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Gustavo Nicolodelli, Amanda Maria Tadini, Marcelo Saito Nogueira, Sebastião Pratavieira, Stephane Mounier, Jose Luis Clabel Huaman, Cléber Hilário Dos Santos, Célia Regina Montes, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori
Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) is a new tool that can be used to investigate processes of interaction between metal ions and organic matter (OM) in soils, providing a specific analysis of the structure and dynamics of macromolecules. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature reporting the use of this technique applied to whole/non-fractionated soil samples, making it a potential method for use in future studies. This work describes the use of TRFS to evaluate the fluorescence lifetimes of OM of whole soils from the Amazon region...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Rebecca A Senior, Jane K Hill, Pamela González Del Pliego, Laurel K Goode, David P Edwards
Temperature is a core component of a species' fundamental niche. At the fine scale over which most organisms experience climate (mm to ha), temperature depends upon the amount of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, which is principally governed by vegetation. Tropical regions have undergone widespread and extreme changes to vegetation, particularly through the degradation and conversion of rainforests. As most terrestrial biodiversity is in the tropics, and many of these species possess narrow thermal limits, it is important to identify local thermal impacts of rainforest degradation and conversion...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Érico E Kauano, Jose M C Silva, Fernanda Michalski
BACKGROUND: The Brazilian Amazon is the world's largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. METHODS: We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon...
2017: PeerJ
Alyssa Y Stark, Benjamin J Adams, Jennifer L Fredley, Stephen P Yanoviak
Small, cursorial ectotherms like ants often are immersed in the superheated air layers that develop millimeters above exposed, insolated surfaces (i.e., the thermal boundary layer). We quantified the thermal microenvironments around tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy, and explored the effects of substrate color on the internal body temperature and species composition of arboreal ants. Branch temperatures during the day (09:00-16:00) were hottest (often > 50°C) and most variable on the upper surface, while the lowest and least variable temperatures occurred on the underside...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Antonio B Escandón, Roke Rojas, Loreto V Morales, Luis J Corcuera, Rafael E Coopman, Susana Paula
Many clonal plants produce vegetative recruits that remain connected to the parent plant. Such connections permit resource sharing among ramets, explaining the high survival rates of vegetative recruits during establishment under suboptimal conditions for sexual regeneration. We propose that differences in the regeneration niches of sexual and vegetative recruits reflect different physiological adjustments caused by parental supply of resources to the ramets. We conducted ecophysiological measurements in saplings and root suckers of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
William Ngatchou, Daniel Lemogoum, Christian Mélot, Virginie Guimfacq, Philippe van de Borne, Jean Claude Wautrecht, Michel P Hermans, Luc Van Bortel, Marc Leeman
BACKGROUND: Pygmies living in the Central African rainforest with a traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyle have a low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Because of progressive loss of traditional habitat and ancestral lands, some Pygmies have migrated to urban areas and adopt specific Bantu lifestyles such as increased salt consumption and a sedentary way of life. We tested the hypothesis that migrant Pygmies could present with hemodynamic and metabolic characteristics different from those of traditional in-situ Pygmies and possibly closer to those of Bantu farmers...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Jun Zheng, Yun-Feng Lu, Xiao-Jing Liu, Feng-Li Hui
Three strains representing a novel species of yeast were isolated from samples of rotting wood collected from Xishuangbanna Tropical Rainforest in Yunnan Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene revealed that the novel species is a member of the genus Cyberlindnera, although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The novel species was related most closely to the type strain of the species Candida pattaniensis, but they had a 0...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Shirley A Lang, Naim Saglam, Joseph Kawash, Daniel H Shain
Segmented worms (Annelida) are among the most successful animal inhabitants of extreme environments worldwide. An unusual group of enchytraeid oligochaetes of genus Mesenchytraeus are abundant in the Pacific northwestern region of North America and occupy geographically proximal ecozones ranging from low elevation rainforests and waterways to high altitude glaciers. Along this altitudinal transect, Mesenchytraeus representatives from disparate habitat types were collected and subjected to deep mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analyses...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Phoeve Macario, Mauro Pichorim, Paul F Doherty, Guilherme S Toledo-Lima, Tonny M Oliveira-Júnior, Thanyria P F Câmara, Shirley Macjane Melo, João Lucas S Silveira, Juliana C Araújo, Leonardo F França
Understanding latitudinal variation in avian life-history traits has been a focus of many demographic studies around the world. However, we still know little about annual or intra-annual demographic variation within tropical regions or about how factors such as breeding season and precipitation influence demographic rates. In this study, we estimated intra-annual apparent survival of the White-lined Tanager (Tachyphonus rufus) using capture-mark-recapture data from northeastern Brazil. We tested whether survival varied seasonally (breeding vs...
