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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821820/searching-for-signatures-across-microbial-communities-metagenomic-analysis-of-soil-samples-from-mangrove-and-other-ecosystems
#1
Madangchanok Imchen, Ranjith Kumavath, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Avezedo, Preetam Ghosh, Marcus Viana, Alice R Wattam
In this study, we categorize the microbial community in mangrove sediment samples from four different locations within a vast mangrove system in Kerala, India. We compared this data to other samples taken from the other known mangrove data, a tropical rainforest, and ocean sediment. An examination of the microbial communities from a large mangrove forest that stretches across southwestern India showed strong similarities across the higher taxonomic levels. When ocean sediment and a single isolate from a tropical rain forest were included in the analysis, a strong pattern emerged with Bacteria from the phylum Proteobacteria being the prominent taxon among the forest samples...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820899/two-disjunct-pleistocene-populations-and-anisotropic-postglacial-expansion-shaped-the-current-genetic-structure-of-the-relict-plant-amborella-trichopoda
#2
Rémi Tournebize, Stéphanie Manel, Yves Vigouroux, François Munoz, Alexandre de Kochko, Valérie Poncet
Past climate fluctuations shaped the population dynamics of organisms in space and time, and have impacted their present intra-specific genetic structure. Demo-genetic modelling allows inferring the way past demographic and migration dynamics have determined this structure. Amborella trichopoda is an emblematic relict plant endemic to New Caledonia, widely distributed in the understory of non-ultramafic rainforests. We assessed the influence of the last glacial climates on the demographic history and the paleo-distribution of 12 Amborella populations covering the whole current distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820535/7-step-total-synthesis-of-ebc-329-photoisomerisation-reveals-new-seco-casbane-family-member
#3
Timothy J Vanden Berg, David M Pinkerton, Craig M Williams
The first seco-casbane, EBC-329, isolated from the Australian rainforest, was synthesised from (+)-2-carene in seven steps. This endeavour not only established the absolute stereochemical assignment as (8R,9S)-EBC-329, but also identified, via photoisomerisation, a new seco-casbane family member.
August 18, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812652/parasites-dominate-hyperdiverse-soil-protist-communities-in-neotropical-rainforests
#4
Frédéric Mahé, Colomban de Vargas, David Bass, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Enrique Lara, David Singer, Jordan Mayor, John Bunge, Sarah Sernaker, Tobias Siemensmeyer, Isabelle Trautmann, Sarah Romac, Cédric Berney, Alexey Kozlov, Edward A D Mitchell, Christophe V W Seppey, Elianne Egge, Guillaume Lentendu, Rainer Wirth, Gabriel Trueba, Micah Dunthorn
High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host-specific parasites potentially contribute to the high animal diversity in the forests by reducing population growth in a density-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808954/heavy-metal-pollutants-in-selected-organs-of-african-giant-rats-from-three-agro-ecological-zones-of-nigeria-evidence-for-their-role-as-an-environmental-specimen-bank
#5
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Benjamin O Emikpe, James Olukayode Olopade
An assessment of the concentration of heavy metals in the liver, brain, kidney, bone, and lungs of African giant rats (AGRs) from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria having different industrial activities was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Twenty adult AGRs from cities in mangrove/freshwater swamp, rainforest, and woodland/tall grass savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used for this study. AGRs were euthanized, carefully dissected, and the brains, liver, lungs, bone, and kidneys were harvested, digested, and analyzed for concentrations of vanadium (V), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805245/tropical-rainforest-carbon-sink-declines-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-a-result-of-reduced-photosynthesis-and-increased-respiration-rates
#6
Molly A Cavaleri, Adam P Coble, Michael G Ryan, William L Bauerle, Henry W Loescher, Steven F Oberbauer
Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799713/yeasts-dominate-soil-fungal-communities-in-three-lowland-neotropical-rainforests
#7
Micah Dunthorn, Håvard Kauserud, David Bass, Jordan Mayor, Frédéric Mahé
Forest soils typically harbour a vast diversity of fungi, but are usually dominated by filamentous (hyphae-forming) taxa. Compared to temperate and boreal forests, though, we have limited knowledge about the fungal diversity in tropical rainforest soils. Here we show, by environmental metabarcoding of soil samples collected in three Neotropical rainforests, that Yeasts dominate the fungal communities in terms of the number of sequencing reads and OTUs. These unicellular forms are commonly found in aquatic environments, and their hyperdiversity may be the result of frequent inundation combined with numerous aquatic microenvironments in these rainforests...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794422/synergistic-effects-of-seed-disperser-and-predator-loss-on-recruitment-success-and-long-term-consequences-for-carbon-stocks-in-tropical-rainforests
