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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432565/parapharyngodon-hugoi-n-sp-a-new-nematode-oxyuroidea-pharyngodonidae-of-the-tree-frog-trachycephalus-typhonius-linnaeus-from-the-brazilian-pantanal-including-a-key-to-the-congeners-from-amphibians-of-the-american-continent
#1
Felipe B Pereira, Karla M Campião, José L Luque, Luiz E R Tavares
A new nematode Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp. (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) is described parasitising the large intestine of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) (Anura: Hylidae) from the wetlands of Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The new species exhibits a unique structure of the posterior cloacal lip in males, which is supported by a rigid V-shaped structure. Parapharyngodon hylidae parasitic in hylid frogs, including T. typhonius, from Mexico, is the most similar congener to P...
April 21, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432181/dual-nature-of-pseudouridylation-in-u2-snrna-pus1p-dependent-and-pus1p-independent-activities-in-yeasts-and-higher-eukaryotes
#2
Svetlana Deryusheva, Joseph G Gall
The pseudouridine at position 43 in vertebrate U2 snRNA is one of the most conserved posttranscriptional modifications of spliceosomal snRNAs; the equivalent position is pseudouridylated in U2 snRNAs in different phyla including fungi, insects, and worms. Pseudouridine synthase Pus1p acts alone on U2 snRNA to form this pseudouridine in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mouse. Furthermore, in S. cerevisiae Pus1p is the only pseudouridine synthase for this position. Using an in vivo yeast cell system we tested enzymatic activity of Pus1p from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the frog Xenopus tropicalis...
April 21, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#3
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429369/variation-in-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-its-possible-bearing-on-their-locomotor-ecology
#4
Adriana S Manzano, Anthony Herrel, Anne-Claire Fabre, Virginia Abdala
Despite the long-standing interest in the evolution of the brain, relatively little is known about variation in brain anatomy in frogs. Yet, frogs are ecologically diverse and, as such, variation in brain anatomy linked to differences in lifestyle or locomotor behavior can be expected. Here we present a comparative morphological study focusing on the macro- and micro-anatomy of the six regions of the brain and its choroid plexus: the olfactory bulbs, the telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the rhombencephalon, and the cerebellum...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429172/a-new-species-of-haematoloechus-looss-1899-digenea-plagiorchioidea-haematoloechidae-a-parasite-of-rana-psilonota-webb-and-r-zweifeli-hillis-frost-webb-anura-ranidae-in-mexico
#5
Virginia León-Règagnon, Ángeles R Romero-Mayén
During an inventory of the helminths of amphibians in Mexico, specimens of an undescribed species of Haematoloechus Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Haematoloechidae) were collected from the lungs of frogs of the "tarahumarae" group in western México. Haematoloechus longicollum n. sp. differs from other known species of Haematoloechus by the combination of the following characters: body elongate and slender in the preovarian region and broad and blunt in the postovarian region, ovary separated from the ventral sucker more than twice the ovary length, oral sucker to pharynx length ratio 1:0...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428844/stable-isotope-analyses-a-method-to-distinguish-intensively-farmed-from-wild-frogs
#6
Carolin Dittrich, Ulrich Struck, Mark-Oliver Rödel
Consumption of frog legs is increasing worldwide, with potentially dramatic effects for ecosystems. More and more functioning frog farms are reported to exist. However, due to the lack of reliable methods to distinguish farmed from wild-caught individuals, the origin of frogs in the international trade is often uncertain. Here, we present a new methodological approach to this problem. We investigated the isotopic composition of legally traded frog legs from suppliers in Vietnam and Indonesia. Muscle and bone tissue samples were examined for δ(15)N, δ(13)C, and δ(18)O stable isotope compositions, to elucidate the conditions under which the frogs grew up...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426400/morphological-description-of-cosmocerca-sp-nematoda-cosmocerdidae-from-the-mascarene-grass-frog-ptychadena-cf-mascareniensis-amphibia-ptychadenidae-a-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-studies