2017: PloS One
Yin-Ling Chen, Yong-Cheng Huang, Yong-Chao Qiao, Wei Ling, Yan-Hong Pan, Li-Jun Geng, Jian-Long Xiao, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Hai-Lu Zhao
We are aimed to systematically assess the worldwide trend in incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (CT1DM) from 1965 to 2012 and to discuss whether climate affect incidence of CT1DM. We searched the relevant literatures in detail to judge the effect of different climates on incidence of CT1DM. The climates included Mediterranean, monsoon, oceanic, continental, savanna, and rainforest. According to different climates, we further researched relevant factor such as sunshine durations and latitudes. The overall incidence of CT1DM in 72 countries was 11...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jon G Sanders, Piotr Lukasik, Megan E Frederickson, Jacob A Russell, Ryuichi Koga, Rob Knight, Naomi E Pierce
Abundance is a key parameter in microbial ecology, and important to estimates of potential metabolite flux, impacts of dispersal, and sensitivity of samples to technical biases such as laboratory contamination. However, modern amplicon-based sequencing techniques by themselves typically provide no information about the absolute abundance of microbes. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction as independent estimates of microbial abundance to test the hypothesis that microbial symbionts have enabled ants to dominate tropical rainforest canopies by facilitating herbivorous diets, and compare these methods to microbial diversity profiles from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
July 27, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Luiza M T Aparecido, Gretchen R Miller, Anthony T Cahill, Georgianne W Moore, Hiroaki Ishii
While it is reasonable to predict that photosynthetic rates are inhibited while leaves are wet, leaf gas exchange measurements during wet conditions are challenging to obtain due to equipment limitations and the complexity of canopy-atmosphere interactions in forested environments. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate responses of seven tropical and three semiarid savanna plant species to simulated leaf wetness and test the hypotheses that (i) leaf wetness reduces photosynthetic rates (Anet), (ii) leaf traits explain different responses among species and (iii) leaves from wet environments are better adapted for wet leaf conditions than those from drier environments...
July 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
Denise R Fernando, Alan T Marshall, Peter T Green
Gossia, a small genus of physiologically novel rainforest trees restricted to the Western Pacific and belonging to a key neotropical Southern Hemisphere family, the Myrtaceae, is characterized by high foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations. This field study provides a quantitative in planta snapshot detailing cellular localization of foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in sympatric Gossia grayi N. Snow & Guymer and Gossia shepherdii N. Snow & Guymer endemic to far northeastern Australia, and previously not examined...
September 6, 2017: Tree Physiology
Piotr Gasiorek, Hanna Rozycka
Haemadipsid leeches are among the most successful terrestrial invertebrates in Bornean rainforests. They are very common ectoparasites of vertebrates, and their abundance has facilitated the conduction of numerous projects in the fields of ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy. We undertook research on two species inhabiting lowland dipterocarp forest, Haemadipsa picta Moore, 1929 and Haemadipsa subagilis (Moore, 1929), in order to address the following questions: (a) is there a difference in leech abundance between trails and off-trails?; (b) is ambush location dependent on specimen size or is species-specific?; (c) is intra- and interspecific competition limited by differences in foraging behaviours or vertical niche partitioning? Our results clearly show that H...
October 3, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Fernando A Schmidt, Carla R Ribas, Tathiana G Sobrinho, Rosichon Ubaidillah, José H Schoereder, Yann Clough, Teja Tscharntke
Local biodiversity can be expected to be similar worldwide if environmental conditions are similar. Here, we hypothesize that tropical ant communities with different types of regional species pools but at similar habitat types in Brazil and Indonesia show similar diversity patterns at multiple spatial scales, when comparing (1) the relative contribution of alpha and beta diversity to gamma diversity; (2) the number of distinct communities (community differentiation); and (3) the drivers of β-diversity (species replacement or species loss/gain) at each spatial scale...
October 4, 2017: Oecologia
Simon J Underdown, Krishna Kumar, Charlotte Houldcroft
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but unknown hominin species. In this article, we use probability-based network analysis to determine the most probable transmission path between intermediate hosts of HSV2, from the ancestors of chimpanzees to the ancestors of modern humans, using paleo-environmental data on the distribution of African tropical rainforest over the last 3 million years and data on the age and distribution of fossil species of hominin present in Africa between 1...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
Indira Trüeb, Ricardo D Portela, Carlos R Franke, Ianei O Carneiro, Gilmar J Ribeiro, Rodrigo P Soares, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo
Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania sp. are important protozoan parasites for humans and animals in the Americas, causing Chagas disease and cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. These vector-borne diseases affect permanent and transient populations in developing tropical countries that exhibit favorable conditions for the perpetuation of the parasite cycle. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of infection with these parasites in wild animals from urban rainforest fragments in the city of Salvador, the largest city in the northeast region of Brazil...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Peter T Green, Kyle E Harms
The emergent properties of the collection of species in a natural community, such as diversity and the distribution of relative abundances, are influenced by both niche-based and neutral (stochastic) processes. This pluralistic view of the natural world reconciles theory with empirical observations better than does either a strictly niche- or neutrality-based perspective. Even so, rules (or rules-of-thumb) that govern the relative contributions that niche-based and stochastic processes make as communities assemble remain only vaguely formulated and incompletely tested...
October 4, 2017: Ecology
Michele Menegon, Chiara Cantaloni, Ana Rodriguez-Prieto, Cesare Centomo, Ahmed Abdelfattah, Marzia Rossato, Massimo Bernardi, Luciano Xumerle, Simon Loader, Massimo Delledonne
Biodiversity research is becoming increasingly dependent on genomics, which allows the unprecedented digitization and understanding of the planet's biological heritage. The use of genetic markers i.e. DNA barcoding, has proved to be a powerful tool in species identification. However, full exploitation of this approach is hampered by the high sequencing costs and the absence of equipped facilities in biodiversity-rich countries. In the present work, we developed a portable sequencing laboratory based on the portable DNA sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies, the MinION...
2017: PloS One
Daniela Lazo-Cancino, Selim S Musleh, Cristian E Hernandez, Eduardo Palma, Enrique Rodriguez-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Fragmentation of native forests is a highly visible result of human land-use throughout the world. In this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape fragmentation and matrix features on the genetic diversity and structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the natural reservoir of Hantavirus in southern South America. We focused our work in the Valdivian Rainforest where human activities have produced strong change of natural habitats, with an important number of human cases of Hantavirus...
2017: PeerJ
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