#8
Laurence Culot, Carolina Bello, João Luis Ferreira Batista, Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto, Mauro Galetti
The extinction of large frugivores has consequences for the recruitment of large-seeded plants with potential lasting effects on carbon storage in tropical rainforests. However, previous studies relating frugivore defaunation to changes in carbon storage ignore potential compensation by redundant frugivores and the effects of seed predators on plant recruitment. Based on empirical data of the recruitment success of a large-seeded hardwood tree species (Cryptocarya mandioccana, Lauraceae) across a defaunation gradient of seed dispersers and predators, we show that defaunation increases both seed dispersal limitation and seed predation...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792933/an-early-modern-human-presence-in-sumatra-73-000-63-000-years-ago
#9
K E Westaway, J Louys, R Due Awe, M J Morwood, G J Price, J-X Zhao, M Aubert, R Joannes-Boyau, T M Smith, M M Skinner, T Compton, R M Bailey, G D van den Bergh, J de Vos, A W G Pike, C Stringer, E W Saptomo, Y Rizal, J Zaim, W D Santoso, A Trihascaryo, L Kinsley, B Sulistyanto
Genetic evidence for anatomically modern humans (AMH) out of Africa before 75 thousand years ago (ka) and in island southeast Asia (ISEA) before 60 ka (93-61 ka) predates accepted archaeological records of occupation in the region. Claims that AMH arrived in ISEA before 60 ka (ref. 4) have been supported only by equivocal or non-skeletal evidence. AMH evidence from this period is rare and lacks robust chronologies owing to a lack of direct dating applications, poor preservation and/or excavation strategies and questionable taxonomic identifications...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792049/a-synthetic-dodecanolide-library-for-the-identification-of-putative-semiochemicals-emitted-by-mantellid-frogs
#10
Pardha Saradhi Peram, Miguel Vences, Stefan Schulz
Aliphatic macrolides are used by various organisms as semiochemicals or pheromones, e.g. by the endemic Madagascan frog family Mantellinae. Volatile, methyl-branched aliphatic macrolides occur in various species, but their identification by MS is difficult, while isolation is not possible due to the low amounts produced. Therefore, we synthesized a library of methyl-branched 11-dodecanolides to identify unknown macrolides secreted by Gephyromantis moseri, a mantelline frog restricted to the rainforest and characterized by largely terrestrial habitats...
August 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791685/ants-are-the-major-agents-of-resource-removal-from-tropical-rainforests
#11
Hannah M Griffiths, Louise A Ashton, Alice E Walker, Fevziye Hasan, Theodore A Evans, Paul Eggleton, Catherine L Parr
Ants are diverse and abundant, especially in tropical ecosystems. They are often cited as the agents of key ecological processes, but their precise contributions compared with other organisms have rarely been quantified. Through the removal of food resources from the forest floor and subsequent transport to nests, ants play an important role in the redistribution of nutrients in rainforests. This is an essential ecosystem process and a key energetic link between higher trophic levels, decomposers and primary producers...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775261/disturbance-and-mosquito-diversity-in-the-lowland-tropical-rainforest-of-central-panama
#12
Jose R Loaiza, Larissa C Dutari, Jose R Rovira, Oris I Sanjur, Gabriel Z Laporta, James Pecor, Desmond H Foley, Gillian Eastwood, Laura D Kramer, Meghan Radtke, Montira Pongsiri
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) is well-known in ecology providing an explanation for the role of disturbance in the coexistence of climax and colonist species. Here, we used the IDH as a framework to describe the role of forest disturbance in shaping the mosquito community structure, and to identify the ecological processes that increase the emergence of vector-borne disease. Mosquitoes were collected in central Panama at immature stages along linear transects in colonising, mixed and climax forest habitats, representing different levels of disturbance...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774908/anthrax-cousin-wreaks-havoc-in-the-rainforest
#13
Kai Kupferschmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774495/wild-and-domestic-animals-likely-involved-in-rickettsial-endemic-zones-of-northwestern-colombia
#14
Andrés F Londoño, Leidy Y Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Diana Marín, Verónica Contreras, Francisco J Díaz, Gustavo Valbuena, Marcelo B Labruna, Marylin Hidalgo, Margarita Arboleda, Salim Mattar, Sergio Solari, Juan D Rodas
Between 2006 and 2008, three outbreaks of human rickettsiosis occurred in Northwestern Colombia (municipalities of Necoclí, Los Córdobas and Turbo), with case fatality rates between 27% and 54%. The aim of this study was to determine previous exposure of wild and domestic animals to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae through serological tests, to detect rickettsial evidence in their ectoparasites, and to analyze their possible role in the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in this zone of the country...
