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Anelize Bauermeister, Felipe A Calil, Francisco das C L Pinto, Talita C T Medeiros, Larissa C Almeida, Leonardo J Silva, Itamar S de Melo, Tiago D Zucchi, Letícia V Costa-Lotufo, Luiz A B Moraes
A new polycyclic antibiotic, pradimicin-IRD, was isolated from actinobacteria Amycolatopsis sp. IRD-009 recovered from soil of Brazilian rainforest undergoing restoration area. This molecule is the major compound produced in solid culture media. The new compound was detected by a focused method of precursor ion (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometer) developed previously to identify unusual aminoglycosyl sugar moieties. The compound was isolated and its structure was, therefore, elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments...
February 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Emma M Dunne, Roger A Close, David J Button, Neil Brocklehurst, Daniel D Cashmore, Graeme T Lloyd, Richard J Butler
The Carboniferous and early Permian were critical intervals in the diversification of early four-limbed vertebrates (tetrapods), yet the major patterns of diversity and biogeography during this time remain unresolved. Previous estimates suggest that global tetrapod diversity rose continuously across this interval and that habitat fragmentation following the 'Carboniferous rainforest collapse' (CRC) drove increased endemism among communities. However, previous work failed to adequately account for spatial and temporal biases in sampling...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Héritier Milenge Kamalebo, Hippolyte Nshimba Seya Wa Malale, Cephas Masumbuko Ndabaga, Jérôme Degreef, André De Kesel
BACKGROUND: Wild mushrooms constitute an important non-timber forest product that provides diverse substances and services, especially food and income for local communities from many parts of the world. This study presents original ethnomycological documentation from the dense rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS: Ethnomycological surveys were made within local communities near the biosphere reserve of Yangambi and the Yoko forest reserve...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Phyllis D Coley, María-José Endara, Thomas A Kursar
We summarize work on a speciose Neotropical tree genus, Inga (Fabaceae), examining how interspecific variation in anti-herbivore defenses may have evolved, how defenses shape host choice by herbivores and how they might regulate community composition and influence species radiations. Defenses of expanding leaves include secondary metabolites, extrafloral nectaries, rapid leaf expansion, trichomes, and synchrony and timing of leaf production. These six classes of defenses are orthogonal, supporting independent evolutionary trajectories...
February 10, 2018: Oecologia
Mario Wibowo, Qian Wang, Jeff Holst, Jonathan M White, Andreas Hofmann, Rohan A Davis
Phytochemical studies of the roots of the Australian plant, Maytenus bilocularis, resulted in the identification of six previously undescribed dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenoids, bilocularins D-I, along with three known natural products, namely 1α,2α,6β,15-tetraacetoxy-9β-benzoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran, pristimerin, and celastrol. The structures of all compounds were characterized via analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of bilocularin D was defined by X-ray crystallography analysis...
January 30, 2018: Phytochemistry
T J Heger, Ian J W Giesbrecht, Julia Gustavsen, Javier Del Campo, Colleen T E Kellogg, Kira M Hoffman, Ken Lertzman, William W Mohn, Patrick J Keeling
Although previous studies, mostly based on microscopy analyses of a few groups of protists, have suggested that protists are abundant and diverse in litter and moss habitats, the overall diversity of moss and litter associated protists remains elusive. Here, high-throughput environmental sequencing was used to characterize the diversity and community structure of litter and moss-associated protists along a gradient of soil drainage and forest primary productivity in a temperate rainforest in British Columbia...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
J E Meireles, P S Manos
Understanding the colonization of extreme marginal habitats and the relative roles of space and environment in maintaining peripheral populations remains challenging. Here we leverage a system of pairs of rainforest and sandy coastal plain communities that allow us to decouple spatial and environmental effects in the population structure and migration rates of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis. Structure and gene flow between populations were estimated from Bayesian clustering and coalescent based migration models applied to chloroplast sequence and nuclear microsatellite data...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Laura M Bolt, Amy L Schreier, Kristofor A Voss, Elizabeth A Sheehan, Nancy L Barrickman, Nathaniel P Pryor, Matthew C Barton
When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica...
February 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Michael D Pirie, Paul J M Maas, Rutger A Wilschut, Heleen Melchers-Sharrott, Lars W Chatrou
Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of tropical trees (Cremastosperma, ca 31 spp.; and Mosannona, ca 14 spp.; both Annonaceae). Phylogenetic inference revealed similar patterns of geographically restricted clades and molecular dating showed diversifications in the different areas occurred in parallel, with timing consistent with Andean vicariance and Central American geodispersal...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Marcia J Guimarães Marques, Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, José E Marques-Carneiro, Leonardo B Lopes-Silva, Monica L Andersen, Esper A Cavalheiro, Fulvio A Scorza, Carla A Scorza
Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Beatriz Coronato Nunes, Deiviane Aparecida Calegar, Márcio Galvão Pavan, Lauren Hubert Jaeger, Kerla Joeline Lima Monteiro, Elis Regina Chaves Dos Reis, Marli Maria Lima, Márcio Neves Bóia, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa
Giardia duodenalis has a wide genetic variety, and its characterization helps in the understanding of its transmission dynamics and in the development control strategies. This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity of G. duodenalis obtained in different Brazilian biomes and estimate their phylogenetic relationships. Three surveys including 944 participants were carried out in the municipalities of Russas (RSS, Caatinga semiarid biome), Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (SIRN, Amazon rainforest biome) and Nossa Senhora de Nazaré (NSN, Cerrado-Caatinga transition biome)...
