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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242776/new-species-of-auritella-inocybaceae-from-cameroon-with-a-worldwide-key-to-the-known-species
#1
P Brandon Matheny, Terry W Henkel, Olivier Séné, Hailee B Korotkin, Bryn T M Dentinger, M Catherine Aime
Two new species in the genus Auritella (Inocybaceae) are described as new from tropical rainforest in Cameroon. Descriptions, photographs, line drawings, and a worldwide taxonomic key to the described species of Auritella are presented. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA and rpb2 nucleotide sequence data suggests at least five phylogenetic species that can be ascribed to Auritella occur in the region comprising Cameroon and Gabon and constitute a strongly supported monophyletic subgroup within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data supports the conspecificity of numerous collections attributed to the two new species as well as the monophyly of Australian species of Auritella...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238531/the-saturniidae-of-barro-colorado-island-panama-a-model-taxon-for-studying-the-long-term-effects-of-climate-change
#2
Yves Basset, Greg P A Lamarre, Tom Ratz, Simon T Segar, Thibaud Decaëns, Rodolphe Rougerie, Scott E Miller, Filonila Perez, Ricardo Bobadilla, Yacksecari Lopez, José Alejandro Ramirez, Annette Aiello, Héctor Barrios
We have little knowledge of the response of invertebrate assemblages to climate change in tropical ecosystems, and few studies have compiled long-term data on invertebrates from tropical rainforests. We provide an updated list of the 72 species of Saturniidae moths collected on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, during the period 1958-2016. This list will serve as baseline data for assessing long-term changes of saturniids on BCI in the future, as 81% of the species can be identified by their unique DNA Barcode Index Number, including four cryptic species not yet formally described...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236157/isoprene-emissions-and-ozone-formation-in-urban-conditions-a-case-study-in-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro
#3
Cleyton Martins da Silva, Sergio Machado Corrêa, Graciela Arbilla
The potential role of isoprene oxidative processes, as well as the possible impact of air pollution on isoprene emissions, are more important in tropical cities, surrounded by rainforests. In this study, the contribution of isoprene to ozone formation was determined considering different scenarios, mainly volatile organic compounds/NO x (VOC/NO x ) ratios, and typical atmospheric conditions for the city of Rio de Janeiro, where more than 36% of the urbanized area is covered by vegetation. Ozone isopleths and incremental reactivity coefficients (IR) were evaluated to understand the direct contribution of isoprene to ground-level ozone formation and the negative impact of anthropogenic NO x emissions on the natural atmospheric balance...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234095/enclaves-of-genetic-diversity-resisted-inca-impacts-on-population-history
#4
Chiara Barbieri, José R Sandoval, Jairo Valqui, Aviva Shimelman, Stefan Ziemendorff, Roland Schröder, Maria Geppert, Lutz Roewer, Russell Gray, Mark Stoneking, Ricardo Fujita, Paul Heggarty
The Inca Empire is claimed to have driven massive population movements in western South America, and to have spread Quechua, the most widely-spoken language family of the indigenous Americas. A test-case is the Chachapoyas region of northern Peru, reported as a focal point of Inca population displacements. Chachapoyas also spans the environmental, cultural and demographic divides between Amazonia and the Andes, and stands along the lowest-altitude corridor from the rainforest to the Pacific coast. Following a sampling strategy informed by linguistic data, we collected 119 samples, analysed for full mtDNA genomes and Y-chromosome STRs...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228053/traditional-scientific-data-vs-uncoordinated-citizen-science-effort-a-review-of-the-current-status-and-comparison-of-data-on-avifauna-in-southern-brazil
#5
Louri Klemann-Junior, Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos, Pedro Scherer-Neto, Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule
Data generated by citizen science is particularly valuable in ecological research. If used discerningly with data from traditional scientific references, citizen science can directly contribute to biogeography knowledge and conservation policies by increasing the number of species records in large geographic areas. Considering the current level of knowledge on south Brazilian avifauna, the large volume of data produced by uncoordinated citizen science effort (CS), and the growing need for information on changes in abundance and species composition, we have compiled an updated, general list of bird species occurrence within the state of Paraná...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217629/map-like-navigation-from-distances-exceeding-routine-movements-in-the-three-striped-poison-frog-ameerega-trivittata
#6
Andrius Pašukonis, Matthias-Claudio Loretto, Walter Hödl
Most animals move in dense habitats where distant landmarks are limited, but how they find their way around remains poorly understood. Poison frogs inhabit the rainforest understory where they shuttle tadpoles from small territories to widespread pools. Recent studies revealed their excellent spatial memory and the ability to home back from several hundred meters. It remains unclear if this homing ability is restricted to the areas that had been previously explored or if it allows the frogs to navigate from areas outside their direct experience...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216248/effect-of-land-use-changes-on-the-abundance-distribution-and-host-seeking-behavior-of-aedes-arbovirus-vectors-in-oil-palm-dominated-landscapes-southeastern-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#7
Julien B Z Zahouli, Benjamin G Koudou, Pie Müller, David Malone, Yao Tano, Jürg Utzinger
BACKGROUND: Identifying priority areas for vector control is of considerable public health relevance. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) spread by Aedes mosquitoes are (re)emerging in many parts of the tropics, partially explained by changes in agricultural land-use. We explored the effects of land-use changes on the abundance, distribution, and host-seeking behavior of Aedes mosquitoes along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance in oil palm-dominated landscapes in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211107/trypanosoma-janseni-n-sp-trypanosomatida-trypanosomatidae-isolated-from-didelphis-aurita-mammalia-didelphidae-in-the-atlantic-rainforest-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-integrative-taxonomy-and-phylogeography-within-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-clade
#8
Camila Madeira Tavares Lopes, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, Márcio Galvão Pavan, Mirian Cláudia De Souza Pereira, André Luiz R Roque
BACKGROUND: Didelphis spp. are a South American marsupial species that are among the most ancient hosts for the Trypanosoma spp. OBJECTIVES: We characterise a new species (Trypanosoma janseni n. sp.) isolated from the spleen and liver tissues of Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The parasites were isolated and a growth curve was performed in NNN and Schneider's media containing 10% foetal bovine serum...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198907/aquatic-life-in-neotropical-rainforest-canopies-techniques-using-artificial-phytotelmata-to-study-the-invertebrate-communities-inhabiting-therein
#9
Alain Dejean, Frédéric Petitclerc, Frédéric Azémar, Laurent Pélozuelo, Stanislas Talaga, Maurice Leponce, Arthur Compin
In Neotropical rainforest canopies, phytotelmata ("plant-held waters") shelter diverse aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, including vectors of animal diseases. Studying these communities is difficult because phytotelmata are widely dispersed, hard to find from the ground and often inaccessible. We propose here a method for placing in tree crowns "artificial phytotelmata" whose size and shape can be tailored to different research targets. The efficacy of this method was shown while comparing the patterns of community diversity of three forest formations...
November 30, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197245/the-geographic-mosaic-of-ecuadorian-y-chromosome-ancestry
#10
U Toscanini, A Gaviria, J Pardo-Seco, A Gómez-Carballa, F Moscoso, M Vela, S Cobos, A Lupero, A K Zambrano, F Martinón-Torres, A Carabajo-Marcillo, R Yunga-León, N Ugalde-Noritz, A Ordoñez-Ugalde, A Salas
Ecuadorians originated from a complex mixture of Native American indigenous people with Europeans and Africans. We analyzed Y-chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) in a sample of 415 Ecuadorians (145 using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ system [Life Technologies, USA] and 270 using the PowerPlex®Y23 system [Promega Corp., USA]; hereafter Yfiler and PPY23, respectively) representing three main ecological continental regions of the country, namely Amazon rainforest, Andes, and Pacific coast. Diversity values are high in the three regions, and the PPY23 exhibits higher discrimination power than the Yfiler set...