July 21, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770842/persistent-anthrax-as-a-major-driver-of-wildlife-mortality-in-a-tropical-rainforest
#15
Constanze Hoffmann, Fee Zimmermann, Roman Biek, Hjalmar Kuehl, Kathrin Nowak, Roger Mundry, Anthony Agbor, Samuel Angedakin, Mimi Arandjelovic, Anja Blankenburg, Gregory Brazolla, Katherine Corogenes, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Tobias Deschner, Paula Dieguez, Karsten Dierks, Ariane Düx, Susann Dupke, Henk Eshuis, Pierre Formenty, Yisa Ginath Yuh, Annemarie Goedmakers, Jan F Gogarten, Anne-Céline Granjon, Scott McGraw, Roland Grunow, John Hart, Sorrel Jones, Jessica Junker, John Kiang, Kevin Langergraber, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Siv Aina Leendertz, Floraine Léguillon, Vera Leinert, Therese Löhrich, Sergio Marrocoli, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Amelia Meier, Kevin Merkel, Sonja Metzger, Mizuki Murai, Svenja Niedorf, Hélène De Nys, Andreas Sachse, Joost van Schijndel, Ulla Thiesen, Els Ton, Doris Wu, Lothar H Wieler, Christophe Boesch, Silke R Klee, Roman M Wittig, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H Leendertz
Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770688/tree-hole-mosquito-species-composition-and-relative-abundances-differ-between-urban-and-adjacent-forest-habitats-in-northwestern-argentina
#16
C Mangudo, J P Aparicio, G C Rossi, R M Gleiser
Water-holding tree holes are main larval habitats for many pathogen vectors, especially mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Along 3 years, the diversity and composition of mosquito species in tree holes of two neighbouring but completely different environments, a city and its adjacent forest, were compared using generalized linear mixed models, PERMANOVA, SIMPER and species association indexes. The city area (Northwest Argentina) is highly relevant epidemiologically due to the presence of Aedes aegypti L. (main dengue vector) and occurrence of dengue outbreaks; the Yungas rainforests are highly biologically diverse...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769735/the-tabanidae-of-the-mitaraka-expedition-with-an-updated-check-list-of-french-guiana-diptera
#17
Tiago Kütter Krolow, Augusto Loureiro Henriques, Marc Pollet
This paper documents the horse fly fauna collected in lowland rainforest in the southwesternmost part of French Guiana (Mitaraka). During this "Our Planet Revisited" survey nine tabanid species were recorded from French Guiana for the first time: Chrysops ecuadorensis Lutz, C. incisus Macquart, Catachlorops amazonicus Henriques & Gorayeb, Chlorotabanus flagellatus Krolow & Henriques, Cryptoylus cauri Stone, Phaeotabanus phaeopterus Fairchild, Philipotabanus stigmaticalis (Kröber), Stypommisa captiroptera (Kröber) and Tabanus amapaensis Fairchild...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763636/importance-of-lithology-in-defining-natural-background-concentrations-of-cr-cu-ni-pb-and-zn-in-sedimentary-soils-northeastern-brazil
#18
Thomas Vincent Gloaguen, José João Passe
The sedimentary basins of Recôncavo and Tucano, Bahia, represent the most important Brazilian Phanerozoic continental basin system, formed during fracturing of Gondwana. The northern basin of Tucano has a semiarid climate (Bsh) while the southern basin of Recôncavo has a tropical rainforest climate (Af). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of trace metals in soils derived from various sedimentary rocks and climates. Soils were collected at 30 sites in 5 geological units at 0-20 cm and 60-80 cm deep under native vegetation...
July 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763453/trophic-niches-diversity-and-community-composition-of-invertebrate-top-predators-chilopoda-as-affected-by-conversion-of-tropical-lowland-rainforest-in-sumatra-indonesia
#19
Bernhard Klarner, Helge Winkelmann, Valentyna Krashevska, Mark Maraun, Rahayu Widyastuti, Stefan Scheu
Conversion of tropical rainforests into plantations fundamentally alters ecological niches of animal species. Generalist predators such as centipedes (Chilopoda) may be able to persist in converted ecosystems due to their ability to adapt and switch to alternative prey populations. We investigated variations in community composition and trophic niches of soil and litter living centipedes in a range of ecosystems including rainforests, jungle rubber agroforests, and rubber and oil palm monocultures in two landscapes in Sumatra, Indonesia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761981/comparison-of-infrared-canopy-temperature-in-a-rubber-plantation-and-tropical-rain-forest
#20
Qing-Hai Song, Yun Deng, Yi -Ping Zhang, Xiao-Bao Deng, You-Xing Lin, Li-Guo Zhou, Xue-Hai Fei, Li-Qing Sha, Yun-Tong Liu, Wen-Jun Zhou, Jin-Bo Gao
Canopy temperature is a result of the canopy energy balance and is driven by climate conditions, plant architecture, and plant-controlled transpiration. Here, we evaluated canopy temperature in a rubber plantation (RP) and tropical rainforest (TR) in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. An infrared temperature sensor was installed at each site to measure canopy temperature. In the dry season, the maximum differences (Tc - Ta) between canopy temperature (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) in the RP and TR were 2.6 and 0...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
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