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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716927/nuclear-genomes-distinguish-cryptic-species-suggested-by-their-dna-barcodes-and-ecology
#1
Daniel H Janzen, John M Burns, Qian Cong, Winnie Hallwachs, Tanya Dapkey, Ramya Manjunath, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Paul D N Hebert, Nick V Grishin
DNA sequencing brings another dimension to exploration of biodiversity, and large-scale mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I barcoding has exposed many potential new cryptic species. Here, we add complete nuclear genome sequencing to DNA barcoding, ecological distribution, natural history, and subtleties of adult color pattern and size to show that a widespread neotropical skipper butterfly known as Udranomia kikkawai (Weeks) comprises three different species in Costa Rica. Full-length barcodes obtained from all three century-old Venezuelan syntypes of U...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710126/incomplete-lineage-sorting-and-hybridization-in-the-evolutionary-history-of-closely-related-endemic-yellow-flowered-aechmea-species-of-subgenus-ortgiesia-bromeliaceae
#2
Márcia Goetze, Camila M Zanella, Clarisse Palma-Silva, Miriam V Büttow, Fernanda Bered
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The yellow-flowered Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia (yfAsO) (Bromeliaceae) is a group of seven morphologically similar bromeliads found mostly in the southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. The recent origin of this group probably contributes to its taxonomic complexity. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of genetic diversity and structure at the population and species levels, to gain insight into the processes behind the diversification of the group, and to contribute to the establishment of species boundaries...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707044/seasonal-bushmeat-hunger-in-the-congo-basin
#3
Edmond Dounias, Mitsuo Ichikawa
Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being...
July 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706573/the-effects-of-catchment-and-riparian-forest-quality-on-stream-environmental-conditions-across-a-tropical-rainforest-and-oil-palm-landscape-in-malaysian-borneo
#4
Sarah H Luke, Holly Barclay, Kawi Bidin, Vun Khen Chey, Robert M Ewers, William A Foster, Anand Nainar, Marion Pfeifer, Glen Reynolds, Edgar C Turner, Rory P D Walsh, David C Aldridge
Freshwaters provide valuable habitat and important ecosystem services but are threatened worldwide by habitat loss and degradation. In Southeast Asia, rainforest streams are particularly threatened by logging and conversion to oil palm, but we lack information on the impacts of this on freshwater environmental conditions, and the relative importance of catchment versus riparian-scale disturbance. We studied 16 streams in Sabah, Borneo, including old-growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm sites. We assessed forest quality in riparian zones and across the whole catchment and compared it with stream environmental conditions including water quality, structural complexity, and organic inputs...
June 2017: Ecohydrology: Ecosystems, Land and Water Process Interactions, Ecohydrogeomorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705455/a-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-pacific-clade-of-cyrtandra-gesneriaceae-reveals-a-fijian-origin-recent-diversification-and-a-history-of-long-distance-dispersal
#5
Melissa A Johnson, John R Clark, Warren L Wagner, Lucinda A McDade
Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) is among the largest genera of flowering plants in the remote oceanic islands of the Pacific, with an estimated 175 species distributed across an area that extends from the Solomon Islands, east to the Marquesas Islands, and north to the Hawaiian Islands. The vast majority of species are single-island endemics that inhabit upland rainforests. Although previous molecular phylogenetic studies greatly advanced our understanding of the diversification of Pacific Cyrtandra, a number of uncertainties remain regarding phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic patterns within this large and widely dispersed group...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700001/genetic-variability-of-leishmania-infantum-in-naturally-infected-dogs-in-the-state-of-bahia-brazil
#6
Fábio Santos Carvalho, George Rêgo Albuquerque, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro, Amauri Arias Wenceslau
In Brazil, Leishmania infantum mainly affects humans and dogs. The state of Bahia presents many dogs that are positive for this parasite. Despite the importance of epidemiology in this region, there are still very few studies that have assessed the genetic characteristics of L. infantum. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic variability of L. infantum isolated identified in naturally infected dogs, in order to verify occurrence of subpopulation of this parasite in the different biomes existing in the state of Bahia...