November 22, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190001/richness-and-composition-of-ground-dwelling-ants-in-tropical-rainforest-and-surrounding-landscapes-in-the-colombian-inter-andean-valley
#11
R Achury, A V Suarez
Tropical rainforests are characterized by having high structural complexity, stratification, and species diversity. In Colombia, tropical rainforests are critically endangered with only 24% of their area remaining. Forest fragments are often valued based on the presence of vertebrate taxa despite that small habitat remnants may still harbor diverse invertebrate communities. We surveyed the ant fauna associated with rainforest fragments and their surrounding landscape elements (including mature forests, flooded forests, gallery forests, live fences, and pastures) in the Magdalena River watershed...
November 30, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187970/land-use-not-litter-quality-is-a-stronger-driver-of-decomposition-in-hyperdiverse-tropical-forest
#12
Sabine Both, Dafydd M O Elias, Ully H Kritzler, Nick J Ostle, David Johnson
In hyperdiverse tropical forests, the key drivers of litter decomposition are poorly understood despite its crucial role in facilitating nutrient availability for plants and microbes. Selective logging is a pressing land use with potential for considerable impacts on plant-soil interactions, litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Here, in Borneo's tropical rainforests, we test the hypothesis that decomposition is driven by litter quality and that there is a significant "home-field advantage," that is positive interaction between local litter quality and land use...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186586/relationship-between-stomatal-density-size-and-speed-of-opening-in-sumatran-rainforest-species
#13
Reki Kardiman, Anders Ræbild
Recent studies have suggested that an association between size and speed of stomatal opening of stomata within taxa is likely to play a role in photosynthesis and transpiration. In this study we investigate whether this correlation applies for seedlings of 11 rainforest species from different taxa, and whether differences in stomatal and gas exchange parameters were related to initial growth under field and controlled conditions. The experiment was conducted on seedlings of nine late successional species and two early successional species, placed in full sunlight or 70% shade...
November 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185508/direct-and-cascading-impacts-of-tropical-land-use-change-on-multi-trophic-biodiversity
#14
Andrew D Barnes, Kara Allen, Holger Kreft, Marife D Corre, Malte Jochum, Edzo Veldkamp, Yann Clough, Rolf Daniel, Kevin Darras, Lisa H Denmead, Noor Farikhah Haneda, Dietrich Hertel, Alexander Knohl, Martyna M Kotowska, Syahrul Kurniawan, Ana Meijide, Katja Rembold, Walesa Edho Prabowo, Dominik Schneider, Teja Tscharntke, Ulrich Brose
The conversion of tropical rainforest to agricultural systems such as oil palm alters biodiversity across a large range of interacting taxa and trophic levels. Yet, it remains unclear how direct and cascading effects of land-use change simultaneously drive ecological shifts. Combining data from a multi-taxon research initiative in Sumatra, Indonesia, we show that direct and cascading land-use effects alter biomass and species richness of taxa across trophic levels ranging from microorganisms to birds. Tropical land use resulted in increases in biomass and species richness via bottom-up cascading effects, but reductions via direct effects...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184976/distinctive-soil-archaeal-communities-in-different-variants-of-tropical-equatorial-forest
#15
Dorsaf Kerfahi, Binu M Tripathi, J W Ferry Slik, Rahayu S Sukri, Salwana Jaafar, Jonathan M Adams
Little is known of how soil archaeal community composition and diversity differ between local variants of tropical rainforests. We hypothesized that (1) as with plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria, the soil archaeal community would differ between different variants of tropical forest; (2) that spatially rarer forest variants would have a less diverse archaeal community than common ones; (3) that a history of forest disturbance would decrease archaeal alpha- and beta-diversity; and (4) that archaeal distributions within the forest would be governed more by deterministic than stochastic factors...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182637/local-ecological-knowledge-and-its-relationship-with-biodiversity-conservation-among-two-quilombola-groups-living-in-the-atlantic-rainforest-brazil
#16
Bruno Esteves Conde, Tamara Ticktin, Amanda Surerus Fonseca, Arthur Ladeira Macedo, Timothy Ongaro Orsi, Luciana Moreira Chedier, Eliana Rodrigues, Daniel Sales Pimenta
