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Mary Craig
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April 2018: Nature
Jeannine A Ott, Caitlin D Castro, Thaddeus C Deiss, Yuko Ohta, Martin F Flajnik, Michael F Criscitiello
Since the discovery of the T cell receptor (TcR), immunologists have assigned somatic hypermutation (SHM) as a mechanism employed solely by B cells to diversify their antigen receptors. Remarkably, we found SHM acting in the thymus on α chain locus of shark TcR. SHM in developing shark T cells likely is catalyzed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and results in both point and tandem mutations that accumulate non-conservative amino acid replacements within complementarity-determining regions (CDRs)...
April 17, 2018: ELife
Charles W Bangley, Lee Paramore, David S Shiffman, Roger A Rulifson
A general northward shift in marine species distributions has been observed in the western North Atlantic Ocean, which may have significant ecological consequences. Large coastal sharks can have wide migratory distributions but show fidelity to specific nursery habitats. Here we show evidence for nursery range expansion into Pamlico Sound, North Carolina by a marine apex predator, the Bull Shark (Carcharhinus leucas). Previous assessments have shown little to no use of estuarine North Carolina waters as nursery habitat by Bull Sharks from 1965-2011...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qinying Li, Guoyun Li, Xiaoliang Zhao, Xindi Shan, Chao Cai, Jing Zhao, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Guangli Yu
As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark ( Prionace glauca ) cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of KS and KSO were characterized using multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Shark cartilage KS was highly sulfated and modified with ~2...
April 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Carolyn Louise Guay, James Danckert, Britt Anderson
We have shown recently that damage to the right hemisphere impairs the ability to update mental models when evidence suggests an old model is no longer appropriate. We argue that this deficit is generic in the sense that it crosses multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. Here, we examined the nature of this updating impairment to determine more precisely the underlying mechanisms. We had right (RBD, N = 12) and left brain damaged (LBD, N = 10) patients perform versions of our picture-morphing task in which pictures gradually morph from one object (e...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Charles W Bangley, Lee Paramore, Simon Dedman, Roger A Rulifson
Estuaries function as important nursery and foraging habitats for many coastal species, including highly migratory sharks. Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, is one of the largest estuaries in the continental United States and provides a variety of potential habitats for sharks. In order to identify and spatially delineate shark habitats within Pamlico Sound, shark catch and environmental data were analyzed from the 2007-2014 North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries (NCDMF) gillnet and longline surveys conducted within the estuary...
2018: PloS One
E Lek, M E Platell, D V Fairclough, N G Hall, I C Potter
Contemporary multivariate statistics were used to test the hypotheses that the dietary compositions of three populations of labrids on the west Australian coast are related to body size and undergo seasonal changes and to elucidate the relative extents and basis for any dietary differences within and between those populations. Gut content analyses determined the dietary compositions of Choerodon rubescens in marine waters of the outer reefs in the World Heritage Area of Shark Bay (26° S; 114° E) and of Choerodon schoenleinii in inner protected reefs of that large embayment...
April 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Shoaib Parkar, Mueedul Islam, Ramakrishna Tangaturi, Hari Keerthy Panthala, Azhar Khan, Mohammed Imran, Jayesh Anand
Objective: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Obwegeser's pterygoid osteotome and Laster shark-fin osteotome by measurement of strain adjacent to the pterygomaxillary suture and the amount of force required for dysjunction. Materials and Methods: Two popular instruments Obwegesser's pterygoid and shark-fin osteotome were tested on dry human skulls. The external force required for separation of the pterygomaxillary suture with these osteotomes was generated by an electronically controlled 'Instron' tester Bi-06-108...
June 2018: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Tanya A Camacho-Villegas, María Teresa Mata-González, Walter García-Ubbelohd, Linda Núñez-García, Carolina Elosua, Jorge F Paniagua-Solis, Alexei F Licea-Navarro
Variable new antigen receptor domain (vNAR) antibodies are novel, naturally occurring antibodies that can be isolated from naïve, immune or synthetic shark libraries. These molecules are very interesting to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries because of their unique characteristics related to size and tissue penetrability. There have been some approved anti-angiogenic therapies for ophthalmic conditions, not related to vNAR. This includes biologics and chimeric proteins that neutralize vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165 , which are injected intravitreal, causing discomfort and increasing the possibility of infection...
March 31, 2018: Marine Drugs
Evren Tevfik Isci, Erich Ritter
The mouth of a shark is a breeding ground for a large variety of bacteria which can easily get transferred onto a human body in the event of a shark bite. Here, we review infections originating from shark oral bacterial flora, which originate from the microbiome of its prey, as well as from the surroundings where an incident takes place. We use the example of an incident which occurred in an aquarium involving a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus. In addition to a succinct analysis and interpretation of the wound and recovery process, an overview of currently known bacteria associated with shark bite wounds is given, as well as a summary of the effects of various previously tested antibiotics on bacteria derived from blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, bull sharks, C...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
R W Jabado, P M Kyne, E Nazareth, D N Sutaria
The first record of the Ganges shark Glyphis gangeticus from anywhere in its range in over a decade is reported from the Arabian Sea. One female specimen was recorded at Sassoon Docks in Mumbai, India in February 2016, measuring 266 cm total length. In light of the Critically Endangered status of this species and its rarity, urgent management actions are needed to determine population size and trends in abundance in combination with fisher education and awareness campaigns.
