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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817569/long-term-assessment-of-whale-shark-population-demography-and-connectivity-using-photo-identification-in-the-western-atlantic-ocean
#1
Jennifer A McKinney, Eric R Hoffmayer, Jason Holmberg, Rachel T Graham, William B Driggers, Rafael de la Parra-Venegas, Beatriz E Galván-Pastoriza, Steve Fox, Simon J Pierce, Alistair D M Dove
The predictable occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, has been well documented in several areas. However, information relating to their migratory patterns, residency times and connectivity across broad spatial scales is limited. In the present study photo-identification data is used to describe whale shark population structure and connectivity among known aggregation sites within the Western Central Atlantic Ocean (WCA). From 1999 to 2015, 1,361 individuals were identified from four distinct areas: the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (n = 1,115); Honduras (n = 146); northern Gulf of Mexico, United States (n = 112), and Belize (n = 49)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815588/the-tooth-the-whole-tooth-and-nothing-but-the-tooth-tooth-shape-and-ontogenetic-shift-dynamics-in-the-white-shark-carcharodon-carcharias
#2
G C A French, M Stürup, S Rizzuto, J H van Wyk, D Edwards, R W Dolan, S P Wintner, A V Towner, W O H Hughes
Results from this study of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias include measurements obtained using a novel photographic method that reveal significant differences between the sexes in the relationship between tooth cuspidity and shark total length, and a novel ontogenetic change in male tooth shape. Males exhibit broader upper first teeth and increased distal inclination of upper third teeth with increasing length, while females do not present a consistent morphological change. Substantial individual variation, with implications for pace of life syndrome, was present in males and tooth polymorphism was suggested in females...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812606/global-marine-protected-areas-to-prevent-extinctions
#3
Lindsay N K Davidson, Nicholas K Dulvy
One goal of global marine protected areas (MPAs) is to ensure they represent a breadth of taxonomic biodiversity. Ensuring representation of species in MPAs, however, would require protecting vast areas of the global oceans and does not explicitly prioritize species of conservation concern. When threatened species are considered, a recent study found that only a small fraction of their geographic ranges are within the global MPA network. Which global marine areas, and what conservation actions beyond MPAs could be prioritized to prevent marine extinctions (Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi Target 12), remains unknown...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812572/population-characteristics-of-a-large-whale-shark-aggregation-inferred-from-seawater-environmental-dna
#4
Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Ida Broman Nielsen, Steffen Sanvig Bach, Eline D Lorenzen, David Philip Robinson, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Mohammed Al Jaidah, Ludovic Orlando, Eske Willerslev, Peter Rask Møller, Philip Francis Thomsen
Population genetics is essential for understanding and managing marine ecosystems, but sampling remains challenging. We demonstrate that high-throughput sequencing of seawater environmental DNA can provide useful estimates of genetic diversity in a whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregation. We recover similar mitochondrial haplotype frequencies in seawater compared to tissue samples, reliably placing the studied aggregation in a global genetic context and expanding the applications of environmental DNA to encompass population genetics of aquatic organisms...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811602/identification-of-ciguatoxins-in-a-shark-involved-in-a-fatal-food-poisoning-in-the-indian-ocean
#5
Jorge Diogène, Laia Reverté, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Vanessa Del Río, Pablo de la Iglesia, Mònica Campàs, Oscar Palacios, Cintia Flores, Josep Caixach, Christian Ralijaona, Iony Razanajatovo, Agathe Pirog, Hélène Magalon, Nathalie Arnich, Jean Turquet
Severe food poisoning events after the consumption of sharks have been reported since the 1940s; however, there has been no clear understanding of their cause. Herein, we report for the first time the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in sharks. The identification by mass spectrometry of CTXs, including two new analogues, in a bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) that was consumed by humans, causing the poisoning and death of 11 people in Madagascar in 2013 is described. Typical neurotoxic ciguatera symptoms were recorded in patients, and toxicological assays on extracts of the shark demonstrated CTX-like activity...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807935/function-of-the-hypobranchial-muscles-and-hyoidiomandibular-ligament-during-suction-capture-and-bite-processing-in-white-spotted-bamboo-sharks-chiloscyllium-plagiosum
#6
Jason B Ramsay, Cheryl D Wilga
Suction feeding in teleost fish is a power dependant behavior, requiring rapid and forceful expansion of the orobranchial cavity by the hypobranchial and trunk muscles. To increase power production for expansion, many species employ in-series tendons and catch mechanisms to store and release elastic strain energy. Suction feeding sharks such as Chiloscyllium plagiosum lack large in-series tendons on the hypobranchials, yet two of the hypobranchials, the coracohyoideus and coracoarcualis (CH, CA; hyoid depressors), are arranged in-series, and run deep and parallel to a third muscle, the coracomandibularis (CM, jaw depressor)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807418/assessment-of-metallic-trace-elements-in-the-muscles-and-fins-of-four-landed-elasmobranchs-from-kuala-terengganu-waters-malaysia
#7
Meng Chuan Ong, Shi Ling Gan
A study had been carried out to determine Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the muscle and fins of four elasmobranchs species namely spot-tail sharks, milk sharks, whitespotted bamboo sharks and whitespotted guitarfish from Pulau Kambing LKIM Fishery Complex, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Zinc level was found to have the highest concentration whereas Cd had the lowest concentration in both organs. By comparing both organs, metals concentrations in fins of all elasmobranchs species were higher than muscle...
