keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Frog

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081430/amphibian-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles-and-adult-frogs-mount-distinct-interferon-responses-to-the-frog-virus-3-ranavirus
#1
Emily S Wendel, Amulya Yaparla, Daphne V Koubourli, Leon Grayfer
Infections of amphibians by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranavirus genus members are significantly contributing to the amphibian declines, yet much remains unknown regarding amphibian antiviral immunity. Notably, amphibians represent an important step in the evolution of antiviral interferon (IFN) cytokines as they are amongst the first vertebrates to possess both type I and type III IFNs. Accordingly, we examined the roles of type I and III IFNs in the skin of FV3-challenged amphibian Xenopus laevis) tadpoles and adult frogs...
January 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080918/high-prevalence-of-intestinal-adenocarcinoma-in-a-captive-population-of-amazon-milk-frog-trachycephalus-resinifictrix
#2
Javier López, Alberto R Barbón, Juliet Smithyman, Matt Goetz, Rachel E Marschang, Akbar Dastjerdi, Mark F Stidworthy
:  A series of eight cases of intestinal adenocarcinoma in Amazon milk frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix) is described. All cases presented with signs of inappetence and weight loss, and evidence of large intestinal distention on gross postmortem, with six of the eight cases showing a grossly visible large intestinal mass. Histologic examination identified the mass as an intestinal adenocarcinoma in all cases. No specific etiologic agent could be identified. This is the first report of neoplasia in the Amazon milk frog, and the first reported series of amphibian gastrointestinal neoplasia...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074559/effects-of-traffic-noise-on-tree-frog-stress-levels-immunity-and-color-signaling
#3
Mathieu Troïanowski, Nathalie Mondy, Adeline Dumet, Caroline Arcanjo, Thierry Lengagne
During the last decade, many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of noise pollution on acoustic communication. Surprisingly, while it is known that noise exposure strongly influences health in humans, studies on wildlife remain scarce. In order to gain insight into the consequences of traffic noise exposure, we experimentally manipulated traffic noise exposure as well as the endocrine status of animals to investigate physiological and phenotypic consequences of noise pollution in an anuran species...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073389/the-distribution-of-echinostome-parasites-in-ponds-and-implications-for-larval-anuran-survival
#4
John A Marino, Manja P Holland, Earl E Werner
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian - trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host-parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073381/immediate-and-lag-effects-of-pesticide-exposure-on-parasite-resistance-in-larval-amphibians
#5
Katherine M Pochini, Jason T Hoverman
Across host-parasite systems, there is evidence that pesticide exposure increases parasite loads and mortality following infection. However, whether these effects are driven by reductions in host resistance to infection or slower rates of parasite clearance is often unclear. Using controlled laboratory experiments, we examined the ability of larval northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to resist and clear trematode (Echinoparyphium sp.) infections following exposure to the insecticide carbaryl...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072492/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-host-defense-peptides-from-the-skin-secretion-of-the-fungoid-frog-hydrophylax-bahuvistara-anura-ranidae
#6
T V Vineeth Kumar, R Asha, G Shyla, Sanil George
Two novel peptides (brevinin1 HYba1 and brevinin1 HYba2) were identified from the skin secretion of the frog Hydrophylax bahuvistara, endemic to Western Ghats, India, and their amino acid sequences were confirmed using cDNA cloning and LC/MS/MS. Antibacterial, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of brevinin1 peptides and their synthetic analogs (amidated C-terminus) were investigated and compared. All the peptides except the acidic forms showed antibacterial activity against all tested Gram -positive and negative bacteria...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071651/marine-origin-of-retroviruses-in-the-early-palaeozoic-era
#7
Pakorn Aiewsakun, Aris Katzourakis
Very little is known about the ancient origin of retroviruses, but owing to the discovery of their ancient endogenous viral counterparts, their early history is beginning to unfold. Here we report 36 lineages of basal amphibian and fish foamy-like endogenous retroviruses (FLERVs). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that ray-finned fish FLERVs exhibit an overall co-speciation pattern with their hosts, while amphibian FLERVs might not. We also observe several possible ancient viral cross-class transmissions, involving lobe-finned fish, shark and frog FLERVs...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070634/increasing-the-reference-populations-for-the-55-aisnp-panel-the-need-and-benefits
#8
Andrew J Pakstis, Longli Kang, Lijun Liu, Zhiying Zhang, Tianbo Jin, Elena L Grigorenko, Frank R Wendt, Bruce Budowle, Sibte Hadi, Mariam Salam Al Qahtani, Niels Morling, Helle Smidt Mogensen, Goncalo E Themudo, Usha Soundararajan, Haseena Rajeevan, Judith R Kidd, Kenneth K Kidd
