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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911018/sperm-competition-and-the-evolution-of-precopulatory-weapons-testis-size-and-amplexus-position-but-not-arm-strength-affect-fertilization-success-in-a-chorusing-frog
#1
Bruno A Buzatto, Evan M Thyer, J Dale Roberts, Leigh W Simmons
Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth...
December 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906638/gene-duplications-and-losses-among-vertebrate-deoxyribonucleoside-kinases-of-the-non-tk1-family
#2
Zeeshan Mutahir, Louise Slot Christiansen, Anders R Clausen, Martin W Berchtold, Zoran Gojkovic, Birgitte Munch-Petersen, Wolfgang Knecht, Jure Piškur
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) salvage deoxyribonucleosides (dNs) and catalyze the rate limiting step of this salvage pathway by converting dNs into corresponding monophosphate forms. These enzymes serve as an excellent model to study duplicated genes and their evolutionary history. So far, among vertebrates only four mammalian dNKs have been studied for their substrate specificity and kinetic properties. However, some vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, and birds, apparently possess a duplicated homolog of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906232/characterization-of-few-fs-deep-uv-dispersive-waves-by-ultra-broadband-transient-grating-xfrog
#3
Alexey Ermolov, Heli Valtna-Lukner, John Travers, Philip St J Russell
A multi-shot transient-grating cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) is implemented for the characterization of nanojoule-scale, few-femtosecond, deep-ultraviolet pulses. In theory, the system can characterize pulses with a bandwidth extending from below 200 nm to above 1.5 μm. It is experimentally shown that a 200 THz (50 nm) wide dispersive wave centered at 275 nm, generated in a gas-filled HC-PCF, has a temporal duration of 4 fs. The numerical simulations agree well with the experiment...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895052/evidence-toads-may-modulate-landing-preparation-without-predicting-impact-time
#4
S M Cox, Gary Gillis
Within anurans (frogs and toads), cane toads (Bufo marinus) perform particularly controlled landings in which the forelimbs are exclusively used to decelerate and stabilize the body after impact. Here we explore how toads achieve dynamic stability across a wide range of landing conditions. Specifically, we suggest that torques during landing could be reduced by aligning forelimbs with the body's instantaneous velocity vector at impact (impact angle). To test whether toad forelimb orientation varies with landing conditions, we used high-speed video to collect forelimb and body kinematic data from six animals hopping off platforms of different heights (0, 5 and 9 cm)...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892852/physical-basis-of-large-microtubule-aster-growth
#5
Keisuke Ishihara, Kirill S Korolev, Timothy J Mitchison
Microtubule asters - radial arrays of microtubules organized by centrosomes - play a fundamental role in the spatial coordination of animal cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we recently found evidence for non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Here, we combine autocatalytic nucleation and polymerization dynamics to develop a biophysical model of aster growth...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888972/the-effect-of-yoga-on-functional-recovery-level-in-schizophrenic-patients
#6
Funda Kavak, Mine Ekinci
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of yoga on functional recovery level in schizophrenic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group. The population of the study consisted of schizophrenic patients with registered in Malatya and Elazığ Community Mental Health Centers and regularly going to these centers. The sample group of the study consisted of totally 100 patients including 50 patients in the experimental group and 50 patients in the control group who were specified through power analysis and chosen by using random sampling method from this population...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886369/genomic-data-reveals-potential-for-hybridization-introgression-and-incomplete-lineage-sorting-to-confound-phylogenetic-relationships-in-an-adaptive-radiation-of-narrow-mouth-frogs
#7
A M Alexander, Y-C Su, C H Oliveros, K V Olson, S L Travers, R M Brown
The microhylid frog genus Kaloula is an adaptive radiation spanning the edge of the Asian mainland and multiple adjacent island archipelagos, with much of the clade's diversity associated with an endemic Philippine radiation. Relationships among clades from the Philippines, however, remain unresolved. With ultraconserved element (UCE) and mitogenomic data, we identified highly-supported differences in topology and areas of poor resolution, for each marker set. Using the UCE data, we then identified possible instances of contemporary hybridization, past introgression and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) within the Philippine Kaloula...