July 10, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700000/ticks-infesting-captive-and-free-roaming-wild-animal-species-at-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-zoo-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#7
Irys Hany Lima Gonzalez, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Paula Andrea Borges Salgado, Cauê Monticelli, Luan Henrique Morais, Amanda Alves de Moraes, Thatiane Cristina Antunes, Patrícia Locosque Ramos, Thiago Fernandes Martins
Ticks are ectoparasites of worldwide distribution that affect vertebrates and can transmit pathogens to animals and humans. The Zoological Park Foundation of São Paulo (FPZSP) is located in a Conservation Unit in one of the most important remaining fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in the suburbs of São Paulo, Brazil. The FPZSP houses more than 3,000 wild animals on exhibit, in breeding programs and in environmental education programs, and also attracts migratory birds and free-roaming wildlife. This study focused on identifying the diversity of tick species that infest captive and free-roaming animals at the FPZSP...
July 10, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693937/spermatogenic-dynamics-of-the-spiny-rat-kannabateomys-amblyonyx-wagner-1845-rodentia-echimyidae
#8
Verônica A Siman, Raquel S M Godoy, Fernanda C R Dias, Fabiano A Silva, Gisele M L Del Giudice, Marcos L M Gomes, Sérgio L P Matta
Rodents are distributed worldwide, playing important ecological roles regarding preservation of forest areas. Thus, the study of their reproductive biology is a key for conservation initiatives that prevent extinction and/or improve species management. The present study aimed to describe the spermatogenic dynamics of the spiny rat Kannabateomys amblyonyx, an endemic species from Atlantic Rainforest areas, in Brazil. The average body weight was 418.43g with a gonadosomatic index of 0.41%. The testicular parenchyma organization followed the pattern described for other rodent species, with a large amount of seminiferous tubules occupying 93...
June 28, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691651/helminth-community-structure-of-13-species-of-anurans-from-atlantic-rainforest-remnants-brazil
#9
G M Toledo, H O Schwartz, H A Q Nomura, A Aguiar, R A M V Velota, R J da Silva, L A Anjos
This study aimed to evaluate the community composition and structure of the helminths found in 13 anuran species, and to evaluate whether this parasite community is determined by anuran characteristics. We found that the helminth fauna of the amphibians from five anuran families consisted of 13 taxa and that Cosmocercidae gen. sp. was the most prevalent taxon, followed by Oswaldocruzia subauricularis. Host body size was a determining factor of the composition and structure of the parasitic fauna. Helminth abundance and richness were positively correlated with host body size...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687764/impacts-of-increasing-typhoons-on-the-structure-and-function-of-a-subtropical-forest-reflections-of-a-changing-climate
#10
Kuo-Chuan Lin, Steven P Hamburg, Lixin Wang, Chin-Tzer Duh, Chu-Mei Huang, Chung-Te Chang, Teng-Chiu Lin
Due to their destructive and sporadic nature, it is often difficult to evaluate and predict the effects of typhoon on forest ecosystem patterns and processes. We used a 21-yr record of litterfall rates to explore the influence of typhoon frequency and intensity, along with other meteorological variables, on ecosystem dynamics in a subtropical rainforest. Over the past half century there has been an increasing frequency of strong typhoons (category 3; >49.6 m s(-1); increase of 1.5 typhoons/decade) impacting the Fushan Experimental Forest, Taiwan...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676827/isolation-and-characterization-of-yeasts-able-to-assimilate-sugarcane-bagasse-hemicellulosic-hydrolysate-and-produce-xylitol-associated-with-veturius-transversus-passalidae-coleoptera-and-insecta
#11
Italo Thiago Silveira Rocha Matos, Enedina Nogueira Assunção, Edson Junior do Carmo, Verena Makaren Soares, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho
Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta) were collected from the Central Amazon Rainforest...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666376/a-massively-parallel-strategy-for-str-marker-development-capture-and-genotyping
#12
Logan Kistler, Stephen M Johnson, Mitchell T Irwin, Edward E Louis, Aakrosh Ratan, George H Perry
Short tandem repeat (STR) variants are highly polymorphic markers that facilitate powerful population genetic analyses. STRs are especially valuable in conservation and ecological genetic research, yielding detailed information on population structure and short-term demographic fluctuations. Massively parallel sequencing has not previously been leveraged for scalable, efficient STR recovery. Here, we present a pipeline for developing STR markers directly from high-throughput shotgun sequencing data without a reference genome, and an approach for highly parallel target STR recovery...
