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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717880/environmental-exposure-does-not-explain-putative-maladaptation-in-road-adjacent-populations
#1
Steven P Brady
While the ecological consequences of roads are well described, little is known of their role as agents of natural selection, which can shape adaptive and maladaptive responses in populations influenced by roads. This knowledge gap persists despite a growing appreciation for the influence of evolution in human-altered environments. There, insights indicate that natural selection typically results in local adaptation. Thus, populations influenced by road-induced selection should evolve fitness advantages in their local environment...
July 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717774/role-of-oral-proficiency-on-reading-comprehension-within-language-and-cross-language-relationships
#2
Yuuko Uchikoshi, Lu Yang, Brandi Lohr, Genevieve Leung
This longitudinal study examined the role of oral proficiency, as measured with elicited narratives using a wordless picture book, Frog Where are You? (Meyer, 1969/1994), on English reading comprehension with a total of 102 English Language Learners (ELLs), including both Spanish and Cantonese speakers. Narrative samples were collected in the winter of first grade and reading skills were assessed on the same children one year later in second grade. Children were enrolled in either bilingual programs or mainstream programs...
November 2016: Lit Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715372/high-resolution-episcopic-microscopy-hrem-simple-and-robust-protocols-for-processing-and-visualizing-organic-materials
#3
Stefan H Geyer, Barbara Maurer-Gesek, Lukas F Reissig, Wolfgang J Weninger
We provide simple protocols for generating digital volume data with the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) method. HREM is capable of imaging organic materials with volumes up to 5 x 5 x 7 mm(3) in typical numeric resolutions between 1 x 1 x 1 and 5 x 5 x 5 µm(3). Specimens are embedded in methacrylate resin and sectioned on a microtome. After each section an image of the block surface is captured with a digital video camera that sits on the phototube connected to the compound microscope head. The optical axis passes through a green fluorescent protein (GFP) filter cube and is aligned with a position, at which the bock holder arm comes to rest after each section...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715368/loading-a-calcium-dye-into-frog-nerve-endings-through-the-nerve-stump-calcium-transient-registration-in-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#4
Dmitry V Samigullin, Eduard F Khaziev, Nikita V Zhilyakov, Ellya A Bukharaeva, Eugeny E Nikolsky
One of the most feasible methods of measuring presynaptic calcium levels in presynaptic nerve terminals is optical recording. It is based on using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes that change their emission intensity or wavelength depending on the concentration of free calcium in the cell. There are several methods used to stain cells with calcium dyes. Most common are the processes of loading the dyes through a micropipette or pre-incubating with the acetoxymethyl ester forms of the dyes. However, these methods are not quite applicable to neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) due to methodological issues that arise...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713651/amphibian-population-genetics-in-agricultural-landscapes-does-viniculture-drive-the-population-structuring-of-the-european-common-frog-rana-temporaria
#5
Patrick P Lenhardt, Carsten A Brühl, Christoph Leeb, Kathrin Theissinger
Amphibian populations have been declining globally over the past decades. The intensification of agriculture, habitat loss, fragmentation of populations and toxic substances in the environment are considered as driving factors for this decline. Today, about 50% of the area of Germany is used for agriculture and is inhabited by a diverse variety of 20 amphibian species. Of these, 19 are exhibiting declining populations. Due to the protection status of native amphibian species, it is important to evaluate the effect of land use and associated stressors (such as road mortality and pesticide toxicity) on the genetic population structure of amphibians in agricultural landscapes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713341/prevalence-host-range-and-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-temperate-ochrobactrum-phages
#6
Claudia Jäckel, Stefan Hertwig, Holger C Scholz, Karsten Nöckler, Jochen Reetz, Jens A Hammerl
Ochrobactrum and Brucella are closely related bacteria that populate different habitats and differ in their pathogenic properties. Only little is known about mobile genetic elements in these genera which might be important for survival and virulence. Previous studies on Brucella lysogeny indicated that active phages are rare in this genus. To gain insight into the presence and nature of prophages in Ochrobactrum, temperate phages were isolated from various species and characterized in detail. In silico analyses disclosed numerous prophages in published Ochrobactrum genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712471/early-pliocene-anuran-fossils-from-kanapoi-kenya-and-the-first-fossil%C3%A2-record-for-the-african-burrowing-frog-hemisus-neobatrachia-hemisotidae
#7
Massimo Delfino
Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712087/toxicity-of-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-insecticides-on-embryos-and-larvae-of-physalaemus-gracilis-anura-leptodactylidae
#8
Natani Macagnan, Camila F Rutkoski, Cassiane Kolcenti, Guilherme V Vanzetto, Luan P Macagnan, Paola F Sturza, Paulo A Hartmann, Marilia T Hartmann
It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides...