Ancestry inference for an individual can only be as good as the reference populations with allele frequency data on the SNPs being used. If the most relevant ancestral population(s) does not have data available for the SNPs studied, then analyses based on DNA evidence may indicate a quite distantly related population, albeit one among the more closely related of the existing reference populations. We have added reference population allele frequencies for 14 additional population samples (with >1100 individuals studied) to the 125 population samples previously published for the Kidd Lab 55 AISNP panel...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070305/calling-at-the-highway-the-spatiotemporal-constraint-of-road-noise-on-pacific-chorus-frog-communication
#9
Danielle V Nelson, Holger Klinck, Alexander Carbaugh-Rutland, Codey L Mathis, Anita T Morzillo, Tiffany S Garcia
Loss of acoustic habitat due to anthropogenic noise is a key environmental stressor for vocal amphibian species, a taxonomic group that is experiencing global population declines. The Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla) is the most common vocal species of the Pacific Northwest and can occupy human-dominated habitat types, including agricultural and urban wetlands. This species is exposed to anthropogenic noise, which can interfere with vocalizations during the breeding season. We hypothesized that Pacific chorus frogs would alter the spatial and temporal structure of their breeding vocalizations in response to road noise, a widespread anthropogenic stressor...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070304/an-exception-to-the-matched-filter-hypothesis-a-mismatch-of-male-call-frequency-and-female-best-hearing-frequency-in-a-torrent-frog
#10
Longhui Zhao, Jichao Wang, Yue Yang, Bicheng Zhu, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Jianguo Cui
The matched filter hypothesis proposes that the tuning of auditory sensitivity and the spectral character of calls will match in order to maximize auditory processing efficiency during courtship. In this study, we analyzed the acoustic structure of male calls and both male and female hearing sensitivities in the little torrent frog (Amolops torrentis), an anuran species who transmits acoustic signals across streams. The results were in striking contradiction to the matched filter hypothesis. Auditory brainstem response results showed that the best hearing range was 1...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070287/mountains-too-high-and-valleys-too-deep-drive-population-structuring-and-demographics-in-a-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-frog-nanorana-pleskei-dicroglossidae
#11
Weiwei Zhou, Jieqiong Jin, Jun Wu, Hongman Chen, Junxiao Yang, Robert W Murphy, Jing Che
Pleistocene glacial-interglacial climatic oscillations greatly shaped the current genetic structure of many species. However, geographic features may influence the impact of climatic cycling. Distinct geographic and environmental characters between northern and southern parts of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (EQTP) facilitate explorations into the impacts of geographic features on species. The northern parts of EQTP contain large areas of marsh, and the environment is rather homogeneous. In contrast, the southern EQTP harbors complex alpine valleys and a much more heterogeneous setting...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067425/conspicuousness-color-resemblance-and-toxicity-in-geographically-diverging-mimicry-the-pan-amazonian-frog-allobates-femoralis
#12
Adolfo Amézquita, Óscar Ramos, Mabel Cristina González, Camilo Rodríguez, Iliana Medina, Pedro Ivo Simões, Albertina Pimentel Lima
Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species and the syntopic toxic species, we tested whether unpalatability was correlated with between-species color resemblance and whether resemblance was highest for the most conspicuous components of coloration pattern...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067112/a-comparison-of-helminth-faunas-of-cope-s-gray-hyla-chrysoscelis-and-green-h-cinerea-treefrogs-in-areas-of-recent-riche-overlap
#13
Dale Edwards, Noah Gordon, Anne Steele
This study compares the helminth faunas between Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) in areas where they have recently overlapped due to range expansion by H. cinerea, to determine whether or not 2 species of frogs with a high degree of similarity in many of their life history traits also exhibit similarities in the composition of their helminth assemblages. Results of this study did not find significant differences in helminth species diversity when sympatric and allopatric populations of the same species of frog were compared...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064360/greater-species-richness-of-bacterial-skin-symbionts-better-suppresses-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#14
Jonah Piovia-Scott, Daniel Rejmanek, Douglas C Woodhams, S Joy Worth, Heather Kenny, Valerie McKenzie, Sharon P Lawler, Janet E Foley
The symbiotic microbes that grow in and on many organisms can play important roles in protecting their hosts from pathogen infection. While species diversity has been shown to influence community function in many other natural systems, the question of how species diversity of host-associated symbiotic microbes contributes to pathogen resistance is just beginning to be explored. Understanding diversity effects on pathogen resistance could be particularly helpful in combating the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) which has caused dramatic population declines in many amphibian species and is a major concern for amphibian conservation...
