is the fungal parasite Escovopsis, a genus specific to the fungal gardens of the Attini. Escovopsis parasitizes the Leucoagaricus symbiont that leaf-cutting ants (Acromyrmex, Atta) have been farming over the past 8-12 Myr. However, it has been a puzzle how Escovopsis reaches its host. During a seasonal survey of nests of Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus in Atlantic rainforest in Brazil, Escovopsis was detected in all the sampled fungal garden waste tips or middens (n = 111)...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560765/an-amazonian-rainforest-and-its-fragments-as-a-laboratory-of-global-change
#16
William F Laurance, José L C Camargo, Philip M Fearnside, Thomas E Lovejoy, G Bruce Williamson, Rita C G Mesquita, Christoph F J Meyer, Paulo E D Bobrowiec, Susan G W Laurance
We synthesize findings from one of the world's largest and longest-running experimental investigations, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP). Spanning an area of ∼1000 km(2) in central Amazonia, the BDFFP was initially designed to evaluate the effects of fragment area on rainforest biodiversity and ecological processes. However, over its 38-year history to date the project has far transcended its original mission, and now focuses more broadly on landscape dynamics, forest regeneration, regional- and global-change phenomena, and their potential interactions and implications for Amazonian forest conservation...
May 30, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548851/celastrofurans-a-g-dihydro-%C3%AE-agarofurans-from-the-australian-rainforest-vine-celastrus-subspicata-and-their-inhibitory-effect-on-leucine-transport-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#17
Mario Wibowo, Qian Wang, Jeff Holst, Jonathan M White, Andreas Hofmann, Rohan A Davis
Seven new dihydro-β-agarofurans, celastrofurans A-G (1-7), along with two known secondary metabolites, 9β-benzoyloxy-1α-furoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (8) and (1R,2R,4R,5S,7R,9S,10R)-2-acetoxy-9-benzoyloxy-1-furoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (9), were obtained from the leaves of the Australian rainforest vine, Celastrus subspicata. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic (1D/2D NMR) and MS data analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-4 were defined by ECD and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545973/evolutionary-and-ecological-forces-influencing-population-diversification-in-bornean-montane-passerines
#18
Vivien L Chua, Brian Tilston Smith, Ryan C Burner, Mustafa Abdul Rahman, Maklarin Lakim, Dewi M Prawiradilaga, Robert G Moyle, Frederick H Sheldon
The mountains of Borneo are well known for their high endemicity and historical role in preserving Southeast Asian rainforest biodiversity, but the diversification of populations inhabiting these mountains is poorly studied. Here we examine the genetic structure of 12 Bornean montane passerines by comparing complete mtDNA ND2 gene sequences of populations spanning the island. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic trees and haplotype networks are examined for common patterns that might signal important historical events or boundaries to dispersal...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542161/land-use-history-and-population-dynamics-of-free-standing-figs-in-a-maturing-forest
#19
Larissa Albrecht, Robert F Stallard, Elisabeth K V Kalko
Figs (Ficus sp.) are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years) and maturing (about 90-150 year old) secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973-2011), with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539522/maintaining-mimicry-diversity-optimal-warning-colour-patterns-differ-among-microhabitats-in-amazonian-clearwing-butterflies
#20
Keith R Willmott, Julia C Robinson Willmott, Marianne Elias, Chris D Jiggins
Mimicry is one of the best-studied examples of adaptation, and recent studies have provided new insights into the role of mimicry in speciation and diversification. Classical Müllerian mimicry theory predicts convergence in warning signal among protected species, yet tropical butterflies are exuberantly diverse in warning colour patterns, even within communities. We tested the hypothesis that microhabitat partitioning in aposematic butterflies and insectivorous birds can lead to selection for different colour patterns in different microhabitats and thus help maintain mimicry diversity...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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