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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665554/inhibition-by-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-of-compound-action-potentials-in-frog-sciatic-nerve-fibers
#1
Rika Suzuki, Tsugumi Fujita, Kotaro Mizuta, Eiichi Kumamoto
AIMS: Although antinociception produced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is partly attributed to nerve conduction inhibition, this has not been thoroughly examined yet. The aim of the present study was to reveal quantitatively how various types of NSAIDs affect compound action potentials (CAPs), a measure of nerve conduction. MAIN METHODS: CAPs were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. KEY FINDINGS: Soaking the sciatic nerve with acetic acid-based NSAIDs (diclofenac and aceclofenac) reduced the peak amplitude of CAP in a concentration-dependent manner; their IC50 values were 0...
April 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665044/comparative-anatomy-and-development-of-pectoral-and-pelvic-girdles-in-hylid-anurans
#2
Mónica C Soliz, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Comparative data gleaned from cleared-and-stained whole mounts and serial histological sections of 10 species of hylid frogs are presented here. Adult skeletal morphology, along with bones, muscles, and connective tissue of both girdles and their association with the proximal portions of the anuran fore- and hindlimbs are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663031/urea-and-plasma-ice-nucleating-proteins-promoted-the-modest-freeze-tolerance-in-pleske-s-high-altitude-frog-nanorana-pleskei
#3
Yonggang Niu, Jianjun Wang, Shengkang Men, Yaofeng Zhao, Songsong Lu, Xiaolong Tang, Qiang Chen
The frog Nanorana pleskei (Dicroglossidae) is indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To identify its strategies in coping with the cold climate, we measured the hibernacula microhabitat temperature during winter. We also examined the freezing-induced and seasonal variation of several putative cryoprotectants in the heart, liver, brain, kidney and muscle, as well as ice-nucleating protein in plasma. Our results showed that N. pleskei survived exposure to temperatures as low as - 2.5 ± 0.40 °C during hibernation, which was lower than the body fluid freezing point (- 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660722/determinants-of-mercury-contamination-in-viperine-snakes-natrix-maura-in-western-europe
#4
Jérémy Lemaire, Paco Bustamante, Anthony Olivier, Olivier Lourdais, Bruno Michaud, Alexandre Boissinot, Pedro Galán, François Brischoux
The effects of Hg contamination are presumably widespread across the components of aquatic ecosystems, but investigations have been mainly focused on freshwater fish, because this biota represents a major source of Hg for human populations. Yet, the possible bioaccumulation of Hg on other freshwater meso- and apex-predators (e.g., amphibians, reptiles) has been largely overlooked, especially in Western Europe. In this study, the determinants of Hg concentrations were assessed for the viperine snake (Natrix maura) across 6 populations (>130 individuals sampled in 2016 and 2017) in France and Spain...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660695/metabolite-profiles-of-striped-marsh-frog-limnodynastes-peronii-larvae-exposed-to-the-anti-androgenic-fungicides-vinclozolin-and-propiconazole-are-consistent-with-altered-steroidogenesis-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Steven D Melvin, Frederic D L Leusch, Anthony R Carroll
Amphibians use wetlands in urban and agricultural landscapes for breeding, growth and development. Fungicides and other pesticides used in these areas have therefore been identified as potential threats that could contribute towards amphibian population declines. However, relatively little is known about how such chemicals influence sensitive early life-stages or how short episodic exposures influence sub-lethal physiological and metabolic pathways. The present study applied untargeted metabolomics to evaluate effects in early post-hatch amphibian larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole...
April 11, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659332/learning-from-your-mistakes-does-it-matter-if-you-re-out-in-left-foot-i-mean-field
#6
Andrée-Ann Cyr, Nicole D Anderson
Studies have shown that generating errors prior to studying information (pencil-?) can improve target retention relative to passive (i.e., errorless) study, provided that cues and targets are semantically related (pencil-ink) and not unrelated (pencil-frog). In two experiments, we manipulated semantic proximity of errors to targets during trial-and-error to examine whether it would modulate this error generation benefit. In Experiment 1, participants were shown a cue (band-?) and asked to generate a related word (e...
April 16, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652444/accelerated-solvent-extraction-coupled-to-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-simultaneous-determination-of-11-organophosphorus-flame-retardants-in-aquatic-products
#7
Lili Suo, Weihua Huang, Qunying Zhu, Lifang Ma, Meihua Hu
BACKGROUND: A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction was developed for the extraction and determination of 11 organophosphorus flame retardants by using a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technique. RESULTS: After optimization of the extraction temperature (80 °C), the extraction solvent (n-hexane), the flush volume (40 %) and the static extraction time (4 min), all of 11 organophosphorus flame retardants illustrated good linearities (R>0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649581/a-large-scale-phylogeny-of-microhylidae-inferred-from-a-combined-dataset-of-121-genes-and-427-taxa
#8
Na Tu, MengHua Yang, Dan Liang, Peng Zhang
The phylogenetic relationships of Microhylidae, the third largest family of extant frogs, have been difficult to resolve. In the past decade, large amounts of sequence data have been deposited for almost every microhylid genus, but no study has attempted to combine these data to reconstruct a comprehensive phylogeny for this family. In this study, we sequenced 20 near-complete or partial microhylid mitochondrial genomes and integrated them with all available sequences of Microhylidae from GenBank to construct a supermatrix containing 121 genes (14 mitochondrial and 107 nuclear protein-coding genes)...
