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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647779/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-skin-of-dybowski-s-frog-rana-dybowskii-exposed-to-aeromonas-hydrophila
#1
Yi-Gang Xu, Long-Hui Chai, Wen Shi, Dan-Dan Wang, Jing-Yu Zhang, Xiang-Hong Xiao
Recently, populations of Rana dybowskii, an important amphibian species in Northeast China, have decreased, mainly owing to the disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. However, effective control methods have not yet been developed. In order to explore the immune responses of R. dybowskii upon exposure to A. hydrophila infection, Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) technology were employed to investigate transcriptomic changes in the skin of R. dybowskii exposed to A...
June 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645371/ensemble-and-single-molecule-analysis-of-non-homologous-end-joining-in-frog-egg-extracts
#2
Thomas G W Graham, Johannes C Walter, Joseph J Loparo
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repairs the majority of DNA double-strand breaks in human cells, yet the detailed order of events in this process has remained obscure. Here, we describe how to employ Xenopus laevis egg extract for the study of NHEJ. The egg extract is easy to prepare in large quantities, and it performs efficient end joining that requires the core end joining proteins Ku, DNA-PKcs, XLF, XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV. These factors, along with the rest of the soluble proteome, are present at endogenous concentrations, allowing mechanistic analysis in a system that begins to approximate the complexity of cellular end joining...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645030/uptake-and-tissue-distributions-of-cadmium-selenium-and-zinc-in-striped-marsh-frog-tadpoles-exposed-during-early-post-embryonic-development
#3
Chantal M Lanctôt, Tom Cresswell, Steven D Melvin
Metals and metalloids released through anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic organisms, resulting in adverse effects in sensitive species. We investigated the influence of feeding regime and exposure complexity (i.e., mixture) on bioaccumulation kinetics and body distribution of common metal(loid) pollutants in Limnodynastes peronii during early post-embryonic development. Tadpoles were exposed to radiolabelled (109)Cd, (75)Se and (65)Zn alone and in a mixture for 4 days, followed by 3 days depuration in clean water...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643122/symbiotic-performance-and-induction-of-systemic-resistance-against-cercospora-sojina-in-soybean-plants-co-inoculated-with-bacillus-sp-chep5-and-bradyrhizobium-japonicum-e109
#4
María Laura Tonelli, C Magallanes-Noguera, A Fabra
Soybean is an economically very important crop throughout the word and particularly in Argentina. Soybean yield may be affected by many factors such as the lack of some essential nutrients or pathogens attack. In this work we demonstrated that the co-inoculation of the native biocontrol bacterium Bacillus sp. CHEP5 which induces resistance against Cercospora sojina in soybean and the nitrogen fixing strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109, was more effective in reducing frog leaf spot severity than the inoculation of the biocontrol agent alone...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640954/the-ussing-chamber-assay-to-study-drug-metabolism-and-transport-in-the-human-intestine
#5
Beatrice Kisser, Eva Mangelsen, Caroline Wingolf, Lars Ivo Partecke, Claus-Dieter Heidecke, Christer Tannergren, Stefan Oswald, Markus Keiser
The Ussing chamber is an old but still powerful technique originally designed to study the vectorial transport of ions through frog skin. This technique is also used to investigate the transport of chemical agents through the intestinal barrier as well as drug metabolism in enterocytes, both of which are key determinants for the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. More contemporary model systems, such as Caco-2 cell monolayers or stably transfected cells, are more limited in their use compared to the Ussing chamber because of differences in expression rates of transporter proteins and/or metabolizing enzymes...
June 22, 2017: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640343/the-peculiar-breeding-biology-of-the-amazonian-frog-allobates-subfolionidificans-aromobatidae
#6
Jesus R D Souza, Igor L Kaefer, Albertina P Lima
Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637861/epidemic-and-endemic-pathogen-dynamics-correspond-to-distinct-host-population-microbiomes-at-a-landscape-scale
#7
Andrea J Jani, Roland A Knapp, Cheryl J Briggs
Infectious diseases have serious impacts on human and wildlife populations, but the effects of a disease can vary, even among individuals or populations of the same host species. Identifying the reasons for this variation is key to understanding disease dynamics and mitigating infectious disease impacts, but disentangling cause and correlation during natural outbreaks is extremely challenging. This study aims to understand associations between symbiotic bacterial communities and an infectious disease, and examines multiple host populations before or after pathogen invasion to infer likely causal links...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637855/fear-of-the-human-super-predator-reduces-feeding-time-in-large-carnivores
#8
Justine A Smith, Justin P Suraci, Michael Clinchy, Ayana Crawford, Devin Roberts, Liana Y Zanette, Christopher C Wilmers
Large carnivores' fear of the human 'super predator' has the potential to alter their feeding behaviour and result in human-induced trophic cascades. However, it has yet to be experimentally tested if large carnivores perceive humans as predators and react strongly enough to have cascading effects on their prey. We conducted a predator playback experiment exposing pumas to predator (human) and non-predator control (frog) sounds at puma feeding sites to measure immediate fear responses to humans and the subsequent impacts on feeding...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634115/delineating-the-roles-of-cellular-and-innate-antiviral-immune-parameters-mediating-ranavirus-susceptibility-using-rainbow-trout-cell-lines
#9
Graeme J Lisser, Nguyen T K Vo, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Frog virus 3 is the type species of the Ranavirus genus and the causative agent of massive mortalities of aquatic species worldwide. A critical step in limiting virus replication, particularly early in infection, is the innate immune response. Presently, little is known regarding what innate immune strategies limit FV3 at the cellular level. To this end, the present study uses two rainbow trout cell lines, RTG-2 and RTgutGC, which demonstrate susceptible and relatively resistant phenotypes to FV3 infection, to elucidate susceptibility factors to FV3...
