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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932958/the-shark-alar-hypothalamus-molecular-characterization-of-prosomeric-subdivisions-and-evolutionary-trends
#1
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Idoia Quintana-Urzainqui, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930309/sox2-progenitors-in-sharks-link-taste-development-with-the-evolution-of-regenerative-teeth-from-denticles
#2
Kyle J Martin, Liam J Rasch, Rory L Cooper, Brian D Metscher, Zerina Johanson, Gareth J Fraser
Teeth and denticles belong to a specialized class of mineralizing epithelial appendages called odontodes. Although homology of oral teeth in jawed vertebrates is well supported, the evolutionary origin of teeth and their relationship with other odontode types is less clear. We compared the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing development of teeth and skin denticles in sharks, where both odontode types are retained. We show that teeth and denticles are deeply homologous developmental modules with equivalent underlying odontode gene regulatory networks (GRNs)...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923124/the-triassic
#3
Michael J Benton
The Triassic, lasting from 252 to 201 million years (Myr) ago, was crucial in the origin of modern ecosystems. It is the seventh of the 11 geological systems or periods into which the Phanerozoic, the fossiliferous last 540 million years, of Earth history is divided. It might seem strange to select just one of these divisions of time as somehow more significant than the others. However, this was the span of time during which all of the key modern vertebrate groups originated - the neoselachian sharks, neopterygian bony fishes, lissamphibians, turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilomorphs, and mammals...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916864/marine-organisms-with-anti-diabetes-properties
#4
REVIEW
Chiara Lauritano, Adrianna Ianora
Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes...
December 1, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912002/a-novel-application-of-multi-event-modeling-to-estimate-class-segregation-in-a-highly-migratory-oceanic-vertebrate
#5
T K Chapple, T Chambert, P E Kanive, S J Jorgensen, J J Rotella, S D Anderson, A B Carlisle, B A Block
Spatial segregation of animals by class (i.e., maturity or sex) within a population due to differential rates of temporary emigration (TE) from study sites can be an important life history feature to consider in population assessment and management. However, such rates are poorly known; new quantitative approaches to address these knowledge gaps are needed. We present a novel application of multi-event models that takes advantage of two sources of detections to differentiate temporary emigration from apparent absence to quantify class segregation within a study population of double-marked (photo-identified and tagged with coded acoustic transmitters) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in central California...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903624/the-shark-heart-crowned
#6
William Joyce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903622/sharks-swim-side-stroke-to-save-energy
#7
Sandra A Binning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901304/predicting-occurrence-of-juvenile-shark-habitat-to-improve-conservation-planning
#8
Beverly Z L Oh, Ana M M Sequeira, Mark G Meekan, Jonathan L W Ruppert, Jessica J Meeuwig
Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of the occurrence of juvenile shark habitat...
November 30, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894769/identification-of-molecular-species-of-monoalkyldiacylglycerol-from-the-squid-berryteuthis-magister-using-liquid-chromatography-apci-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#9
Viacheslav G Rybin, Andrey B Imbs, Darja A Demidkova, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Monoalkyldiacylglycerol (MADAG) is an important lipid class in mollusks, corals, starfishes, and some species of zooplankton. Up to 80% of liver oils of squids and sharks are comprised of MADAG. Except for one fish species, there are no data on the composition of MADAG molecular species of marine organisms. The molecular species of MADAG obtained from digestive glands of the deep-sea squid Berryteuthis magister were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were applied...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892600/artificial-neural-networks-and-geometric-morphometric-methods-as-a-means-for-classification-a-case-study-using-teeth-from-carcharhinus-sp-carcharhinidae
#10
K J Soda, D E Slice, G J P Naylor
Over the past few decades, geometric morphometric methods have become increasingly popular and powerful tools to describe morphological data while over the same period artificial neural networks have had a similar rise in the classification of specimens to preconceived groups. However, there has been little research into how well these two systems operate together, particularly in comparison to preexisting techniques. In this study, geometric morphometric data and multilayer perceptrons, a style of artificial neural network, were used to classify shark teeth from the genus Carcharhinus to species...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889924/dental-ontogeny-of-a-white-shark-embryo
#11
Taketeru Tomita, Kei Miyamoto, Akira Kawaguchi, Minoru Toda, Shin-Ichiro Oka, Ryo Nozu, Keiichi Sato
