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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034466/biological-observations-on-the-broadfin-shark-lamiopsis-temminckii-carcharhiniformes-carcharhinidae
#1
K V Akhilesh, G B Purushottama, Thakurdas, S J Kizhakudan
Biological information was collected from 214 individuals of the broadfin shark Lamiopsis temminckii measuring 418 to 1782 mm total length, LT . Size at maturity (L50 ) for females and males was estimated at 1430 and 1368 mm LT , respectively, while mature and gravid females were observed from 1350 mm LT with litter sizes 2-8 and size at birth 418-650 mm LT . Analysis of stomach contents revealed a variety of prey, primarily crustaceans (54·0%), teleosts (42·7%) and cephalopods.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023767/do-they-stay-or-do-they-go-acoustic-monitoring-of-whale-sharks-at-ningaloo-marine-park-western-australia
#2
B M Norman, J M Whitty, S J Beatty, S D Reynolds, D L Morgan
Whale sharks Rhincodon typus were monitored via acoustic transmitters at the northern end of Western Australia's Ningaloo Marine Park to establish the extent to which the species inhabits the region beyond the whale-shark ecotourism industry season, which usually extends from March to August in each year. Despite the vast majority (c. 98%) of photographic submissions of R. typus from Ningaloo Reef being between March and August, acoustic detections from the tagged R. typus at Ningaloo were recorded in all months of the year, but do not preclude the occurrence of extended absences...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023719/natural-variability-and-effects-of-cleaning-and-storage-procedures-on-vertebral-chemistry-of-the-blacktip-shark-carcharhinus-limbatus
#3
J P Lewis, W F Patterson, J K Carlson
Key methodological assumptions regarding the degree of natural variability and influence of sample handling and storage of elasmobranch vertebral chemistry were assessed using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Vertebral chemistry of juvenile blacktip sharks Carcharhinus limbatus was examined to identify whether differences existed among different regions of the vertebral column, between thoracic vertebrae of individual fish or within individual vertebrae. Additionally, the effects of bleach exposure and storage in ethanol on vertebral chemistry were compared...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023598/the-greenland-shark-somniosus-microcephalus-hemoglobins-and-ligand-binding-properties
#4
Roberta Russo, Daniela Giordano, Gianluca Paredi, Francesco Marchesani, Lisa Milazzo, Giovanna Altomonte, Pietro Del Canale, Stefania Abbruzzetti, Paolo Ascenzi, Guido di Prisco, Cristiano Viappiani, Angela Fago, Stefano Bruno, Giulietta Smulevich, Cinzia Verde
A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years), the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023531/correction-drivers-of-abundance-and-spatial-distribution-of-reef-associated-sharks-in-an-isolated-atoll-reef-system
#5
David M Tickler, Tom B Letessier, Heather J Koldewey, Jessica J Meeuwig
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177374.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021551/the-utility-of-bioenergetics-modelling-in-quantifying-predation-rates-of-marine-apex-predators-ecological-and-fisheries-implications
#6
A Barnett, M Braccini, C L Dudgeon, N L Payne, K G Abrantes, M Sheaves, E P Snelling
Predators play a crucial role in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, the magnitude of this role is often unclear, particularly for large marine predators, as predation rates are difficult to measure directly. If relevant biotic and abiotic parameters can be obtained, then bioenergetics modelling offers an alternative approach to estimating predation rates, and can provide new insights into ecological processes. We integrate demographic and ecological data for a marine apex predator, the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus, with energetics data from the literature, to construct a bioenergetics model to quantify predation rates on key fisheries species in Norfolk Bay, Australia...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020095/a-multiplex-pcr-mini-barcode-assay-to-identify-processed-shark-products-in-the-global-trade
#7
Diego Cardeñosa, Andrew Fields, Debra Abercrombie, Kevin Feldheim, Stanley K H Shea, Demian D Chapman
Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993766/therapeutic-potential-of-shark-anti-icosl-vnar-domains-is-exemplified-in-a-murine-model-of-autoimmune-non-infectious-uveitis
#8
Marina Kovaleva, Katherine Johnson, John Steven, Caroline J Barelle, Andrew Porter
Induced costimulatory ligand (ICOSL) plays an important role in the activation of T cells through its interaction with the inducible costimulator, ICOS. Suppression of full T cell activation can be achieved by blocking this interaction and has been shown to be an effective means of ameliorating disease in models of autoimmunity and inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of a novel class of anti-ICOSL antigen-binding single domains derived from sharks (VNARs) to effectively reduce inflammation in a murine model of non-infectious uveitis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989770/large-batoid-fishes-frequently-consume-stingrays-despite-skeletal-damage