August 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803360/contrasting-complexity-of-adjacent-habitats-influences-the-strength-of-cascading-predatory-effects
#8
James E Byers, Zachary C Holmes, Jennafer C Malek
Although cascading effects of top predators can help structure communities, their influence may vary across habitats that differentially protect prey. Therefore, to understand how and to what degree habitat complexity can affect trophic interactions in adjacent habitats, we used a combination of a broad regional-scale survey, manipulative field trials, and an outdoor mesocosm experiment to quantify predator-prey interaction strengths across four trophic levels. Within estuaries of the southeastern USA, bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) hunt blue crabs on mudflats and adjacent oyster reefs, two habitats with vastly different aboveground structure...
August 12, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797592/occurrence-of-anisakis-nematoda-anisakidae-larvae-in-unusual-hosts-in-southern-hemisphere
#9
Shokoofeh Shamsi, Marine J Briand, Jean-Lou Justine
Nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis are important parasites due to their abundance in seafood and health impacts on humans. In the present study Anisakis larvae were found in a number of uncommon hosts including the Grey petrel, Procellaria cinerea, the Little penguin, Eudyptula minor, Blue-lipped sea krait, Laticauda laticaudata and Spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna. Morphological examination showed nematodes in these animals are Anisakis larval type I. Genetic characterisation suggested that the larva from one Grey petrel was Anisakis berlandi, whereas the other larvae from the second Grey petrel and from the little penguin were Anisakis pegreffii...
August 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795217/animals-living-in-polluted-environments-are-a-potential-source-of-anti-tumor-molecule-s
#10
REVIEW
Shareni Jeyamogan, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Despite advances in therapeutic interventions and supportive care, the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer have remained significant. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful anti-tumor agents. The search for new anti-tumor compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in polluted environments are a potent source of anti-tumor agents. Under polluted milieus, species such as crocodiles, feed on rotten meat, are exposed to heavy metals, endure high levels of radiation, and are among the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event with a prolonged lifespan...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794497/the-trophic-role-of-a-large-marine-predator-the-tiger-shark-galeocerdo-cuvier
#11
Luciana C Ferreira, Michele Thums, Michael R Heithaus, Adam Barnett, Kátya G Abrantes, Bonnie J Holmes, Lara M Zamora, Ashley J Frisch, Julian G Pepperell, Derek Burkholder, Jeremy Vaudo, Robert Nowicki, Jessica Meeuwig, Mark G Meekan
Tiger sharks were sampled off the western (Ningaloo Reef, Shark Bay) and eastern (the Great Barrier Reef; GBR, Queensland and New South Wales; NSW) coastlines of Australia. Multiple tissues were collected from each shark to investigate the effects of location, size and sex of sharks on δ(13)C and δ(15)N stable isotopes among these locations. Isotopic composition of sharks sampled in reef and seagrass habitats (Shark Bay, GBR) reflected seagrass-based food-webs, whereas at Ningaloo Reef analysis revealed a dietary transition between pelagic and seagrass food-webs...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791159/population-structure-and-connectivity-of-tiger-sharks-galeocerdo-cuvier-across-the-indo-pacific-ocean-basin
#12
Bonnie J Holmes, Samuel M Williams, Nicholas M Otway, Einar E Nielsen, Safia L Maher, Mike B Bennett, Jennifer R Ovenden
Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p < 0.001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791022/enhancing-stability-of-camelid-and-shark-single-domain-antibodies-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Ellen R Goldman, Jinny L Liu, Dan Zabetakis, George P Anderson
Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) are gaining a reputation as superior recognition elements as they combine the advantages of the specificity and affinity found in conventional antibodies with high stability and solubility. Melting temperatures (Tms) of sdAbs cover a wide range from below 50 to over 80°C. Many sdAbs have been engineered to increase their Tm, making them stable until exposed to extreme temperatures. SdAbs derived from the variable heavy chains of camelid and shark heavy chain-only antibodies are termed VHH and VNAR, respectively, and generally exhibit some ability to refold and bind antigen after heat denaturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771275/latency-transition-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-type-1-is-evolutionarily-conserved
#14
Agnieszka Jendroszek, Malene S Sønnichsen, Andrés C Muñoz, Kato Leyman, Anni Christensen, Steen Vang Petersen, Tobias Wang, Christian Bendixen, Frank Panitz, Peter A Andreasen, Jan K Jensen
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a central regulator of fibrinolysis and tissue remodelling. PAI-1 belongs to the serpin superfamily and unlike other inhibitory serpins undergoes a spontaneous inactivation process under physiological conditions, termed latency transition. During latency transition the solvent exposed reactive centre loop is inserted into the central β-sheet A of the molecule, and is no longer accessible to reaction with the protease. More than three decades of research on mammalian PAI-1 has not been able to clarify the evolutionary advantage and physiological relevance of latency transition...
