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Vydianathan Ravi, Byrappa Venkatesh
Boasting nearly 30,000 species, teleosts account for half of all extant vertebrates and approximately 98% of all ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii). Teleosts are also the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, exhibiting an astonishing level of morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversity. Previous studies had indicated that the teleost lineage has experienced an additional whole-genome duplication event. Recent comparative genomic analyses of teleosts and other bony vertebrates using spotted gar (a nonteleost ray-finned fish) and elephant shark (a cartilaginous fish) as outgroups have revealed several divergent features of teleost genomes...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, David O Carter, Stephanie Regan
The feeding patterns of species of large sharks on human corpses are well documented in the literature however, that of smaller sharks are less known. This may introduce uncertainty in the medicolegal conclusions. For that reason, accurate identification of patterns of shark predation is very relevant, specifically in areas bordered by the sea. In the case described here, an unidentified lesion was noted on the body of a victim of a scuba diving accident off the island of Kauai, in Hawaii. The aim of this study was to identify the origin of the lesion and investigate its potential to inform on the context of death and/or decomposition...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
August G Domel, Mehdi Saadat, James C Weaver, Hossein Haj-Hariri, Katia Bertoldi, George V Lauder
There have been significant efforts recently aimed at improving the aerodynamic performance of aerofoils through the modification of their surfaces. Inspired by the drag-reducing properties of the tooth-like denticles that cover the skin of sharks, we describe here experimental and simulation-based investigations into the aerodynamic effects of novel denticle-inspired designs placed along the suction side of an aerofoil. Through parametric modelling to query a wide range of different designs, we discovered a set of denticle-inspired surface structures that achieve simultaneous drag reduction and lift generation on an aerofoil, resulting in lift-to-drag ratio improvements comparable to the best-reported for traditional low-profile vortex generators and even outperforming these existing designs at low angles of attack with improvements of up to 323%...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
A M De Wysiecki, A C Milessi, R Wiff, A J Jaureguizar
An exceptional catch of 97 broadnose sevengill sharks Notorynchus cepedianus in Samborombón Bay, Argentina, in 2013 is described from a single overnight gillnet fishing operation. Sixty-five female and 32 male N. cepedianus, ranging in size between 105-201 and 112-190 cm LT , respectively, were recorded in this catch. Fishers' observations and published information suggest that this species aggregates in the area seasonally for feeding.
February 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
H Bornatowski, R Loose, C L S Sampaio, O B F Gadig, A Carvalho-Filho, R R Domingues
Occurrence of multiple whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus in the Atlantic Ocean is reported for the first time from near a sunken ferry off the Paraná coast in south-eastern Brazil. This occurrence is hypothesized to have been caused by either a human introduction or a remarkably long oceanic displacement.
February 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Xiaolong Qiu, Jen-Huang Huang, Trisha M Westerhof, Jeremy A Lombardo, Katrina M Henrikson, Marissa Pennell, Pedram P Pourfard, Edward L Nelson, Pulak Nath, Jered B Haun
Maximizing the speed and efficiency at which single cells can be liberated from tissues would dramatically advance cell-based diagnostics and therapies. Conventional methods involve numerous manual processing steps and long enzymatic digestion times, yet are still inefficient. In previous work, we developed a microfluidic device with a network of branching channels to improve the dissociation of cell aggregates into single cells. However, this device was not tested on tissue specimens, and further development was limited by high cost and low feature resolution...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
G Boldrocchi, Y Moussa Omar, D Rowat, R Bettinetti
The Gulf of Tadjoura is located in the Horn of Africa and is widely recognized as an important site where the zooplanktivorous whale sharks seasonally aggregate from October to February. The surface zooplankton community (0-3m) was weekly sampled from November 2016 to February 2017 in two sites during the whale shark aggregation period. A total of 12 phyla were identified. Copepoda represented the most abundant and diverse group with 29 different genera, and contributed with an average of 82% of the mean zooplankton density of approximately 6600indm-3...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R M Hillary, M V Bravington, T A Patterson, P Grewe, R Bradford, P Feutry, R Gunasekera, V Peddemors, J Werry, M P Francis, C A J Duffy, B D Bruce
Conservation concerns exist for many sharks but robust estimates of abundance are often lacking. Improving population status is a performance measure for species under conservation or recovery plans, yet the lack of data permitting estimation of population size means the efficacy of management actions can be difficult to assess, and achieving the goal of removing species from conservation listing challenging. For potentially dangerous species, like the white shark, balancing conservation and public safety demands is politically and socially complex, often leading to vigorous debate about their population status...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elitza S Germanov, Andrea D Marshall, Lars Bejder, Maria Cristina Fossi, Neil R Loneragan
Microplastic pollution can impact filter-feeding marine megafauna, namely mobulid rays, filter-feeding sharks, and baleen whales. Emerging research on these flagship species highlights potential exposure to microplastic contamination and plastic-associated toxins. Research and its wide communication are needed to understand the magnitude of the issue and improve marine stewardship.