#7
Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Reem Kamel, Sherein Maher, Nashwa El Deeb, Saleh Al Quraishy, Heinz Mehlhorn
The Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis is a species of frog with a vast area of distribution in Africa. A total of 300 frog specimens were collected from different localities at El-Giza province, Egypt; then dissected and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Only eighty six (28.66%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with nematode parasite. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was reached its maximum value of 74.66% during summer and minimum values of 26.66% (20/75), 13...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425744/once-a-frog-lover-always-a-frog-lover-infants-goal-generalization-is-influenced-by-the-nature-of-accompanying-speech
#8
Alia Martin, Catharyn C Shelton, Jessica A Sommerville
The ability to interpret choices as enduring preferences that generalize beyond the immediate situation gives adults a powerful means of predicting and explaining others' behavior. How do infants come to recognize that current choices can be driven by generalizable preferences? Although infants can encode others' actions in terms of goals (Woodward, 1998), there is evidence that 10-month-olds still fail to generalize goal information presented in one environment to an event sequence occurring in a new environment (Sommerville & Crane, 2009)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425422/mass-mortality-of-eastern-box-turtles-with-upper-respiratory-disease-following-atypical-cold-weather
#9
Mickey Agha, Steven J Price, A Justin Nowakowski, Ben Augustine, Brian D Todd
Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424669/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut-of-the-hong-kong-whipping-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-and-a-validation-using-probiotics
#10
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Chieh-Yin Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
The concerted activity of intestinal microbes is crucial to the health and development of their host organisms. Investigation of microbial interactions in the gut should deepen our understanding of how these micro-ecosystems function. Due to advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, various bioinformatic strategies have been proposed to investigate these microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal microbial community and difficulties in monitoring their interactions, at present there is a gap between the theory and biological application...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423338/an-amphibian-host-defense-peptide-is-virucidal-for-human-h1-hemagglutinin-bearing-influenza-viruses
#11
David J Holthausen, Song Hee Lee, Vineeth Tv Kumar, Nicole M Bouvier, Florian Krammer, Ali H Ellebedy, Jens Wrammert, Anice C Lowen, Sanil George, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai, Joshy Jacob
Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antivirals is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423328/treating-flu-with-skin-of-frog
#12
James E Crowe
Glands in frog skin secrete substances that possess broad antimicrobial function. Holthausen et al. mined this soup of natural products and discovered a peptide that destroys diverse human influenza strains (Holthausen et al., 2017). This study points the way to the discovery of novel anti-influenza molecules targeting conserved elements on influenza surface proteins.
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421438/analysis-of-fatty-acid-composition-revealed-differences-in-the-diets-of-tadpoles-of-two-amphibian-species
#13
Yu Yu Dgebuadze, N N Sushchik, I V Bashinskiy, O N Makhutova, G S Kalacheva, V V Osipov, M I Gladyshev
The study of the composition of fatty acid markers of tadpoles of cohabiting amphibian species for the first time revealed differences in their diets: the moor frog Rana arvalis prefers bacteria not associated with plant detritus, whereas the diet of the common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus is based on cyanobacteria, green algae, diatoms, and possibly higher plants. Major differences in the fatty acid composition are determined by the difference in the percentage of eicosapentaenoic and myristic acids.