June 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630337/stem-caecilian-from-the-triassic-of-colorado-sheds-light-on-the-origins-of-lissamphibia
#10
Jason D Pardo, Bryan J Small, Adam K Huttenlocker
The origin of the limbless caecilians remains a lasting question in vertebrate evolution. Molecular phylogenies and morphology support that caecilians are the sister taxon of batrachians (frogs and salamanders), from which they diverged no later than the early Permian. Although recent efforts have discovered new, early members of the batrachian lineage, the record of pre-Cretaceous caecilians is limited to a single species, Eocaecilia micropodia The position of Eocaecilia within tetrapod phylogeny is controversial, as it already acquired the specialized morphology that characterizes modern caecilians by the Jurassic...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625407/xenopus-fv3-host-pathogen-interactions-and-immune-evasion
#11
Robert Jacques, Eva-Stina Edholm, Sanchez Jazz, Torres-Luquis Odalys, De Jesús Andino Francisco
We first review fundamental insights into anti-ranavirus immunity learned with the Xenopus laevis/ranavirus FV3 model that are generally applicable to ectothermic vertebrates. We then further investigate FV3 genes involved in immune evasion. Focusing on FV3 knockout (KO) mutants defective for a putative viral caspase activation and recruitment domain-containing (CARD)-like protein (Δ64R-FV3), a β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase homolog (Δ52L-FV3), and an immediate-early18kDa protein (FV3-Δ18K), we assessed the involvement of these viral genes in replication, dissemination and interaction with peritoneal macrophages in tadpole and adult frogs...
June 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623332/interaction-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-aurein-1-2-and-charged-lipid-bilayer
#12
Durgesh K Rai, Shuo Qian
Aurein 1.2 is a potent antimicrobial peptide secreted by frog Litoria aurea. As a short membrane-active peptide with only 13 amino acids in sequence, it has been found to be residing on the surface of lipid bilayer and permeabilizing bacterial membranes at high concentration. However, the detail at the molecular level is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the action of Aurein 1.2 in charged lipid bilayers composed of DMPC/DMPG. Oriented Circular Dichroism results showed that the peptide was on the surface of lipid bilayer regardless of the charged lipid ratio...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621423/roles-of-the-cilium-associated-gene-ccdc11-in-left-right-patterning-and-in-laterality-disorders-in-humans
#13
Michal Gur, Enbal Ben-Tal Cohen, Olga Genin, Abraham Fainsod, Zeev Perles, Yuval Cinnamon
Axial determination occurs during early stages of embryogenesis. Flaws in laterality patterning result in abnormal positioning of visceral organs, as manifested in heterotaxy syndrome, or complete left-right inversion as in situs inversus totalis. These malformations are often associated with ciliopathies, as seen in primary ciliary dyskinesia. We have recently described a novel mutation in the Coiled-Coil Domain-Containing 11 (CCDC11) gene associated with laterality disorders in a consanguineous family of Arab-Muslim origin with two affected siblings presenting with diverse phenotypes, one with heterotaxy syndrome and the other with non-primary ciliary dyskinesia situs inversus totalis...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621416/all-in-one-integrating-cell-polarity-meiosis-mitosis-and-mechanical-forces-in-early-oocyte-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#14
Yaniv M Elkouby
While the differentiation of oocytes is key for embryonic development, and its investigation is crucial for advancing our understanding of human reproduction and fertility, many fundamental questions in oogenesis have been long standing. However, recent technical advances have led to several breakthroughs mainly in mice and zebrafish. Here I review these recent findings, including regulation and organization of the germline cyst, the mechanistics of chromosomal pairing, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a universal mRNA-protein (mRNP) granule called the Balbiani body...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620851/changes-of-erythrocyte-metric-parameters-in-pelophylax-ridibundus-amphibia-anura-ranidae-inhabiting-water-bodies-with-different-types-of-anthropogenic-pollution-in-southern-bulgaria
#15
Zhivko Zhelev, Georgi Popgeorgiev, Ivan Ivanov, Peter Boyadzhiev