#9
Mason N Dean, Joseph J Bizzarro, Brett Clark, Charlie J Underwood, Zerina Johanson
The shapes of vertebrate teeth are often used as hallmarks of diet. Here, however, we demonstrate evidence of frequent piscivory by cartilaginous fishes with pebble-like teeth that are typically associated with durophagy, the eating of hard-shelled prey. High-resolution micro-computed tomography observation of a jaw specimen from one batoid species and visual investigation of those of two additional species reveal large numbers of embedded stingray spines, arguing that stingray predation of a scale rivalling that of the largest carnivorous sharks may not be uncommon for large, predatory batoids with rounded, non-cutting dentition...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989756/does-detection-range-matter-for-inferring-social-networks-in-a-benthic-shark-using-acoustic-telemetry
#10
Johann Mourier, Nathan Charles Bass, Tristan L Guttridge, Joanna Day, Culum Brown
Accurately estimating contacts between animals can be critical in ecological studies such as examining social structure, predator-prey interactions or transmission of information and disease. While biotelemetry has been used successfully for such studies in terrestrial systems, it is still under development in the aquatic environment. Acoustic telemetry represents an attractive tool to investigate spatio-temporal behaviour of marine fish and has recently been suggested for monitoring underwater animal interactions...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989750/feeding-the-world-s-largest-fish-highly-variable-whale-shark-residency-patterns-at-a-provisioning-site-in-the-philippines
#11
Jordan A Thomson, Gonzalo Araujo, Jessica Labaja, Emer McCoy, Ryan Murray, Alessandro Ponzo
Provisioning wildlife for tourism is a controversial yet widespread practice. We analysed the residency patterns of juvenile whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in Oslob, Philippines, where provisioning has facilitated a large shark-watching operation since 2011. We identified 208 individual sharks over three years, with an average of 18.6 (s.d. = 7.8, range = 6-43) individuals sighted per week. Weekly shark abundance varied seasonally and peak-season abundance (approx. May-November) increased across years...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987416/growth-related-changes-in-non-essential-and-essential-metals-in-the-liver-of-star-spotted-smooth-hounds-dogfish-mustelus-manazo-from-the-northern-region-of-japan
#12
Tetsuya Endo, Osamu Kimura, Masaru Terasaki, Yukiko Fujii, Koichi Haraguchi, Chiho Ohta, Nobuyuki Koga, Yoshihisa Kato
We analyzed Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe concentrations in liver samples from male and female star-spotted smooth-hounds at various life stages. Male sharks of this species are known to reach their maximum body length (BL) more quickly than females, while females are known to mature later and live longer than males. Hepatic Cd and Hg concentrations in males and females markedly increased after maturation, but these increases proceeded earlier in males than in females. Hepatic Zn and Cu concentrations decreased during the growth stage of males and females, and thereafter increased concomitantly with increases of Cd and Hg burdens, forming a U-shaped curve over their lifespan, and the BL at which the lowest concentrations of Zn and Cu were observed was smaller in males than in females...
September 14, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980318/population-biology-of-the-little-gulper-shark-centrophorus-uyato-in-lebanese-waters
#13
M Lteif, R Mouawad, G Khalaf, P Lenfant, B Seret, M Verdoit-Jarraya
A total of 38 individuals of the heavily exploited little gulper shark Centrophorus uyato were collected from Lebanese coastal waters using bottom longlines and trammel nets of different meshes at depths ranging from 115 to 600 m between May 2013 and February 2014. Their total lengths were between 45 and 94 cm and their total mass was from 870 to 6700 g. The sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1, with 20 males and 18 females, but bathymetric sexual segregation occurred. Catch per net setting (CNS) was used as a relative abundance index to detect spatial distribution; trammel nets showed largest CNS ranging from 4·9 to 5·45 kg per unit effort in the north and south, at depths from 120 to 200 m, during spring and summer...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972451/differential-effects-of-temperature-on-oxygen-consumption-and-branchial-fluxes-of-urea-ammonia-and-water-in-the-dogfish-shark-squalus-acanthias-suckleyi
#14
Marina Giacomin, Patricia M Schulte, Chris M Wood
Environmental temperature can greatly influence the homeostasis of ectotherms through its effects on biochemical reactions and whole-animal physiology. Elasmobranchs tend to be N limited and are osmoconformers, retaining ammonia and urea-N at the gills and using the latter as a key osmolyte to maintain high blood osmolality. However, the effects of temperature on these key processes remain largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of acute exposure to different temperatures (7°, 12°, 15°, 18°, 22°C) on oxygen consumption, ammonia, urea-N, and diffusive water fluxes at the gills of Squalus acanthias suckleyi...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969628/bio-mimicking-nano-and-micro-structured-surface-fabrication-for-antibacterial-properties-in-medical-implants
