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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209822/complete-genome-sequence-of-methanohalophilus-halophilus-dsm-3094-t-isolated-from-a-cyanobacterial-mat-and-bottom-deposits-at-hamelin-pool-shark-bay-northwestern-australia
#1
Stéphane L'Haridon, Erwan Corre, Yue Guan, Manikandan Vinu, Violetta La Cono, Mickail Yakimov, Ulrich Stingl, Laurent Toffin, Mohamed Jebbar
The complete genome sequence of Methanohalophilus halophilus DSM 3094(T), a member of the Methanosarcinaceae family and the Methanosarcianales order, consists of 2,022,959 bp in one contig and contains 2,137 predicted genes. The genome is consistent with a halophilic methylotrophic anaerobic lifestyle, including the methylotrophic and CO2-H2 methanogensis pathways.
February 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207874/growth-and-life-history-variability-of-the-grey-reef-shark-carcharhinus-amblyrhynchos-across-its-range
#2
Darcy Bradley, Eric Conklin, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Douglas J McCauley, Kydd Pollock, Bruce E Kendall, Steven D Gaines, Jennifer E Caselle
For broadly distributed, often overexploited species such as elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), conservation management would benefit from understanding how life history traits change in response to local environmental and ecological factors. However, fishing obfuscates this objective by causing complex and often mixed effects on the life histories of target species. Disentangling the many drivers of life history variability requires knowledge of elasmobranch populations in the absence of fishing, which is rarely available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177292/intestinal-helminth-fauna-of-the-shortfin-mako-isurus-oxyrinchus-elasmobranchii-lamnidae-in-the-northeast-atlantic-ocean
#3
Jaime Penadés-Suay, Jesús Tomás, Manuel Merchán, Francisco Javier Aznar
Large oceanic sharks represent a suitable model to investigate the influence of a host's oceanic conditions on the structure of its helminth communities. In this study, we describe the intestinal helminth fauna, and investigate determinants of infracommunity structure, in 39 specimens of shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus collected in the NE Atlantic. Six cestode species were found in the spiral valve of makos: 3 are typical from lamnid sharks, namely, gravid specimens of Clistobothrium montaukensis, Gymnorhynchus isuri and Ceratobothrium xanthocephalum, and 3 are immature specimens of cestode species common to several elasmobranchs, namely, Dinobothrium septaria, Nybelinia lingualis, and Phyllobothrium cf...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171758/paleobiology-a-tooth-for-a-tooth
#4
Zerina Johanson
Many vertebrates replace teeth through shedding of the functional tooth. New analyses of a fossil fish demonstrate that shedding involved tooth resorption, a primitive feature in bony fishes, but absent in sharks and their relatives.
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168758/crystal-structure-of-tbc1d15-gtpase-activating-protein-gap-domain-and-its-activity-on-rab-gtpases
#5
Yan-Na Chen, Xin Gu, X Edward Zhou, Weidong Wang, Dandan Cheng, Yinghua Ge, Fei Ye, H Eric Xu, Zhengbing Lv
TBC1D15 belongs to the TBC (Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16) domain family and functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rab GTPases. So far, the structure of TBC1D15 or the TBC1D15·Rab complex has not been determined, thus, its catalytic mechanism on Rab GTPases is still unclear. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of the Shark and Sus TBC1D15 GAP domains, to 2.8 Å and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. Shark-TBC1D15 and Sus-TBC1D15 belong to the same subfamily of TBC domain-containing proteins, and their GAP-domain structures are highly similar...
February 7, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165147/a-review-on-the-morphology-of-ovarian-follicles-in-elasmobranchs-a-case-study-in-rhizoprionodon-taylori
#6
REVIEW
Daniela S Waltrick, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Cynthia A Awruch
The identification of the elasmobranch secondary ovarian follicles and their function can be challenging and the inconsistent use of terminology derived from other taxa is a matter of ongoing debate. In this study, the available information on the histology of the elasmobranch secondary ovarian follicles derived from atresia (preovulatory follicles) or ovulation (postovulatory follicles) is reviewed highlighting their morphology and steroidogenic capacity. Based on this literature review, the ovarian follicles of the Australian sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon taylori were classified according to their preovulatory or postovulatory origin...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159401/relationships-of-mercury-concentrations-across-tissue-types-muscle-regions-and-fins-for-two-shark-species
#7
Jason R O'Bryhim, Douglas H Adams, Julia L Y Spaet, Gary Mills, Stacey L Lance
Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152640/murine-raw-264-7-cell-line-as-an-immune-target-are-we-missing-something
#8
Liza Merly, Sylvia L Smith
The popular murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, is often used to initially screen natural products for bioactivity and to predict their potential effect in vivo or on primary cells. The cell line response is considered to reflect the potential human de novo response, and is used to evaluate the effective bioactivity of the product. Here, we compared the cytokine response of RAW 264.7 cells to shark cartilage (SC) with that of human leukocytes to determine whether the cell line response was a reliable predictor of the cytokine response one can expect from similarly stimulated human primary cells...