April 3, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Juan Pascual-Anaya, Iori Sato, Fumiaki Sugahara, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Jordi Paps, Yandong Ren, Wataru Takagi, Adrián Ruiz-Villalba, Kinya G Ota, Wen Wang, Shigeru Kuratani
Hox genes exert fundamental roles for proper regional specification along the main rostro-caudal axis of animal embryos. They are generally expressed in restricted spatial domains according to their position in the cluster (spatial colinearity)-a feature that is conserved across bilaterians. In jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), the position in the cluster also determines the onset of expression of Hox genes (a feature known as whole-cluster temporal colinearity (WTC)), while in invertebrates this phenomenon is displayed as a subcluster-level temporal colinearity...
April 2, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Jennifer E Caselle, Scott L Hamilton, Kathryn Davis, Christopher D H Thompson, Alan Turchik, Ryan Jenkinson, Doug Simpson, Enric Sala
Tristan da Cunha Islands, an archipelago of four rocky volcanic islands situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and part of the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), present a rare example of a relatively unimpacted temperate marine ecosystem. We conducted the first quantitative surveys of nearshore kelp forests, offshore pelagic waters and deep sea habitats. Kelp forests had very low biodiversity and species richness, but high biomass and abundance of those species present. Spatial variation in assemblage structure for both nearshore fish and invertebrates/algae was greatest between the three northern islands and the southern island of Gough, where sea temperatures were on average 3-4o colder...
2018: PloS One
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is a key integrative center of the vertebrate brain. To better understand its ancestral morphological organization and evolution, we previously analyzed the segmental organization of alar subdivisions in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula , a cartilaginous fish and thus a basal representative of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). With the same aim, we deepen here in the segmental organization of the catshark basal hypothalamus by revisiting previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScNkx2.1, ScShh expression and Shh immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScLhx5, ScEmx2, ScLmx1b, ScPitx2, ScPitx3a, ScFoxa1, ScFoxa2 and ScNeurog2 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactivity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Pierpaolo F Brena, Johann Mourier, Serge Planes, Eric E Clua
To adapt to their environment, organisms can either directly interact with their surroundings or use social information (i.e. information provided by neighbouring individuals). Social information relates to the external features of surrounding peers, and little is known about its use by solitary species. Here, we investigated the use of social cues in a solitary marine predator by creating artificial aggregations of free-ranging sicklefin lemon sharks ( Negaprion acutidens ). Using a novel monitoring protocol, we analysed both dominance interactions and tolerance associations between sharks competing for food in relation with the number, the morphology and the behaviour of rivals...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ana Rita Lopes, Eduardo Sampaio, Catarina Santos, Ana Couto, Maria Rita Pegado, Mário Diniz, Philip L Munday, Jodie L Rummer, Rui Rosa
Sharks have maintained a key role in marine food webs for 400 million years and across varying physicochemical contexts, suggesting plasticity to environmental change. In this study, we investigated the biochemical effects of ocean acidification (OA) levels predicted for 2100 (pCO2 ~ 900 μatm) on newly hatched tropical whitespotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Specifically, we measured lipid, protein, and DNA damage levels, as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic ROS scavengers in juvenile sharks exposed to elevated CO2 for 50 days following hatching...
March 27, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
N Esteban, R K F Unsworth, J B Q Gourlay, G C Hays
Our understanding of global seagrass ecosystems comes largely from regions characterized by human impacts with limited data from habitats defined as notionally pristine. Seagrass assessments also largely focus on shallow-water coastal habitats with comparatively few studies on offshore deep-water seagrasses. We satellite tracked green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to forage on seagrasses, to a remote, pristine deep-water environment in the Western Indian Ocean, the Great Chagos Bank, which lies in the heart of one of the world's largest marine protected areas (MPAs)...
March 21, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Lucas Schmidt, Julio Alberto Landero, Diogo La Rosa Novo, Fabio Andrei Duarte, Marcia Foster Mesko, Joseph A Caruso, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores
A method for arsenic speciation in shark, shrimp, squid, oyster and scallop using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS/MS) was proposed. Suitable sensitivity and selectivity by LC-ICP-MS/MS were obtained using 10 mmol L-1 (NH4 )2 HPO4 diluted in 1% methanol (pH 8.65) as mobile phase. Recoveries from 90 to 104% for arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenate [As(V)] were obtained for all samples...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Michelle Pinault, Cyrille Guimaraes, Hélène Couthon, Jérôme Thibonnet, Delphine Fontaine, Aurélie Chantôme, Stephan Chevalier, Pierre Besson, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, Christophe Vandier
Natural O -alkyl-glycerolipids, also known as alkyl-ether-lipids (AEL), feature a long fatty alkyl chain linked to the glycerol unit by an ether bond. AEL are ubiquitously found in different tissues but, are abundant in shark liver oil, breast milk, red blood cells, blood plasma, and bone marrow. Only a few AEL are commercially available, while many others with saturated or mono-unsaturated alkyl chains of variable length are not available. These compounds are, however, necessary as standards for analytical methods...
March 23, 2018: Marine Drugs
C Cardoso, I Bernardo, N M Bandarra, L Louro Martins, C Afonso
This study aimed to assess the risk-benefit balance associated to fish consumption by Portuguese preschool children. For this purpose, databases (from IPMA and literature) were mined and mathematically processed by a model based on the Extreme Value Theory assuming consumption scenarios. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se) and methylmercury (MeHg) were selected as critical components of fish, given their health impact and significant contents in some fish species. Assessment also took into account that Se may protect against MeHg toxicity...
March 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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