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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716949/biochemical-regulatory-features-of-aid-remain-conserved-from-lamprey-to-humans
#1
Emma M Quinlan, Justin J King, Chris T Amemiya, Ellen Hsu, Mani Larijani
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a genome-mutating enzyme that initiates class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of antibodies in jawed vertebrates. We previously described the biochemical properties of human AID and found that it is an unusual enzyme in that it exhibits binding affinities for its substrate DNA and catalytic rates several orders of magnitude higher and lower, respectively, than a typical enzyme. Recently, we solved the functional structure of AID and demonstrated that these properties are due to non-specific DNA binding on its surface, along with a catalytic pocket that predominantly assumes a closed conformation...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714301/assessing-fukushima-derived-radiocesium-in-migratory-pacific-predators
#2
Daniel James Madigan, Zofia Baumann, Owyn E Snodgrass, Heidi Dewar, Michelle Berman-Kowalewski, Kevin C Weng, Jun Nishikawa, Peter H Dutton, Nicholas S Fisher
The 2011 release of Fukushima-derived radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean made migratory sharks, teleosts, and marine mammals a source of speculation and anxiety regarding radiocesium (134+137Cs) contamination, despite a lack of actual radiocesium measurements for these taxa. We measured radiocesium in a diverse suite of large predators from the North Pacific Ocean and report no detectable (i.e., ≥ 0.1 Bq kg-1 dry wt) of Fukushima-derived 134Cs in all samples, except in one olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) with trace levels (0...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712674/the-ebbinghaus-illusion-in-the-gray-bamboo-shark-chiloscyllium-griseum-in-comparison-to-the-teleost-damselfish-chromis-chromis
#3
Theodora Fuss, Vera Schluessel
This is the first study to comparatively assess the perception of the Ebbinghaus-Titchener circles and variations of the Delboeuf illusion in four juvenile bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum) and five damselfish (Chromis chromis) using identical training paradigms. We aimed to investigate whether these two species show similarities in the perceptual integration of local elements into the global context. The Ebbinghaus-Titchener circles consist of two equally sized central test circles surrounded by smaller or larger circles of different size, number and/or distance...
May 29, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709399/draft-sequencing-and-assembly-of-the-genome-of-the-world-s-largest-fish-the-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-smith-1828
#4
Timothy D Read, Robert A Petit, Sandeep J Joseph, Md Tauqeer Alam, M Ryan Weil, Maida Ahmad, Ravila Bhimani, Jocelyn S Vuong, Chad P Haase, D Harry Webb, Milton Tan, Alistair D M Dove
BACKGROUND: The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) has by far the largest body size of any elasmobranch (shark or ray) species. Therefore, it is also the largest extant species of the paraphyletic assemblage commonly referred to as fishes. As both a phenotypic extreme and a member of the group Chondrichthyes - the sister group to the remaining gnathostomes, which includes all tetrapods and therefore also humans - its genome is of substantial comparative interest. Whale sharks are also listed as an endangered species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of threatened species and are of growing popularity as both a target of ecotourism and as a charismatic conservation ambassador for the pelagic ecosystem...
July 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707703/poorly-differentiated-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-an-arabian-carpet-shark-chiloscyllium-arabicum-gubanov-a-case-report
#5
A C Camus, M M Ibrahiem, F A Alhizab, T A Aboellail, A M Ibrahim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705829/regional-variation-in-undulatory-kinematics-of-two-hammerhead-species-the-bonnethead-sphyrna-tiburo-and-the-scalloped-hammerhead-sphyrna-lewini
#6
S L Hoffmann, S M Warren, M E Porter
Hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae) are have a large amount of morpholigcal variation within the family, making them the focus of many studies. The size of the laterally expanded head, or cephalofoil, is inversely correlated with pectoral fin area. The inverse relation in cephalofoil and pectoral fin size in this family suggests that they might serve a complimentary role in lift generation. The cephalofoil is also hypothesized to increase olfaction, electroreception, and vision; however, little is known about how morphological variation impacts post-cranial swimming kinematics...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690806/world-without-borders-genetic-population-structure-of-a-highly-migratory-marine-predator-the-blue-shark-prionace-glauca
#7
Ana Veríssimo, Íris Sampaio, Jan R McDowell, Paulo Alexandrino, Gonzalo Mucientes, Nuno Queiroz, Charlene da Silva, Catherine S Jones, Leslie R Noble
Highly migratory, cosmopolitan oceanic sharks often exhibit complex movement patterns influenced by ontogeny, reproduction, and feeding. These elusive species are particularly challenging to population genetic studies, as representative samples suitable for inferring genetic structure are difficult to obtain. Our study provides insights into the genetic population structure one of the most abundant and wide-ranging oceanic shark species, the blue shark Prionace glauca, by sampling the least mobile component of the populations, i...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683147/choosing-the-negative-a-behavioral-demonstration-of-morbid-curiosity