April 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643444/a-bowman-birk-type-chymotrypsin-inhibitor-peptide-from-the-amphibian-hylarana-erythraea
#9
Luyao Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Yue Wu, Mei Zhou, Chengbang Ma, Xinping Xi, Tianbao Chen, Brian Walker, Chris Shaw, Lei Wang
The first amphibian skin secretion-derived Bowman-Birk type chymotrypsin inhibitor is described here from the Asian green frog, Hylarana erythraea, and was identified by use of molecular cloning and tandem mass spectrometric amino acid sequencing. It was named Hylarana erythraea chymotrypsin inhibitor (HECI) and in addition to inhibition of chymotrypsin (Ki = 3.92 ± 0.35 μM), the peptide also inhibited the 20 S proteasome (Ki = 8.55 ± 1.84  μM). Additionally, an analogue of HECI, named K9 -HECI, in which Phe9 was substituted by Lys9 at the P1 position, was functional as a trypsin inhibitor...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643325/a-new-species-of-the-genus-leptolalax-anura-megophryidae-from-southern-vietnam
#10
Tang Van Duong, Dang Trong Do, Chung Dac Ngo, Truong Quang Nguyen, Nikolay A Poyarkov
We describe a new species of megophryid frog from Phu Yen Province in southern Vietnam. Leptolalax macrops sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) body size medium (SVL 28.0-29.3 mm in three adult males, 30.3 mm in single adult female); (2) supra-axillary glands present, creamy white; ventrolateral glands indistinct; (3) tympanum externally distinct; (4) dorsal skin roughly granular with larger tubercles, dermal ridges on dorsum absent; (5) rudimentary webbing present between fingers I-II and II-III; rudimentary webbing between all toes; fingers and toes without dermal fringes; (6) in life ventral surface greyish-violet with white speckling; (7) supratympanic fold distinct, dark brown in life; (8) iris bicolored, typically golden in upper half, fading to golden green in lower half; (9) tibia short (TbL/SVL 0...
April 10, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628917/discovery-of-distinctin-like-peptide-ph-dlp-ph-from-the-skin-secretion-of-phyllomedusa-hypochondrialis-a-prototype-of-a-novel-family-of-antimicrobial-peptide
#11
Di Wu, Yitian Gao, Yining Tan, Yuzhang Liu, Lei Wang, Mei Zhou, Xinping Xi, Chengbang Ma, Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw
Amphibian skin secretions are an important treasure house of bioactive antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Despite having been the focus of decades of research in this context, investigations of phyllomedusine frogs continue to identify new AMPs from their skin secretions. In this study, the prototype of a novel family of AMP distinctin-like-peptide-PH (DLP-PH) was identified from the skin secretion of the otherwise well-studied Tiger-Legged Tree Frog Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis through cloning of its precursor-encoding cDNA from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library by a 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628076/an-ex-vivo-assay-for-screening-glucocorticoid-signaling-disruption-based-on-glucocorticoid-response-gene-transcription-in-xenopus-tails
#12
Xiaoying Chen, Yuanyuan Li, Min Zhu, Zhanfen Qin
There is a pressing need for developing in vivo or ex vivo assays to screen the glucocorticoid (GC) signaling disruption of chemicals. Thus, we aimed to establish an ex vivo assay for screening GC signaling disruption based on the GC-response gene transcription in Xenopus laevis tails cultured ex vivo. Firstly, we investigated effects of corticosterone (CORT, a main GC in frogs) on GC-response gene expression, and determined the six genes as molecular endpoints for assaying the GC signaling disruption. CORT in the range of 1...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625264/improving-ancestry-distinctions-among-southwest-asian-populations
#13
Ozlem Bulbul, William C Speed, Cemal Gurkan, Usha Soundararajan, Haseena Rajeevan, Andrew J Pakstis, Kenneth K Kidd
The Kidd Lab panel of 55 AISNPs can provide up to 10 statistically relevant biogeographic groupings of a global set of populations. A second-tier panel would be useful for increasing the accuracy for further differentiation of populations within a specific global grouping. Because recent advances in massively parallel sequencing (MPS) methods allow the genotyping of many more SNPs, we are now identifying additional SNPs to provide refined discrimination among regional subsets of populations; Southwest Asia and the nearby Mediterranean region (SWA) is our current target for such a "second tier" panel...