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421137/the-effect-of-temperature-on-development-and-behaviour-of-relict-leopard-frog-tadpoles
#14
Jeffrey A Goldstein, Karin von Seckendorr Hoff, Stanley D Hillyard
Relict leopard frog (Rana [Lithobates] onca) tadpoles were obtained shortly after hatching at Gosner stage 25 and raised in aquaria maintained at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Development was arrested in the 15°C group, and survivorship declined to 64% after 191 days. However, 80% of the surviving larvae remained alive after the temperature was increased to 25°C. Of these, 96% reached metamorphosis. Survivorship of the 20, 25 and 30°C acclimation groups was 82, 94 and 66%, respectively, whereas none survived at 35°C...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419297/host-pore-forming-protein-complex-neutralizes-the-acidification-of-endocytic-organelles-to-counteract-intracellular-pathogens
#15
Sheng-An Li, Long Liu, Xiao-Long Guo, Yu-Yan Zhang, Yang Xiang, Qi-Quan Wang, Wen-Hui Lee, Yun Zhang
Many intracellular pathogens invade cells via endocytic organelles and have adapted to the drop in pH along the endocytic pathway. However, the strategy by which the host cell counteracts this pathogen adaptation remains unclear. βγ-CAT is an aerolysin-like pore-forming protein and trefoil factor complex in the frog Bombina maxima. We report here that βγ-CAT, as a host-secreted factor with an intrinsic channel-forming property, is the first example of a molecule that actively neutralizes the acidification of endocytic organelles to counteract Listeria monocytogenes infection...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414918/frogs-host-faecal-bacteria-typically-associated-with-humans
#16
Karen Gibb, Xavier Schobben, Keith Christian
Tree frogs commonly access drinking water tanks, which may have human health implications. Although amphibians might not be expected to host mammalian faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), it is possible that they may have human FIB on their skin after exposure to human waste. We collected faeces and skin wash from green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from a natural environment, a suburban site, and a suburban site near a creek occasionally contaminated with sewage effluent. We used molecular techniques to test for FIB that are routinely used to indicate human faecal contamination...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412536/title-molecular-phylogenetics-and-dating-of-the-problematic-new-guinea-microhylid-frogs-amphibia-anura-reveals-elevated-speciation-rates-and-need-for-taxonomic-reclassification
#17
Julio A Rivera, Fred Kraus, Allen Allison, Marguerite A Butler
Asterophryinae is a large monophyletic subfamily of Anurans containing over 300 species distributed across one of the world's most geologically active areas -- New Guinea and its satellite islands, Australia and the Philippines. The tremendous ecological and morphological diversity of this clade, with apparent specializations for burrowing, terrestrial, semi-aquatic, and arboreal lifestyle, suggests an evolutionary process of adaptive radiation. Despite this spectacular diversity, this and many other questions of evolutionary processes have received little formal study because until now the phylogeny of this spececies-rich clade has remained uncertain...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409343/use-of-xenopus-frogs-to-study-renal-development-repair
#18
Shoshoni T Droz, Kelly A McLaughlin
The Xenopus genus includes several members of aquatic frogs native to Africa but is perhaps best known for the species Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These species were popularized as model organisms from as early as the 1800s and have been instrumental in expanding several biological fields including cell biology, environmental toxicology, regenerative biology, and developmental biology. In fact, much of what we know about the formation and maturation of the vertebrate renal system has been acquired by examining the intricate genetic and morphological patterns that epitomize nephrogenesis in Xenopus...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409193/dietary-accumulation-of-inorganic-selenium-by-a-larval-amphibian-hyla-chrysoscelis-and-influence-on-accumulation-of-background-mercury
#19
Christopher L Rowe, Andrew Heyes
Larval gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were exposed to inorganic Se (SeO2) added to the diet (10.2 and 86.3 ug/g dw) and monitored for accumulation and effect. Background concentrations of Hg were also measured in food and carcasses to assess possible effects of Se on Hg accumulation. Selenium was accumulated in a dose dependent manner, and life stages did not differ. No effects of Se exposure were observed on survival, growth, or time to metamorphosis. Mercury concentrations in carcasses, resulting from background concentrations in food, were significantly affected by the presence of Se...
April 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408330/muscarinic-cholinoreceptors-m1-m2-m3-and-m4-type-modulate-the-acetylcholine-secretion-in-the-frog-neuromuscular-junction
#20
Andrei N Tsentsevitsky, Irina V Kovyazina, Leniz F Nurullin, Eugeny E Nikolsky
Muscarinic cholinoreceptors regulate the neurosecretion process in vertebrate neuromuscular junctions. The diversity of muscarinic effects on acetylcholine (ACh) secretion may be attributed to the different muscarinic subtypes involved in this process. In the present study, the location of five muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5) on the motor nerve terminals of frog cutaneous pectoris muscle was shown using specific polyclonal antibodies. The modulatory roles of these receptors were investigated via assessment of the effects of muscarine and specific muscarinic antagonists on the quantal content of endplate currents (EPCs) and the time course of secretion, which was estimated from the distribution of "real" synaptic delays of EPCs recorded in a low Ca(2+)/high Mg(2+) solution...
April 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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