#8
Suzanne Oosterwijk
This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images displayed social scenes that involved death, violence or harm (e.g., war scene), or decontextualized, close-ups of physical harm (e.g., mutilated face) or natural threat (e.g., attacking shark). The results demonstrated that social negative images were chosen significantly more often than other negative categories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674952/a-new-genus-and-species-of%C3%A2-the-trypanorhynch-family-otobothriidae-dollfus-1942-from-the-slender-weasel-shark-paragaleus-randalli-compagno-krupp-carpenter-hemigaleidae-in-the-persian-gulf
#9
Mohammad Haseli, Zahra Malekpour Fard
A survey on the cestode fauna of Paragaleus randalli Compagno, Krupp & Carpenter in the Persian Gulf resulted in the discovery of a new trypanorhynch species of the family Otobothriidae Dollfus, 1942, the second otobothrioid species hosted by the family Hemigaleidae Hasse. The new species exhibits the closest morphological similarity to Pristiorhynchus palmi Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, the type- and only species of its genus. However, the new species differs from P. palmi in the position of the bothrial pits, the morphology and oncotaxy of the basal armature, the commencement of the hook files on the internal surface, a wider scolex peduncle in the pars bulbosa than in the pars vaginalis, a long neck and the presence of a lateral bothrial groove connecting the two bothrial pits to each other...
July 3, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670459/the-associations-between-blood-mercury-levels-and-shark-meat-intake-among-workers-in-gyeongsangbuk-do
#10
Gun Il Park, Young Seok Byun, Man Joong Jeon, Joon Sakong
BACKGROUND: Shark meat is used as sacrificial food in Gyeongsangbuk-do, and is a major source of dietary mercury. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of shark meat intake or the ritual of Jesa on blood mercury levels within workers living in Gyeongsangbuk-do. METHODS: This study was conducted from September 2016 to October 2016 in two cities of Gyeongsangbuk-do. To compare the differences between urban and rural areas, two workplaces each in Daegu as the urban area and Yeongcheon as the rural area were selected...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653362/teeth-penetration-force-of-the-tiger-shark-galeocerdo-cuvier-and-sandbar-shark-carcharhinus-plumbeus
#11
J N Bergman, M J Lajeunesse, P J Motta
This study examined the minimum force required of functional teeth and replacement teeth in the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus to penetrate the scales and muscle of sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus and pigfish Orthopristis chrysoptera. Penetration force ranged from 7·7-41·9 and 3·2-26·3 N to penetrate A. probatocephalus and O. chrysoptera, respectively. Replacement teeth required significantly less force to penetrate O. chrysoptera for both shark species, most probably due to microscopic wear of the tooth surfaces supporting the theory shark teeth are replaced regularly to ensure sharp teeth that are efficient for prey capture...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653346/identification-of-young-of-the-year-great-hammerhead-shark-sphyrna-mokarran-in-northern-florida-and-south-carolina
#12
A M Barker, B S Frazier, D M Bethea, J R Gold, D S Portnoy
Two sharks, visually identified in the field as young-of-the-year (YOY) scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini, were identified as great hammerhead Sphyrna mokarran based on nuclear-encoded single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and sequences of mtDNA. Individuals were captured and released in Bulls Bay, SC, and Saint Joseph Bay, FL, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. These findings indicate S. mokarran may be pupping in or around these areas and highlight new regions that may be a productive focus for future research on early life history of S...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649268/muscle-development-in-the-shark-scyliorhinus-canicula-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-gnathostome-head-and-paired-appendage-musculature
#13
Janine M Ziermann, Renata Freitas, Rui Diogo
BACKGROUND: The origin of jawed vertebrates was marked by profound reconfigurations of the skeleton and muscles of the head and by the acquisition of two sets of paired appendages. Extant cartilaginous fish retained numerous plesiomorphic characters of jawed vertebrates, which include several aspects of their musculature. Therefore, myogenic studies on sharks are essential in yielding clues on the developmental processes involved in the origin of the muscular anatomy. RESULTS: Here we provide a detailed description of the development of specific muscular units integrating the cephalic and appendicular musculature of the shark model, Scyliorhinus canicula...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643409/variability-in-hematology-of-white-spotted-bamboo-sharks-chiloscyllium-plagiosum-in-different-living-environments
#14
Lily A Parkinson, Amy B Alexander, Terry W Campbell
Elasmobranch hematology continues to reveal new peculiarities within this specialized field. This report compares total hematologic values from the same white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) housed in different environments. We compared the hemograms one year apart, using a standardized Natt-Herrick's technique. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts of the sharks were statistically different between the two time points (initial median total WBC count = 18,920 leukocytes/μl, SD = 8,108; 1 year later total WBC count = 1,815 leukocytes/μl, SD = 1,309)...