March 23, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622935/temporal-migration-patterns-and-mating-tactics-influence-size-assortative-mating-in-rana-temporaria
#14
Carolin Dittrich, Ariel Rodríguez, Ori Segev, Sanja Drakulić, Heike Feldhaar, Miguel Vences, Mark-Oliver Rödel
Assortative mating is a common pattern in sexually reproducing species, but the mechanisms leading to assortment remain poorly understood. By using the European common frog ( Rana temporaria ) as a model, we aim to understand the mechanisms leading to size-assortative mating in amphibians. With data from natural populations collected over several years, we first show a consistent pattern of size-assortative mating across our 2 study populations. We subsequently ask if assortative mating may be explained by mate availability due to temporal segregation of migrating individuals with specific sizes...
March 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621321/differential-responses-of-avian-and-mammalian-predators-to-phenotypic-variation-in-australian-brood-frogs
#15
J P Lawrence, Michael Mahony, Brice P Noonan
Anti-predator signaling is highly variable with numerous examples of species employing cryptic coloration to avoid detection or conspicuous coloration (often coupled with a secondary defense) to ensure detection and recollection. While the ends of this spectrum are clear in their function, how species use intermediate signals is less clear. Australian Brood Frogs (Pseudophryne) display conspicuous coloration on both their dorsum and venter. Coupled with the alkaloid toxins these frogs possess, this coloration may be aposematic, providing a protective warning signal to predators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619014/host-and-aquatic-environment-shape-the-amphibian-skin-microbiome-but-effects-on-downstream-resistance-to-the-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-are-variable
#16
Andrea J Jani, Cheryl J Briggs
Symbiotic microbial communities play key roles in the health and development of their multicellular hosts. Understanding why microbial communities vary among different host species or individuals is an important step toward understanding the diversity and function of the microbiome. The amphibian skin microbiome may affect resistance to the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Still, the factors that determine the diversity and composition of the amphibian skin microbiome, and therefore may ultimately contribute to disease resistance, are not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615997/the-skin-microbiome-of-the-neotropical-frog-craugastor-fitzingeri-inferring-potential-bacterial-host-pathogen-interactions-from-metagenomic-data
#17
Eria A Rebollar, Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado, Cecilia Noecker, Alexander Eng, Myra C Hughey, Daniel Medina, Jenifer B Walke, Elhanan Borenstein, Roderick V Jensen, Lisa K Belden, Reid N Harris
Skin symbiotic bacteria on amphibians can play a role in protecting their host against pathogens. Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , Bd, has caused dramatic population declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. Anti-Bd bacteria from amphibian skin have been cultured, and skin bacterial communities have been described through 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Here, we present a shotgun metagenomic analysis of skin bacterial communities from a Neotropical frog, Craugastor fitzingeri ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615810/population-genetic-analysis-of-the-recently-rediscovered-hula-painted-frog-latonia-nigriventer-reveals-high-genetic-diversity-and-low-inbreeding
#18
R G Bina Perl, Eli Geffen, Yoram Malka, Adi Barocas, Sharon Renan, Miguel Vences, Sarig Gafny
After its recent rediscovery, the Hula painted frog (Latonia nigriventer) has remained one of the world's rarest and least understood amphibian species. Together with its apparently low dispersal capability and highly disturbed niche, the low abundance of this living fossil calls for urgent conservation measures. We used 18 newly developed microsatellite loci and four different models to calculate the effective population size (Ne ) of a total of 125 Hula painted frog individuals sampled at a single location...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615662/environmental-dna-edna-detects-the-pool-frog-pelophylax-lessonae-at-times-when-traditional-monitoring-methods-are-insensitive
#19
Alexander Eiler, Anders Löfgren, Olle Hjerne, Sara Nordén, Peter Saetre
Detection of endangered species is invaluable for conservation efforts, yet many traditional sampling techniques are ineffective at low population abundances or during certain periods of the year. Here, we compared results from a newly developed eDNA approach and the traditional observational method for the endangered pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae). Analysis using an occupancy-modeling framework indicated that the probability of pools being occupied using eDNA (0.93) was higher than for the traditional method of counting calling males and silent observed individuals (0...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615625/ranavirus-genotypes-in-the-netherlands-and-their-potential-association-with-virulence-in-water-frogs-pelophylax-spp
#20
Bernardo Saucedo, Joseph Hughes, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Natasja Kruithof, Marc Schills, Jolianne M Rijks, Mónica Jacinto-Maldonado, Nicolás Suarez, Olga L M Haenen, Michal Voorbergen-Laarman, Jan van den Broek, Maarten Gilbert, Andrea Gröne, Steven J van Beurden, M Hélène Verheije
Ranaviruses are pathogenic viruses for poikilothermic vertebrates worldwide. The identification of a common midwife toad virus (CMTV) associated with massive die-offs in water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) in the Netherlands has increased awareness for emerging viruses in amphibians in the country. Complete genome sequencing of 13 ranavirus isolates collected from ten different sites in the period 2011-2016 revealed three CMTV groups present in distinct geographical areas in the Netherlands. Phylogenetic analysis showed that emerging viruses from the northern part of the Netherlands belonged to CMTV-NL group I...
April 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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