#15
REVIEW
Alka Jaggessar, Hesam Shahali, Asha Mathew, Prasad K D V Yarlagadda
Orthopaedic and dental implants have become a staple of the medical industry and with an ageing population and growing culture for active lifestyles, this trend is forecast to continue. In accordance with the increased demand for implants, failure rates, particularly those caused by bacterial infection, need to be reduced. The past two decades have led to developments in antibiotics and antibacterial coatings to reduce revision surgery and death rates caused by infection. The limited effectiveness of these approaches has spurred research into nano-textured surfaces, designed to mimic the bactericidal properties of some animal, plant and insect species, and their topographical features...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946861/erratum-to-draft-sequencing-and-assembly-of-the-genome-of-the-world-s-largest-fish-the-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-smith-1828
#16
Timothy D Read, Robert A Petit, Sandeep J Joseph, Tauqeer Alam, M Ryan Weil, Maida Ahmad, Ravila Bhimani, Jocelyn S Vuong, Chad P Haase, D Harry Webb, Milton Tan, Alistair D M Dove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945806/shark-spotters-successfully-reducing-spatial-overlap-between-white-sharks-carcharodon-carcharias-and-recreational-water-users-in-false-bay-south-africa
#17
Tamlyn Engelbrecht, Alison Kock, Sarah Waries, M Justin O'Riain
White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators that play an important role in the structure and stability of marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance and protected status, white sharks are still subject to lethal control to reduce the risk of shark bites for recreational water users. The Shark Spotters program, pioneered in Cape Town, South Africa, provides a non-lethal alternative for reducing the risk of human-shark conflict. In this study we assessed the efficacy of the Shark Spotters program in reducing overlap between water users and white sharks at two popular beaches in False Bay, South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944559/harnessing-photochemical-shrinkage-in-direct-laser-writing-for-shape-morphing-of-polymer-sheets
#18
Anton A Bauhofer, Sebastian Krödel, Jan Rys, Osama R Bilal, Andrei Constantinescu, Chiara Daraio
Structures that change their shape in response to external stimuli unfold possibilities for more efficient and versatile production of 3D objects. Direct laser writing (DLW) is a technique based on two-photon polymerization that allows the fabrication of microstructures with complex 3D geometries. Here, it is shown that polymerization shrinkage in DLW can be utilized to create structures with locally controllable residual stresses that enable programmable, self-bending behavior. To demonstrate this concept, planar and 3D-structured sheets are preprogrammed to evolve into bio-inspired shapes (lotus flowers and shark skins)...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944520/human-activities-as-a-driver-of-spatial-variation-in-the-trophic-structure-of-fish-communities-on-pacific-coral-reefs
#19
Jonathan L W Ruppert, Laurent Vigliola, Michel Kulbicki, Pierre Labrosse, Marie-Josée Fortin, Mark G Meekan
Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, pollution and fishing impact the trophic structure of coral reef fishes, which can influence ecosystem health and function. Although these impacts may be ubiquitous, they are not consistent across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Using an extensive database of fish biomass sampled using underwater visual transects on coral reefs, we modelled the impact of human activities on food webs at Pacific-wide and regional (1,000s-10,000s km) scales. We found significantly lower biomass of sharks and carnivores, where there were higher densities of human populations (hereafter referred to as human activity); however, these patterns were not spatially consistent as there were significant differences in the trophic structures of fishes among biogeographic regions...
September 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940897/effects-of-sample-cleaning-and-storage-on-the-elemental-composition-of-shark-vertebrae
#20
John A Mohan, Thomas C TinHan, Nathan R Miller, R J David Wells
RATIONALE: Application of vertebral chemistry in elasmobranchs has the potential to progress our understanding of individual migration patterns and population dynamics. However, the influence of handling artifacts such as sample cleaning and storage on vertebral chemistry is unclear and requires experimental investigation. METHODS: Vertebrae centra from blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) were cleaned with bleach (NaOCl) for five minutes (m), 1 hour (h) and 24 (h) in a cleaning experiment and stored frozen, in 70% ethanol, and 10% formalin treatments for 20 days in a storage experiment...
September 20, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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