The article presents the basic erythrocyte-metric parameters: cell length (EL) and width (EW), EL/EW, erythrocyte size (ES), nucleus length (NL) and width (NW), NL/NW, nucleus size (NS) and nucleocytoplasmic ratio (NS/ES) in the wild populations of marsh frogs Pelophylax ridibundus from five water bodies in Southern Bulgaria (two rivers and three reservoirs) with different degrees and types of anthropogenic pollution (less disrupted water basins, domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). The changes in erythrocyte-metric parameters depend on concentrations and types of toxicant and, to a lesser extent, on the type of water basin...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620318/extraction-protocols-for-individual-zebrafish-s-ventricle-myosin-and-skeletal-muscle-actin-for-in-vitro-motility-assays
#16
Lisa-Mareike Scheid, Cornelia Weber, Nasrin Bopp, Matias Mosqueira, Rainer H A Fink
The in vitro motility assay (IVMA) is a technique that enables the measurement of the interaction between actin and myosin providing a relatively simple model to understand the mechanical muscle function. For actin-myosin IVMA, myosin is immobilized in a measurement chamber, where it converts chemical energy provided by ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy. The result is the movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments that can be recorded microscopically and analyzed quantitatively. Resulting sliding speeds and patterns help to characterize the underlying actin-myosin interaction that can be affected by different factors such as mutations or active compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617640/microhabitat-and-climatic-niche-change-explain-patterns-of-diversification-among-frog-families
#17
Daniel S Moen, John J Wiens
A major goal of ecology and evolutionary biology is to explain patterns of species richness among clades. Differences in rates of net diversification (speciation minus extinction over time) may often explain these patterns, but the factors that drive variation in diversification rates remain uncertain. Three important candidates are climatic niche position (e.g., whether clades are primarily temperate or tropical), rates of climatic niche change among species within clades, and microhabitat (e.g., aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal)...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616199/global-realized-niche-divergence-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#18
Dennis Rödder, Flora Ihlow, Julien Courant, Jean Secondi, Anthony Herrel, Rui Rebelo, G J Measey, Francesco Lillo, F A De Villiers, Charlotte De Busschere, Thierry Backeljau
Although of crucial importance for invasion biology and impact assessments of climate change, it remains widely unknown how species cope with and adapt to environmental conditions beyond their currently realized climatic niches (i.e., those climatic conditions existing populations are exposed to). The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, native to southern Africa, has established numerous invasive populations on multiple continents making it a pertinent model organism to study environmental niche dynamics. In this study, we assess whether the realized niches of the invasive populations in Europe, South, and North America represent subsets of the species' realized niche in its native distributional range or if niche shifts are traceable...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615642/skin-sloughing-in-susceptible-and-resistant-amphibians-regulates-infection-with-a-fungal-pathogen
#19
Michel E B Ohmer, Rebecca L Cramp, Catherine J M Russo, Craig R White, Craig E Franklin
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in amphibian population declines globally. Given that Bd infection is limited to the skin in post-metamorphic amphibians, routine skin sloughing may regulate infection. Skin sloughing has been shown to reduce the number of cultivatable microbes on amphibian skin, and Bd infection increases skin sloughing rates at high loads. However, it is unclear whether species specific differences in skin sloughing patterns could regulate Bd population growth on the skin, and influence subsequent infection dynamics...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613414/the-arg-phe-amide-peptide-26rfa-qrfp-and-its-receptor-iuphar-review
#20
REVIEW
Jérôme Leprince, Didier Bagnol, Ronan Bureau, Shoji Fukusumi, Riccarda Granata, Shuji Hinuma, Dan Larhammar, Stefany Primeaux, Jana Sopkova-de Oliveiras Santos, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi Ukena, Hubert Vaudry
26RFa is an RFamide neuropeptide that was first isolated from the brain of the European green frog on the basis of a cross-reactivity with antibodies raised against bovine NPFF. 26RFa and its N-terminally extended form QRFP have been identified as cognate ligands of the former orphan receptor GPR103, now renamed QRFPR. The 26RFa/QRFP precursor has been characterized in various mammalian and non-mammalian species. In the brain of mammals, including human, 26RFa/QRFP mRNA is almost exclusively expressed in hypothalamic nuclei...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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