February 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jason G Bragg, Sally Potter, Ana C Afonso Silva, Conrad J Hoskin, Benjamin Y H Bai, Craig Moritz
BACKGROUND: The application of target capture with next-generation sequencing now enables phylogenomic analyses of rapidly radiating clades of species. But such analyses are complicated by extensive incomplete lineage sorting, demanding the use of methods that consider this process explicitly, such as the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model. However, the MSC makes strong assumptions about divergence history and population structure, and when using the full Bayesian implementation, current computational limits mean that relatively few loci and samples can be analysed for even modest sized radiations...
February 5, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Claire Dillenbeck, Devon Lewis, Cindy Rivera, Luis Mario Romero, Luis Fernando Chaves
Mosquito sampling using efficient traps that can assess species diversity and/or presence of dominant vectors is important for understanding the entomological risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of mosquito species sampled with ovitraps in a neotropical rainforest of Costa Rica. We found the method to be an efficient sampling tool. With a total sampling effort of 29 traps, we collected 157 fourth-instar larvae and three pupae belonging to eight mosquito taxonomic units (seven species and individuals from a homogenous taxonomic unit identified to the genus level)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Síntia Carla Corrêa Simioni, Diego Mercado Tovar, Jéssica Ferreira Rodrigues, Vanessa Rios de Souza, Cleiton Antônio Nunes, Vladimir Vietoris, Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: Brazilians and Slovakians evaluated the temporal profile and the acceptability of cachaça stored with different woods (Cumarurana (CM), Jatobá (JT) and, Louro-vermelho (LV)) found in the Amazon rainforest and oak with the aim to perform a cross-cultural comparison of the dynamic profile of the attributes perceived in the cachaças and the hedonic perception of the samples. RESULTS: Important differences were observed between the temporal sensorial profiles generated by the two groups and their preferences...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Monica Kaushik, Liba Pejchar, Lisa H Crampton
Hawaii has experienced a catastrophic decline in frugivorous native birds coupled with the introduction of non-native species. Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a critically endangered thrush, is the sole extant native songbird capable of dispersing fleshy fruited plants in the rainforest of Kauai island, Hawaii. As this species has declined to occupy a small proportion of its original range, a suite of largely omnivorous non-native birds have been introduced to this region, including the common and widespread Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus)...
2018: PloS One
Zhichao Lin, Xiuwen Qiao
Coral reef has a unique dendritic structure with large specific surface area, rich pore structure, so that it can be attached to a large number of zooxanthellae for gas exchange. Coral reef ecosystems are also known as underwater rainforests. Inspired by this biological structure, we designed and fabricated coral-like Co3O4 decorated N-doped carbon particles (Co3O4/N-CP). The obtained Co3O4/N-CP-900 catalyst shows efficient ORR electrocatalytic performances in an alkaline medium with a positive onset and half-wave potentials of 0...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joice Magali Brustolin, Felipe da Silva Krawczak, Marta Elena Machado Alves, Maria Amélia Weiller, Camila Lopes de Souza, Fábio Brum Rosa, Gustavo Cauduro Cadore, Sônia Terezinha Dos Anjos Lopes, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel, Sônia de Avila Botton, Luís Antônio Sangioni
This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests...
January 27, 2018: Parasitology Research
Pablo Deschepper, Raf Aerts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Michelle Kalamandeen, Emanuel Gloor, Edward Mitchard, Duncan Quincey, Guy Ziv, Dominick Spracklen, Benedict Spracklen, Marcos Adami, Luiz E O C Aragão, David Galbraith
Understanding forest loss patterns in Amazonia, the Earth's largest rainforest region, is critical for effective forest conservation and management. Following the most detailed analysis to date, spanning the entire Amazon and extending over a 14-year period (2001-2014), we reveal significant shifts in deforestation dynamics of Amazonian forests. Firstly, hotspots of Amazonian forest loss are moving away from the southern Brazilian Amazon to Peru and Bolivia. Secondly, while the number of new large forest clearings (>50 ha) has declined significantly over time (46%), the number of new small clearings (<1 ha) increased by 34% between 2001-2007 and 2008-2014...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Asifa Majid, Nicole Kruspe
People struggle to name odors [1-4]. This has been attributed to a diminution of olfaction in trade-off to vision [5-10]. This presumption has been challenged recently by data from the hunter-gatherer Jahai who, unlike English speakers, find odors as easy to name as colors [4]. Is the superior olfactory performance among the Jahai because of their ecology (tropical rainforest), their language family (Aslian), or because of their subsistence (they are hunter-gatherers)? We provide novel evidence from the hunter-gatherer Semaq Beri and the non-hunter-gatherer (swidden-horticulturalist) Semelai that subsistence is the critical factor...
January 16, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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