January 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060923/comparative-postembryonic-skeletal-ontogeny-in-two-sister-lineages-of-old-world-tree-frogs-rhacophoridae-taruga-polypedates
#15
Gayani Senevirathne, Ryan Kerney, Madhava Meegaskumbura
Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two sister lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060677/pathogenesis-of-frog-virus-3-ranavirus-iridoviridae-infection-in-wood-frogs-rana-sylvatica
#16
M J Forzán, K M Jones, E Ariel, R J Whittington, J Wood, R J Frederick Markham, P-Y Daoust
Wood frogs ( Rana sylvatica) are highly susceptible to infection with Frog virus 3 (FV3, Ranavirus, Iridoviridae), a cause of mass mortality in wild populations. To elucidate the pathogenesis of FV3 infection in wood frogs, 40 wild-caught adults were acclimated to captivity, inoculated orally with a fatal dose of 10(4.43) pfu/frog, and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 9, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Mild lesions occurred sporadically in the skin (petechiae) and bone marrow (necrosis) during the first 2 dpi...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060282/isolation-of-giant-lampbrush-chromosomes-from-living-oocytes-of-frogs-and-salamanders
#17
Joseph G Gall, Zehra F Nizami
We describe methods for studying the giant transcriptionally active lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) found in the oocyte, or unlaid egg, of frogs and salamanders. Individual LBCs can be up to 1 mm in length and they reside in a gigantic nucleus, itself up to 0.5 mm in diameter. The large size of the chromosomes permits unparalleled observations of active genes by light optical microscopy, but at the same time special techniques are required for isolating the nucleus, removing the nuclear envelope, and spreading the chromosomes on a microscope slide...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058600/the-japanese-tree-frog-hyla-japonica-one-of-the-most-cold-resistant-species-of-amphibians
#18
D I Berman, E N Meshcheryakova, N A Bulakhova
The Japanese tree frog, a representative of the Manchurian fauna, is characterized by an outstanding cold resistance among the anuran amphibian species studied so far. Almost 70% of the specimens from the population inhabiting the middle Amur River withstand the cooling down to-30°C; some animals, down to-35°C. This exceeds more than twofold the cold hardiness of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte, 1825), which has been considered earlier to be the most cold-resistant species. The ability of H. japonica to survive for four months in the frozen state at low temperatures makes this species independent of the temperature overwintering conditions...
November 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057410/out-of-the-ground-two-coexisting-fossorial-toad-species-differ-in-their-emergence-and-movement-patterns
#19
Diana Székely, Dan Cogălniceanu, Paul Székely, Mathieu Denoël
Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology. The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources in different ways. In the case of secretive species, behavioural mechanisms of partitioning are still poorly understood. This is especially true for fossorial frogs because individuals hide underground by day and are active only during the night. We investigated the nocturnal activity and tested the niche partitioning hypothesis in two syntopic fossorial spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus and Pelobates syriacus) by examining interspecific variation in emergence from the soil...
December 19, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056042/effect-of-the-level-of-anesthesia-on-the-auditory-brainstem-response-in-the-emei-music-frog-babina-daunchina
#20
Jianguo Cui, Bicheng Zhu, Guangzhan Fang, Ed Smith, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang
Anesthesia is known to affect the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in mice, rats, birds and lizards. The present study investigated how the level of anesthesia affects ABR recordings in an amphibian species, Babina daunchina. To do this, we compared ABRs evoked by tone pip stimuli recorded from 35 frogs when Tricaine methane sulphonate (MS-222) anesthetic immersion times varied from 0, 5 and 10 minutes after anesthesia induction at sound frequencies between 0.5 and 6 kHz. ABR thresholds increased significantly with immersion time across the 0...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
54940
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"