June 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666003/diversity-of-fruit-feeding-butterflies-in-a-mountaintop-archipelago-of-rainforest
#13
Geanne Carla Novais Pereira, Marcel Serra Coelho, Marina do Vale Beirão, Rodrigo Fagundes Braga, Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665011/demographic-model-selection-using-random-forests-and-the-site-frequency-spectrum
#14
Megan L Smith, Megan Ruffley, Anahí Espíndola, David C Tank, Jack Sullivan, Bryan C Carstens
Phylogeographic datasets have grown from tens to thousands of loci in recent years, but extant statistical methods do not take full advantage of these large datasets. For example, Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) is a commonly used method for the explicit comparison of alternate demographic histories, but it is limited by the 'curse of dimensionality' and issues related to the simulation and summarization of data when applied to next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets. We implement here several improvements to overcome these difficulties...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662430/trends-of-two-decadal-precipitation-chemistry-in-a-subtropical-rainforest-in-east-asia
#15
Chung-Te Chang, Chiao-Ping Wang, Jr-Chuan Huang, Lih-Jih Wang, Chiung-Pin Liu, Teng-Chiu Lin
Long-term monitoring of precipitation chemistry provides a great opportunity to examine the evolution of air pollutant emissions and effectiveness of air pollution control measures. We evaluated the characteristics and trends of precipitation chemistry at both annual and seasonal scales based on the records of 1994-2013 at Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northeastern Taiwan. The results showed that 77% of the weekly precipitation had pH<5.0. The two-decadal average annual pH was 4.62, without a significant inter-annual trend, possibly due to the concurrent declines of both acidic pollutants and base cations...
June 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659411/leaping-lizards-landing-on-leaves-escape-induced-jumps-in-the-rainforest-canopy-challenge-the-adhesive-limits-of-geckos
#16
Timothy E Higham, Anthony P Russell, Karl J Niklas
The remarkable adhesive capabilities of geckos have garnered attention from scientists and the public for centuries. Geckos are known to have an adhesive load-bearing capacity far in excess (by 100-fold or more) of that required to support their body mass or accommodate the loading imparted during maximal locomotor acceleration. Few studies, however, have investigated the ecological contexts in which geckos use their adhesive system and how this may influence its properties. Here we develop a modelling framework to assess whether their prodigious adhesive capacity ever comes under selective challenge...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642991/extensive-overlap-of-tropical-rainforest-bacterial-endophytes-between-soil-plant-parts-and-plant-species
#17
Emmanuel Haruna, Noraziah M Zin, Dorsaf Kerfahi, Jonathan M Adams
The extent to which distinct bacterial endophyte communities occur between different plant organs and species is poorly known and has implications for bioprospecting efforts. Using the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we investigated the diversity patterns of bacterial endophyte communities of three rainforest plant species, comparing leaf, stem, and root endophytes plus rhizosphere soil community. There was extensive overlap in bacterial communities between plant organs, between replicate plants of the same species, between plant species, and between plant organ and rhizosphere soil, with no consistent clustering by compartment or host plant species...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636672/metabolomic-profile-and-nucleoside-composition-of-cordyceps-nidus-sp-nov-cordycipitaceae-a-new-source-of-active-compounds
#18
Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632944/deconstructing-the-landscape-of-fear-in-stable-multi-species-societies
#19
A E Martínez, E Parra, L F Collado, V T Vredenburg
Animal distributions are influenced by variation in predation risk in space, which has been described as the "landscape of fear." Many studies suggest animals also reduce predation risk by eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls, allowing them to occupy otherwise risky habitats. One unexplored area of study is understanding how different species' alarms vary in quality, and how this variation is distributed in the landscape. We tested this phenomenon in a unique system of avian mixed species flocks in Amazonian rainforests: flock mates (eavesdropping species) strongly associate with alarm-calling antshrikes (genus Thamnomanes), which act as sentinel species...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630672/circularly-polarized-reflection-from-the-scarab-beetle-chalcothea-smaragdina-light-scattering-by-a-dual-photonic-structure
#20
Luke T McDonald, Ewan D Finlayson, Bodo D Wilts, Pete Vukusic
Helicoidal architectures comprising various polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose, have been reported in biological systems. In some cases, these architectures exhibit stunning optical properties analogous to ordered cholesteric liquid crystal phases. In this work, we characterize the circularly polarized reflectance and optical scattering from the cuticle of the beetle Chalcothea smaragdina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) using optical experiments, simulations and structural analysis. The selective reflection of left-handed circularly polarized light is attributed to a Bouligand-type helicoidal morphology within the beetle's exocuticle...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
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