February 2, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144984/embryonic-development-of-the-axial-column-in-the-little-skate-leucoraja-erinacea
#9
Katharine E Criswell, Michael I Coates, J Andrew Gillis
The morphological patterns and molecular mechanisms of vertebral column development are well understood in bony fishes (osteichthyans). However, vertebral column morphology in elasmobranch chondrichthyans (e.g., sharks and skates) differs from that of osteichthyans, and its development has not been extensively studied. Here, we characterize vertebral development in an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, using microCT, paraffin histology, and whole-mount skeletal preparations. Vertebral development begins with the condensation of mesenchyme, first around the notochord, and subsequently around the neural tube and caudal artery and vein...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132663/intraguild-interactions-between-five-congeneric-species-of-thaparocleidus-monogenoidea-from-the-freshwater-shark-wallago-attu-lucknow-india
#10
N Agrawal, S Rajvanshi, A Asthana
The fish host (Wallago attu) and monogenoid parasite (Thaparocleidus sp.) have been recorded during 2 years (2011 and 2012) to investigate intra/interspecific interactions among query species (T. sudhakari (Gusev, 1976) Lim, 1996; T. indicus (Kulkarni, 1969) Lim, 1996; T. gomtius (Jain, 1952) Lim, 1996; T. yogendraii Agrawal, 1981 and T. wallagonius Jain, 1952) in the light of parasitic worm burden, morphological and molecular data. Each species is highly host specific (oioxenous), with a specialized functional niche...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132643/comparative-transcriptomics-of-elasmobranchs-and-teleosts-highlight-important-processes-in-adaptive-immunity-and-regional-endothermy
#11
Nicholas J Marra, Vincent P Richards, Angela Early, Steve M Bogdanowicz, Paulina D Pavinski Bitar, Michael J Stanhope, Mahmood S Shivji
BACKGROUND: Comparative genomic and/or transcriptomic analyses involving elasmobranchs remain limited, with genome level comparisons of the elasmobranch immune system to that of higher vertebrates, non-existent. This paper reports a comparative RNA-seq analysis of heart tissue from seven species, including four elasmobranchs and three teleosts, focusing on immunity, but concomitantly seeking to identify genetic similarities shared by the two lamnid sharks and the single billfish in our study, which could be linked to convergent evolution of regional endothermy...
January 30, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130671/a-new-species-of-pseudopandarus-kirtisinghe-1950-copepoda-siphonostomatoida-pandaridae-from-sharks-of-the-genus-squalus-l-in-new-caledonian-waters
#12
James P Bernot, Geoffrey A Boxshall
Both sexes of a new species of pandarid copepod are described from sharks of the genus Squalus L. (Squaliformes: Squalidae). Specimens of Pseudopandarus cairae n. sp. were collected from Squalus bucephalus Last, Séret & Pogonoski and S. melanurus Fourmanoir & Rivaton in New Caledonian waters, the first parasitic copepod to be described from either host species. This is the eighth nominal species of Pseudopandarus Kirtisinghe, 1950 and the first to be described from a shark of the order Squaliformes. Pseudopandarus cairae n...
February 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120812/correction-to-is-the-scaling-of-swim-speed-in-sharks-driven-by-metabolism
#13
David M P Jacoby, Penthai Siriwat, Robin Freeman, Chris Carbone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117510/allergenicity-of-bony-and-cartilaginous-fish-molecular-and-immunological-properties
#14
REVIEW
J N Stephen, M F Sharp, T Ruethers, A Taki, D E Campbell, A L Lopata
Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes)...