July 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708941/regulation-of-the-insulin-akt-signaling-pathway-and-glycolysis-during-dehydration-stress-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#9
Cheng-Wei Wu, Shannon N Tessier, Kenneth B Storey
Estivation is an adaptive stress response utilized by some amphibians during periods of drought in the summer season. In this study, we examine the regulation of the insulin signaling cascade and glycolysis pathway in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis during dehydration stress induced state of estivation. We show that in the brain and heart of X. laevis, dehydration reduces the phosphorylation of the insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and this is followed by similar reductions in the phosphorylation of the Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase...
July 14, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707112/disease-associated-change-in-an-amphibian-life-history-trait
#10
Benjamin C Scheele, Lee F Skerratt, David A Hunter, Sam C Banks, Jennifer C Pierson, Don A Driscoll, Philip G Byrne, Lee Berger
Emerging pathogens can drive evolutionary shifts in host life-history traits, yet this process remains poorly documented in vertebrate hosts. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by infection with the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is the worst recorded wildlife disease and has caused the extinction of over 100 species across multiple continents. A similar number of additional species have experienced mass declines and Bd remains a major source of mortality in many populations of declined species now persisting with the pathogen...
July 14, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703896/differential-uptake-of-gold-nanoparticles-by-two-species-of-tadpole-the-wood-frog-lithobates-sylvaticus-and-the-bullfrog-l-catesbeianus
#11
Lucas B Thompson, Gerardo L F Carfagno, Kurt Andresen, Andrea J Sitton, Taylor Bury, Laura L Lee, Kevin T Lerner, Peter P Fong
Engineered nanoparticles are aquatic contaminants of emerging concern exerting ecotoxicological effects on a wide variety of organisms. We exposed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide capped spherical gold nanoparticles to wood frog and bullfrog tadpoles with conspecifics and in combination with the other species continuously for 21 days, then measured uptake and localization of gold. Wood frog tadpoles alone and in combination with bullfrog tadpoles took up significantly more gold than bullfrogs. Bullfrog tadpoles in combination with wood frogs took up significantly more gold than controls...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699258/cytotoxic-peptides-with-insulin-releasing-activities-from-skin-secretions-of-the-italian-stream-frog-rana-italica-ranidae
#12
J Michael Conlon, Vishal Musale, Samir Attoub, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Jérôme Leprince, Laurent Coquet, Thierry Jouenne, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, Andrea C Rinaldi
Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from Italian stream frog Rana italica led to the purification and characterization of two host-defense peptides differing by a single amino acid residue belonging to the brevinin-1 family (brevinin-1ITa and -1ITb), a peptide belonging to the temporin family (temporin-ITa) and a component identified as prokineticin Bv8. The secretions contained relatively high concentrations of the methionine-sulphoxide forms of brevinin-1ITa and -1ITb suggesting that these peptides may have a role as antioxidants in the skin of this montane frog...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693418/phylogenetic-conservatism-in-skulls-and-evolutionary-lability-in-limbs-morphological-evolution-across-an-ancient-frog-radiation-is-shaped-by-diet-locomotion-and-burrowing
#13
Marta Vidal-García, J Scott Keogh
BACKGROUND: Quantifying morphological diversity across taxa can provide valuable insight into evolutionary processes, yet its complexities can make it difficult to identify appropriate units for evaluation. One of the challenges in this field is identifying the processes that drive morphological evolution, especially when accounting for shape diversification across multiple structures. Differential levels of co-varying phenotypic diversification can conceal selective pressures on traits due to morphological integration or modular shape evolution of different structures, where morphological evolution of different modules is explained either by co-variation between them or by independent evolution, respectively...