August 3, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770080/dna-metabarcoding-for-diet-analysis-and-biodiversity-a-case-study-using-the-endangered-australian-sea-lion-neophoca-cinerea
#15
Tina E Berry, Sylvia K Osterrieder, Dáithí C Murray, Megan L Coghlan, Anthony J Richardson, Alicia K Grealy, Michael Stat, Lars Bejder, Michael Bunce
The analysis of apex predator diet has the ability to deliver valuable insights into ecosystem health, and the potential impacts a predator might have on commercially relevant species. The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is an endemic apex predator and one of the world's most endangered pinnipeds. Given that prey availability is vital to the survival of top predators, this study set out to understand what dietary information DNA metabarcoding could yield from 36 sea lion scats collected across 1,500 km of its distribution in southwest Western Australia...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768885/satellite-telemetry-reveals-higher-fishing-mortality-rates-than-previously-estimated-suggesting-overfishing-of-an-apex-marine-predator
#16
Michael E Byrne, Enric Cortés, Jeremy J Vaudo, Guy C McN Harvey, Mark Sampson, Bradley M Wetherbee, Mahmood Shivji
Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the western North Atlantic Ocean...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760881/evidence-for-ig-light-chain-isotype-exclusion-in-shark-b-lymphocytes-suggests-ordered-mechanisms
#17
Anna Iacoangeli, Anita Lui, Ashley Haines, Yuko Ohta, Martin Flajnik, Ellen Hsu
Unlike most vertebrates, the shark IgL gene organization precludes secondary rearrangements that delete self-reactive VJ rearranged genes. Nurse sharks express four L chain isotypes, κ, λ, σ, and σ-2, encoded by 35 functional minigenes or clusters. The sequence of gene activation/expression and receptor editing of these isotypes have not been studied. We therefore investigated the extent of isotypic exclusion in separated B cell subpopulations. Surface Ig (sIg)κ-expressing cells, isolated with mAb LK14 that recognizes Cκ, carry predominantly nonproductive rearrangements of other L chain isotypes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758213/observations-of-marine-wildlife-tourism-effects-on-a-non-focal-species
#18
J R Rizzari, J M Semmens, A Fox, C Huveneers
A radio-acoustic positioning system was used to assess the effects of shark cage-diving operators (SCDO) on the fine-scale movements of a non-focal species, the smooth stingray Bathytoshia brevicaudata. The results revealed that the time spent in the array was individually variable, but generally increased when SCDO were present and that the presence of SCDO may have the capacity to elicit changes in the space use of B. brevicaudata. These results indicate that the effects of marine wildlife tourism may extend beyond the focal species of interest...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753084/development-and-implementation-of-a-school-wide-institute-for-excellence-in-education-to-enable-educational-scholarship-by-medical-school-faculty
#19
Joseph Cofrancesco, Michael A Barone, Janet R Serwint, Mitchell Goldstein, Michael Westman, Pamela A Lipsett
PROBLEM: Educational scholarship is an important component for faculty at Academic Medical Centers, especially those with single-track promotion systems. Yet, faculty may lack the skills and mentorship needed to successfully complete projects. In addition, many educators feel undervalued. INTERVENTION: To reinvigorate our school's educational mission, the Institute for Excellence in Education (IEE) was created. Here we focus on one of the IEE's strategic goals, that of inspiring and supporting educational research, scholarship, and innovation...
July 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739931/how-language-shapes-the-cultural-inheritance-of-categories
#20
Susan A Gelman, Steven O Roberts
It is widely recognized that language plays a key role in the transmission of human culture, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which language simultaneously encourages both cultural stability and cultural innovation. This paper examines this issue by focusing on the use of language to transmit categories, focusing on two universal devices: labels (e.g., shark, woman) and generics (e.g., "sharks attack swimmers"; "women are nurturing"). We propose that labels and generics each assume two key principles: norms and essentialism...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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