November 25, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885506/marsh-frogs-pelophylax-ridibundus-determine-migratory-direction-by-magnetic-field
#8
Vladimir V Shakhparonov, Sergei V Ogurtsov
Orientation by magnetic cues appears to be adaptive during animal migrations. Whereas the magnetic orientation in birds, mammals, and urodele amphibians is being investigated intensively, the data about anurans are still scarce. This study tests whether marsh frogs could determine migratory direction between the breeding pond and the wintering site by magnetic cues in the laboratory. Adult frogs (N = 32) were individually tested in the T-maze 127 cm long inside the three-axis Helmholtz coil system (diameter 3 m)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884104/phylogeography-reveals-an-ancient-cryptic-radiation-in-east-asian-tree-frogs-hyla-japonica-group-and-complex-relationships-between-continental-and-island-lineages
#9
Christophe Dufresnes, Spartak N Litvinchuk, Amaël Borzée, Yikweon Jang, Jia-Tang Li, Ikuo Miura, Nicolas Perrin, Matthias Stöck
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the Western Palearctic and Nearctic biogeographic regions, the phylogeography of Eastern-Palearctic terrestrial vertebrates has received relatively little attention. In East Asia, tectonic events, along with Pleistocene climatic conditions, likely affected species distribution and diversity, especially through their impact on sea levels and the consequent opening and closing of land-bridges between Eurasia and the Japanese Archipelago. To better understand these effects, we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear markers to determine phylogeographic patterns in East-Asian tree frogs, with a particular focus on the widespread H...
November 23, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881087/intraspecific-rearrangement-of-mitochondrial-genome-suggests-the-prevalence-of-the-tandem-duplication-random-loss-tdlr-mechanism-in-quasipaa-boulengeri
#10
Yun Xia, Yuchi Zheng, Robert W Murphy, Xiaomao Zeng
BACKGROUND: Tandem duplication followed by random loss (TDRL) is the most frequently invoked model to explain the diversity of gene rearrangements in metazoan mitogenomes. The initial stages of gene rearrangement are difficult to observe in nature, which limits our understanding of incipient duplication events and the subsequent process of random loss. Intraspecific gene reorganizations may represent intermediate states, and if so they potentially shed light on the evolutionary dynamics of TDRL...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877114/ontogenetic-development-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflexes-in-amphibians
#11
REVIEW
Francisco Branoner, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874100/structural-basis-of-trpa1-inhibition-by-hc-030031-utilizing-species-specific-differences
#12
Rupali Gupta, Shigeru Saito, Yoshiharu Mori, Satoru G Itoh, Hisashi Okumura, Makoto Tominaga
Pain is a harmful sensation that arises from noxious stimuli. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is one target for studying pain mechanisms. TRPA1 is activated by various stimuli such as noxious cold, pungent natural products and environmental irritants. Since TRPA1 is an attractive target for pain therapy, a few TRPA1 antagonists have been developed and some function as analgesic agents. The responses of TRPA1 to agonists and antagonists vary among species and these species differences have been utilized to identify the structural basis of activation and inhibition mechanisms...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873403/does-your-pig-go-knor-medical-students-skills-in-using-animal-sounds-as-a-cross-cultural-paediatric-engagement-tool
#13
Jon Cornwall, Melyssa Roy
The development of verbal communication skills is an important aspect of medical education as accurate assessment in part relies on effectively obtaining information from patients. When assessing children of different cultural or ethnic backgrounds, young medics may find effective verbal communication difficult because they lack understanding about what children are really like. Animal noises are a likely tool with which to successfully engage with young children. However, these differ by culture and it is unclear whether young New Zealand medical students will be adept at effectively engaging and communicating with foreign children via this mode of communication...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871005/nickel-affects-gill-and-muscle-development-in-oriental-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis-embryos
#14
Chan Jin Park, Sang Ha Song, Dae Han Kim, Myung Chan Gye
The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC50 and EC50 for malformation of nickel after 168h of treatment were 33.8μM and 5.4μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death...