Information on the knowledge, uses, and abundance of natural resources in local communities can provide insight on conservation status and conservation strategies in these locations. The aim of this research was to evaluate the uses, knowledge and conservation status of plants in two Quilombolas (descendants of slaves of African origin) communities in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil, São Sebastião da Boa Vista (SSBV) and São Bento (SB). We used a combination of ethnobotanical and ecological survey methods to ask: 1) What ethnobotanical knowledge do the communities hold? 2) What native species are most valuable to them? 3) What is the conservation status of the native species used? Thirteen local experts described the names and uses of 212 species in SSBV (105 native species) and 221 in SB (96 native species)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180362/limited-effects-of-variable-retention-harvesting-on-fungal-communities-decomposing-fine-roots-in-coastal-temperate-rainforests
#17
Timothy J Philpott, Jason S Barker, Cindy E Prescott, Sue J Grayston
Fine root litter is the principal source of carbon stored in forest soils and a dominant source of carbon for fungal decomposers. Differences in decomposer capacity between fungal species may be important determinants of fine-root decomposition rates. Variable-retention harvesting (VRH) provides refuge for ectomycorrhizal fungi, but its influence on fine-root decomposers is unknown, as are the effects of functional shifts in these fungal communities on carbon cycling. We compared fungal communities decomposing fine-roots (in litter bags) under VRH, clearcut, and uncut stands at two sites (6- and 13-years post-harvest), and two decay stages (43-days and 1 year after burial), in Douglas-fir forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161305/impact-of-austropuccinia-psidii-myrtle-rust-on-myrtaceae-rich-wet-sclerophyll-forests-in-south-east-queensland
#18
Geoff Pegg, Tamara Taylor, Peter Entwistle, Gordon Guymer, Fiona Giblin, Angus Carnegie
In April 2010, Austropuccinia psidii (formerly Puccinia psidii) was detected for the first time in Australia on the central coast of New South Wales. The fungus spread rapidly along the east coast and can now be found infecting vegetation in a range of native forest ecosystems with disease impacts ranging from minor leaf spots to severe shoot and stem blight and tree dieback. Localised extinction of some plant species has been recorded. In 2014, the impact of A. psidii was observed for the first time in a wet sclerophyll site with a rainforest understory, dominated by species of Myrtaceae, in Tallebudgera Valley, south east Queensland, Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159690/fungal-endophyte-communities-in-begonia-species-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-rainforest
#19
Ana M L Correia, Simone P Lira, Marco A Assis, Andre Rodrigues
Tropical plants represent hotspots of endophytic fungal species diversity. Based on culture-dependent methods, we evaluated the endophytic fungal communities in leaves of three plant species found in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Begonia fischeri, Begonia olsoniae, and Begonia venosa. These species are found in two distant sites: a continental region and an insular area. A total of 426 fungal endophytes in 19 genera were isolated in pure culture including Colletotrichum (51.6% of isolates) and Diaporthe (22...
November 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155257/contrasting-the-microbiomes-from-forest-rhizosphere-and-deeper-bulk-soil-from-an-amazon-rainforest-reserve
#20
Jose Pedro Fonseca, Luisa Hoffmann, Bianca Catarina Azeredo Cabral, Victor Hugo Giordano Dias, Marcio Rodrigues Miranda, Allan Cezar de Azevedo Martins, Clarissa Boschiero, Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos, Rosane Silva
Pristine forest ecosystems provide a unique perspective for the study of plant-associated microbiota since they host a great microbial diversity. Although the Amazon forest is one of the hotspots of biodiversity around the world, few metagenomic studies described its microbial community diversity thus far. Understanding the environmental factors that can cause shifts in microbial profiles is key to improving soil health and biogeochemical cycles. Here we report a taxonomic and functional characterization of the microbiome from the rhizosphere of Brosimum guianense (Snakewood), a native tree, and bulk soil samples from a pristine Brazilian Amazon forest reserve (Cuniã), for the first time by the shotgun approach...
November 15, 2017: Gene
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