July 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693129/identification-of-anti-tumor-components-from-toad-venom
#14
Fei Gao, Xiangjun Wang, Zhao Li, Aicun Zhou, Evelyn Tiffany-Castiglioni, Lijun Xie, Yongchang Qian
Secretion of granular glands from the skin of amphibians is a fascinating resource of active substances, particularly for cancer therapy in clinical practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. A variety of anti-tumor peptides have been isolated from different toads and frogs; however, no anti-tumor peptides are reported in toad venom of Bufo gargarizans. Firstly, soluble fraction from fresh toad venom (FTV) was compared with that from dried toad venom (DTV), using HPLC analysis. It was revealed that FTV has a different HPLC chromatography compared with DTV...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691651/helminth-community-structure-of-13-species-of-anurans-from-atlantic-rainforest-remnants-brazil
#15
G M Toledo, H O Schwartz, H A Q Nomura, A Aguiar, R A M V Velota, R J da Silva, L A Anjos
This study aimed to evaluate the community composition and structure of the helminths found in 13 anuran species, and to evaluate whether this parasite community is determined by anuran characteristics. We found that the helminth fauna of the amphibians from five anuran families consisted of 13 taxa and that Cosmocercidae gen. sp. was the most prevalent taxon, followed by Oswaldocruzia subauricularis. Host body size was a determining factor of the composition and structure of the parasitic fauna. Helminth abundance and richness were positively correlated with host body size...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686674/hsf1-and-hsf3-cooperatively-regulate-the-heat-shock-response-in-lizards
#16
Ryosuke Takii, Mitsuaki Fujimoto, Yuki Matsuura, Fangxu Wu, Namiko Oshibe, Eiichi Takaki, Arpit Katiyar, Hiroshi Akashi, Takashi Makino, Masakado Kawata, Akira Nakai
Cells cope with temperature elevations, which cause protein misfolding, by expressing heat shock proteins (HSPs). This adaptive response is called the heat shock response (HSR), and it is regulated mainly by heat shock transcription factor (HSF). Among the four HSF family members in vertebrates, HSF1 is a master regulator of HSP expression during proteotoxic stress including heat shock in mammals, whereas HSF3 is required for the HSR in birds. To examine whether only one of the HSF family members possesses the potential to induce the HSR in vertebrate animals, we isolated cDNA clones encoding lizard and frog HSF genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684366/impact-of-species-delimitation-and-sampling-on-niche-models-and-phylogeographical-inference-a-case-study-of-the-east-african-reed-frog-hyperolius-substriatus-ahl-1931
#17
Gabriela B Bittencourt-Silva, Lucinda P Lawson, Krystal A Tolley, Daniel M Portik, Christopher D Barratt, Peter Nagel, Simon P Loader
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have been used in a wide range of ecological and evolutionary studies. In biogeographic studies these models have, among other things, helped in the discovery of new allopatric populations, and even new species. However, small sample sizes and questionable taxonomic delimitation can challenge models, often decreasing their accuracy. Herein we examine the sensitivity of ENMs to the addition of new, geographically isolated populations, and the impact of applying different taxonomic delimitations...
July 3, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681539/morphometric-variations-in-the-skin-layers-of-frogs-an-exploration-into-their-relation-with-ecological-parameters-in-leptodactylus-anura-leptodactylidae-with-an-emphasis-on-the-eberth-kastschenko-layer
#18
María Laura Ponssa, J Sebastián Barrionuevo, Franco Pucci Alcaide, Ana Pucci Alcaide
Leptodactylus is a genus of frogs known to live in diverse habitats and to show both aquatic and terrestrial breeding habits. We studied 21 species of Leptodactylus to explore whether skin structure specialization relates to habitats and habit variation. Morphometric analyses of the skin thickness revealed that phylogeny has a strong influence on variations in the thickness of the epidermis, stratum spongiosum, Eberth-Kastschenko layer, and stratum compactum, while habitat and habits display no significant correlation...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680926/frog-and-toad-larvae-become-vegetarian-when-it-is-hot
#19
COMMENT
Bruno M Carreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679789/acoustic-communication-in-terrestrial-and-aquatic-vertebrates
#20
REVIEW
Friedrich Ladich, Hans Winkler
Sound propagates much faster and over larger distances in water than in air, mainly because of differences in the density of these media. This raises the question of whether terrestrial (land mammals, birds) and (semi-)aquatic animals (frogs, fishes, cetaceans) differ fundamentally in the way they communicate acoustically. Terrestrial vertebrates primarily produce sounds by vibrating vocal tissue (folds) directly in an airflow. This mechanism has been modified in frogs and cetaceans, whereas fishes generate sounds in quite different ways mainly by utilizing the swimbladder or pectoral fins...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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