November 15, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870909/variability-of-rheotaxis-behaviors-in-larval-bullfrogs-highlights-species-diversity-in-lateral-line-function
#15
Erika E A Brown, Andrea Megela Simmons
The morphology and distribution of lateral line neuromasts vary between ecomorphological types of anuran tadpoles, but little is known about how this structural variability contributes to differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors. Previous research identified distinct differences in one such behavior, positive rheotaxis towards the source of a flow, in two tadpole species, the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; type 1) and the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana; type 4). Because these two species had been tested under different flow conditions, we re-evaluated these findings by quantifying flow-sensing behaviors of bullfrog tadpoles in the same flow field in which X...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870048/contacts-with-large-active-individuals-intensify-the-predation-risk-of-small-conspecifics
#16
Aya Yamaguchi, Kunio Takatsu, Osamu Kishida
Size variation within a population can influence the structure of ecosystem interactions, because ecological performance differs between individuals of different sizes. Although the impact of size variation in a predator species on the structure of interactions is well understood, our knowledge about how size variation in a prey species might modify the interactions between predators and prey is very limited. Here, by examining the interactions between predatory Hynobius retardatus salamander larvae and their prey, Rana pirica frog tadpoles, we investigated how large prey individuals affect the predation mortality of small prey conspecifics...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870046/naive-tadpoles-do-not-recognize-recent-invasive-predatory-fishes-as%C3%A2-dangerous
#17
Attila Hettyey, Kerstin E Thonhauser, Veronika Bókony, Dustin J Penn, Herbert Hoi, Matteo Griggio
Invasive alien predators (IAP) are spreading on a global scale-often with devastating ecological effects. One reason for their success may be that prey species fail to recognize them due to a lack of co-evolutionary history. We performed a comprehensive test of this "prey naiveté" hypothesis using a novel approach: we tested whether predator-naive tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) display antipredator behavior upon encountering chemical cues produced by native, invasive (established or recent) or allopatric fishes (four perciforms, four siluriforms, and two cypriniforms)...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863094/resources-for-phylogenomic-analyses-of-australian-terrestrial-vertebrates
#18
Jason G Bragg, Sally Potter, Ke Bi, Renee Catullo, Stephen C Donnellan, Mark D B Eldridge, Leo Joseph, J Scott Keogh, Paul Oliver, Kevin C Rowe, Craig Moritz
High throughput sequencing methods promise to improve our ability to infer the evolutionary histories of lineages and to delimit species. These are exciting prospects for the study of Australian vertebrates, a group comprised of many globally unique lineages with a long history of isolation. The evolutionary relationships within many of these lineages have been difficult to resolve with small numbers of loci and we now know that many lineages also exhibit substantial cryptic diversity. Here, we present a set of phylogenetically diverse transcriptome resources to enable exon-based sequence capture studies of Australian vertebrates, including transcriptome sequences for 4 species of birds, 4 frogs, 7 lizards and 7 mammals...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862550/can-alternative-mating-tactics-facilitate-introgression-across-a-hybrid-zone-by-circumventing-female-choice
#19
Kathryn A Stewart, Cameron M Hudson, Stephen C Lougheed
Reproductive barriers and divergence in species' mate recognition systems underlie major models of speciation. However, hybridization between divergent species is common, and classic mechanisms to explain permeable reproductive barriers rarely consider how an individual may attain reproductive success. Alternative mating tactics exist in various forms across animal taxa. Such tactics may allow poorer quality individuals to gain mating opportunities and facilitate introgression either through asymmetrical positive selection, or by circumventing female choice altogether in areas of secondary contact...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859081/transgenerational-effects-and-impact-of-compensatory-responses-to-changes-in-breeding-phenology-on-antipredator-defenses
#20
Germán Orizaola, Alex Richter-Boix, Anssi Laurila
As organisms living in temperate environments often have only a short time window for growth and reproduction, their life-history strategies are expected to be influenced by these time constraints. Parents may alter the pace of offspring life-history as a response to changes in breeding phenology. However, the responses to changes in time constraints must be balanced with those against other stressors, such as predation, one of the strongest and more ubiquitous selective factors in nature. Here, after experimentally modifying the timing of breeding and hatching in the moor frog (Rana arvalis), we studied how compensatory responses to delayed breeding and hatching affect antipredator strategies in amphibian larvae...
September 2016: Ecology
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