January 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117184/evidence-of-microplastic-ingestion-in-the-shark-galeus-melastomus-rafinesque-1810-in-the-continental-shelf-off-the-western-mediterranean-sea
#15
Carme Alomar, Salud Deudero
Microplastic (<5 mm) ingestion has been recorded in Galeus melastomus, the blackmouth catshark, around the Balearic Islands. In total 125 individuals were analyzed for microplastic ingestion. Results have shown that 16.80% of the specimens had ingested a mean value of 0.34 ± 0.07 microplastics/individual. Stomach fullness index ranged from 0.86 to 38.89% and regression analyses showed that fuller stomachs contained more microplastics. A higher quantity of filament type microplastics were identified compared to granular or hard plastic type...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117131/bioaccumulation-and-biomagnification-of-mercury-and-methylmercury-in-four-sympatric-coastal-sharks-in-a-protected-subtropical-lagoon
#16
Adam G Matulik, David W Kerstetter, Neil Hammerschlag, Timothy Divoll, Chad R Hammerschmidt, David C Evers
Mercury bioaccumulation is frequently observed in marine ecosystems, often with stronger effects at higher trophic levels. We compared total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from muscle with length, comparative isotopic niche, and diet (via δ(13)C and δ(15)N) among four sympatric coastal sharks in Florida Bay (USA): blacknose, blacktip, bull, and lemon. Mercury in blacknose and blacktip sharks increased significantly with size, whereas bull and lemon sharks had a high variance in mercury relative to size...
January 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116055/the-development-of-an-intermediate-duration-tag-to-characterize-the-diving-behavior-of-large-whales
#17
Bruce R Mate, Ladd M Irvine, Daniel M Palacios
The development of high-resolution archival tag technologies has revolutionized our understanding of diving behavior in marine taxa such as sharks, turtles, and seals during their wide-ranging movements. However, similar applications for large whales have lagged behind due to the difficulty of keeping tags on the animals for extended periods of time. Here, we present a novel configuration of a transdermally attached biologging device called the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag. The ADB tag contains sensors that record hydrostatic pressure, three-axis accelerometers, magnetometers, water temperature, and light level, all sampled at 1 Hz...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108644/bicarbonate-sensing-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-is-present-in-the-cell-cytoplasm-and-nucleus-of-multiple-shark-tissues
#18
Jinae N Roa, Martin Tresguerres
The enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) to produce the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Because sAC and sAC-related enzymes are found throughout phyla from cyanobacteria to mammals and they regulate cell physiology in response to internal and external changes in pH, CO2, and HCO3(-), sAC is deemed an evolutionarily conserved acid-base sensor. Previously, sAC has been reported in dogfish shark and round ray gill cells, where they sense and counteract blood alkalosis by regulating the activity of V-type H(+)- ATPase...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107413/improving-the-conservation-of-mediterranean-chondrichthyans-the-elasmomed-dna-barcode-reference-library
#19
Alessia Cariani, Silvia Messinetti, Alice Ferrari, Marco Arculeo, Juan J Bonello, Leanne Bonnici, Rita Cannas, Pierluigi Carbonara, Alessandro Cau, Charis Charilaou, Najib El Ouamari, Fabio Fiorentino, Maria Cristina Follesa, Germana Garofalo, Daniel Golani, Ilaria Guarniero, Robert Hanner, Farid Hemida, Omar Kada, Sabrina Lo Brutto, Cecilia Mancusi, Gabriel Morey, Patrick J Schembri, Fabrizio Serena, Letizia Sion, Marco Stagioni, Angelo Tursi, Nedo Vrgoc, Dirk Steinke, Fausto Tinti
Cartilaginous fish are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors and environmental change because of their K-selected reproductive strategy. Accurate data from scientific surveys and landings are essential to assess conservation status and to develop robust protection and management plans. Currently available data are often incomplete or incorrect as a result of inaccurate species identifications, due to a high level of morphological stasis, especially among closely related taxa. Moreover, several diagnostic characters clearly visible in adult specimens are less evident in juveniles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093310/effects-of-glucose-and-insulin-administration-on-glucose-transporter-expression-in-the-north-pacific-spiny-dogfish-squalus-suckleyi
#20
Courtney A Deck, W Gary Anderson, Patrick J Walsh
Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) are a primarily carnivorous group of fish, consuming few carbohydrates. Further, they tend to exhibit delayed responses to glucose and insulin administration in vivo relative to mammals, leading to a presumption of glucose-intolerance. To investigate the glucoregulatory capabilities of the spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), plasma glucose concentration, muscle and liver glycogen content, and glucose transporter (glut1 and 4) mRNA levels were measured following intra-arterial administration of bovine insulin (10 ng kg(-1)) or an approximate doubling of fasting plasma glucose concentration...
January 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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