June 22, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634373/an-assessment-of-mobile-predator-populations-along-shallow-and-mesophotic-depth-gradients-in-the-hawaiian-archipelago
#15
Jacob Asher, Ivor D Williams, Euan S Harvey
Large-bodied coral reef roving predators (sharks, jacks, snappers) are largely considered to be depleted around human population centers. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, supporting evidence is primarily derived from underwater visual censuses in shallow waters (≤30 m). However, while many roving predators are present or potentially more abundant in deeper strata (30-100 m+), distributional information remains sparse. To partially fill that knowledge gap, we conducted surveys in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) from 2012-2014 using baited remote underwater stereo-video...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625747/molecular-identification-and-characterization-of-haptoglobin-in-teleosts-revealed-an-important-role-on-fish-viral-infections
#16
Héctor Cordero, Chang Hong Li, Elena Chaves-Pozo, María Ángeles Esteban, Alberto Cuesta
Haptoglobin (Hp) molecule has been cloned and characterized in two marine teleosts (gilthead seabream and European sea bass), obtaining putative proteins of 319 residues encoded by an ORF of 960 bp in both species. However, the matrix of similarity revealed low identities among bony fish species 78.9% (seabream-sea bass), 43% (seabream/seabass-zebrafish) and lower than 20% with sharks and human. The protein sequences showed a signal peptide from the position 1 to 23, a trypsin domain from 47 to 297, and several predicted disulfide bridges and glycosylation sites...
June 16, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617322/chondroitin-sulfate-rich-extract-of-skate-cartilage-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-liver-damage-in-mice
#17
Yeong Ok Song, Mijeong Kim, Minji Woo, Jang-Mi Baek, Keon-Hee Kang, Sang-Ho Kim, Seong-Soo Roh, Chan Hum Park, Kap-Seop Jeong, Jeong-Sook Noh
The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group)...
June 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616238/validation-of-a-portable-waterproof-blood-ph-analyser-for-elasmobranchs
#18
Brendan Talwar, Ian A Bouyoucos, Oliver Shipley, Jodie L Rummer, John W Mandelman, Edward J Brooks, R Dean Grubbs
Quantifying changes in blood chemistry in elasmobranchs can provide insights into the physiological insults caused by anthropogenic stress, and can ultimately inform conservation and management strategies. Current methods for analysing elasmobranch blood chemistry in the field are often costly and logistically challenging. We compared blood pH values measured using a portable, waterproof pH meter (Hanna Instruments HI 99161) with blood pH values measured by an i-STAT system (CG4+ cartridges), which was previously validated for teleost and elasmobranch fishes, to gauge the accuracy of the pH meter in determining whole blood pH for the Cuban dogfish (Squalus cubensis) and lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616174/spatial-overlap-of-shark-nursery-areas-and-the-salmon-farming-industry-influences-the-trophic-ecology-of-squalus-acanthias-on-the-southern-coast-of-chile
#19
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Daniela Gómez, Alistair J Hobday, Ross Daley, Julio Lamilla, Leyla Cárdenas
Potential interactions between marine predators and humans arise in the southern coast of Chile where predator feeding and reproduction sites overlap with fisheries and aquaculture. Here, we assess the potential effects of intensive salmon aquaculture on food habits, growth, and reproduction of a common predator, the spiny dogfish-identified as Squalus acanthias via genetic barcoding. A total of 102 (89 females and 13 males) individuals were collected during winter and summer of 2013-2014 from the Chiloé Sea where salmon aquaculture activities are concentrated...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603671/spatial-variation-in-coral-reef-fish-and-benthic-communities-in-the-central-saudi-arabian-red-sea
#20
Maha T Khalil, Jessica Bouwmeester, Michael L Berumen
Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3-24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers...
2017: PeerJ
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