February 5, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Anne Debourgogne, Nathan P Wiederhold, Marie Zaffino, Deanna Sutton, Rachel E Burns, Salvatore Frasca, Michael W Hyatt, Carolyn Cray
Fusarium spp. are saprobic moulds that are responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. However, we need epidemiological tools to reliably trace the circulation of such fungal strains within medical or veterinary facilities, to recognize environmental contaminations that might lead to infection and to improve our understanding of factors responsible for the onset of outbreaks. In this study, we used molecular genotyping to investigate clustered cases of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) infection that occurred in eight Sphyrnidae sharks under managed care at a public aquarium...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Fergus Shanahan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Bonnie J Holmes, Lisa C Pope, Samuel M Williams, Ian R Tibbetts, Mike B Bennett, Jennifer R Ovenden
Multiple paternity has been documented as a reproductive strategy in both viviparous and ovoviviparous elasmobranchs, leading to the assumption that multiple mating may be ubiquitous in these fishes. However, with the majority of studies conducted on coastal and nearshore elasmobranchs that often form mating aggregations, parallel studies on pelagic, semi-solitary species are lacking. The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) is a large pelagic shark that has an aplacental viviparous reproductive mode which is unique among the carcharhinids...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Catharine J Wheaton, Natalie D Mylniczenko, John M Rimoldi, Rama S V S Gadepalli, R Hart, Bobbi R O'Hara, Andrew N Evans
Sharks and rays are popular species used in wildlife ecotourism and aquariums to educate the public on the behavior, ecology and conservation challenges of elasmobranchs. To understand long-term physiological health and welfare under varying social and husbandry conditions, we developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure stress/ionoregulatory hormones in managed and semi-free range southern rays (Hypanus americanus). Banked serum and interrenal samples from 27 female rays managed at Disney's The Seas with Nemo and Friends® and Castaway Cay were used to evaluate measurement of 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1αOHB) relative to corticosterone (B)...
January 31, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Shimelis B Dessu, René M Price, Tiffany G Troxler, John S Kominoski
Since the 1880s, hydrological modification of the Greater Florida Everglades has reduced water levels and flows in Everglades National Park (ENP). The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP) began in 2000 to restore pre-drainage flows and preserve the natural landscape of the Everglades. However, sea-level rise (SLR) was not considered in the development of CERP. We used long-term data (2001-2016) from the Florida Coastal Everglades-Long Term Ecological Research Program to quantify and model the spatial dynamics of water levels, salinity, and nutrients in response to changes in climate, freshwater management and SLR in the Shark River Slough (SRS), ENP...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
J F Deang, A K Persons, A L Oppedal, H Rhee, R D Moser, M F Horstemeyer
OBJECTIVES: This paper studies A. probatocephalus teeth and investigates the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the enameloid and dentin. DESIGN: Nanoindentation tests with a max load of 1000 μN and X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were performed along the diameter of the polished sample. Microstructural analysis of the dentin tubules was performed from SEM images. RESULTS: From nanoindentation testing, the dentin of the sheepshead teeth has a nanoindentation hardness of 0...
February 2, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Pelayo Salinas-de-León, David Acuña-Marrero, Etienne Rastoin, Alan M Friedlander, Mary K Donovan, Enric Sala
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1911.].
2018: PeerJ
Koh Onimaru, Fumio Motone, Itsuki Kiyatake, Kiyonori Nishida, Shigehiro Kuraku
BACKGROUND: Studying cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans) has helped us understand vertebrate evolution and diversity. However, resources such as genome sequences, embryos, and detailed staging tables are limited for species within this clade. To overcome these limitations, we have focused on a species, the brownbanded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), which is a relatively common aquarium species that lays eggs continuously throughout the year. In addition, because of its relatively small genome size, this species is promising for molecular studies...
February 3, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Kajal Chakraborty, Dexy Joseph
Crude liver oil of leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus was clarified by sequential degumming, decolorization and vacuum deodorization. The refined oil was added with ethyl acetate extract of seaweeds and various physiochemical parameters were evaluated in a time-reliant accelerated storage study. Significantly greater induction time was observed for the oil supplemented with Sargassum wightii and Sargassum ilicifolium (>4.5h) than other seaweed extracts and control oil (~1h). Among different seaweeds, the ethylacetate extracts of S...
January 2018: Food Research International
Ross T Barnard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Raquel Xavier, Ricardo Severino, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Camino Gestal, Rita Freitas, D James Harris, Ana Veríssimo, Daniela Rosado, Joanne Cable
BACKGROUND: The Apicomplexa from aquatic environments are understudied relative to their terrestrial counterparts, and the seminal work assessing the phylogenetic relations of fish-infecting lineages is mostly based on freshwater hosts. The taxonomic uncertainty of some apicomplexan groups, such as the coccidia, is high and many genera were recently shown to be paraphyletic, questioning the value of strict morphological and ecological traits for parasite classification. Here, we surveyed the genetic diversity of the Apicomplexa in several commercially valuable vertebrates from the North-East Atlantic, including farmed fish...
January 25, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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