Unlike most viviparous vertebrates, lamniform sharks develop functional teeth during early gestation. This feature is considered to be related to their unique reproductive mode where the embryo grows to a large size via feeding on nutritive eggs in utero. However, the developmental process of embryonic teeth is largely uninvestigated. We conducted X-ray microcomputed tomography to observe the dentitions of early-, mid-, and full-term embryos of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes, Lamnidae)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882968/population-genetics-clues-to-shy-sharks-in-seawater-dna
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881803/inferring-animal-social-networks-and-leadership-applications-for-passive-monitoring-arrays
#13
David M P Jacoby, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Robin Freeman
Analyses of animal social networks have frequently benefited from techniques derived from other disciplines. Recently, machine learning algorithms have been adopted to infer social associations from time-series data gathered using remote, telemetry systems situated at provisioning sites. We adapt and modify existing inference methods to reveal the underlying social structure of wide-ranging marine predators moving through spatial arrays of passive acoustic receivers. From six months of tracking data for grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at Palmyra atoll in the Pacific Ocean, we demonstrate that some individuals emerge as leaders within the population and that this behavioural coordination is predicted by both sex and the duration of co-occurrences between conspecifics...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878965/a-simplified-procedure-for-antibody-engineering-by-yeast-surface-display-coupling-display-levels-and-target-binding-by-ribosomal-skipping
#14
Julius Grzeschik, Steffen C Hinz, Doreen Könning, Thomas Pirzer, Stefan Becker, Stefan Zielonka, Harald Kolmar
Yeast surface display is a valuable, widely used method for protein engineering. However, current yeast display applications rely on the staining of epitope tags in order to verify full-length presentation of the protein of interest on the cell surface. We aimed at developing a modified yeast display approach that relies on ribosomal skipping, thereby enabling the translation of two proteins from one open reading frame and, in that manner, generating an intracellular fluorescence signal. This improved setup is based on a 2A sequence that is encoded between the protein to be displayed and a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
November 23, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878818/virtual-reconstruction-of-the-skeletal-labyrinth-of-two-lamnid-sharks-elasmobranchii-lamniformes
#15
L Schnetz, J Kriwet, C Pfaff
The first virtual reconstruction of the skeletal labyrinth of the porbeagle shark Lamna nasus and the shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus is presented here using high-resolution micro-computed tomography. The results, in comparison with previously published information, suggest relationships between skeletal labyrinth morphology and locomotion mode in chondrichthyans, but also show that further studies are required to establish such connections. Nevertheless, this study adds to the knowledge of the skeletal labyrinth morphology in two apex elasmobranch species...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871362/actin-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-that-signals-tissue-injury-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Naren Srinivasan, Oliver Gordon, Susan Ahrens, Anna Franz, Safia Deddouche, Probir Chakravarty, David Phillips, Ali A Yunus, Michael K Rosen, Rita S Valente, Luis Teixeira, Barry Thompson, Marc S Dionne, Will Wood, Caetano Reis E Sousa
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules released by dead cells that trigger sterile inflammation and, in vertebrates, adaptive immunity. Actin is a DAMP detected in mammals by the receptor, DNGR-1, expressed by dendritic cells (DCs). DNGR-1 is phosphorylated by Src-family kinases and recruits the tyrosine kinase Syk to promote DC cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens. Here we report that actin is also a DAMP in invertebrates that lack DCs and adaptive immunity. Administration of actin to Drosophila melanogaster triggers a response characterised by selective induction of STAT target genes in the fat body through the cytokine Upd3 and its JAK/STAT-coupled receptor, Domeless...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865111/camelid-and-shark-single-domain-antibodies-structural-features-and-therapeutic-potential
#17
REVIEW
Doreen Könning, Stefan Zielonka, Julius Grzeschik, Martin Empting, Bernhard Valldorf, Simon Krah, Christian Schröter, Carolin Sellmann, Björn Hock, Harald Kolmar
In addition to canonical antibodies composed of heavy and light chains, the adaptive immune systems of camelids and cartilaginous fish comprise heavy-chain only isotypes (HcAb) devoid of light chains, where antigen-binding is mediated exclusively by one variable domain. Due to their inherent favorable attributes, such as high affinity and specificity for their cognate antigen, extraordinary stability, small size and, most importantly, the possibility to complement classical antibodies in terms of 'drugable' target-space, HcAb-derived entities evolved as promising candidates for biomedical applications of which many have already proven to be successful in early stage clinical trials...
November 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864942/a-review-of-capture-and-post-release-mortality-of-elasmobranchs
#18
REVIEW
J R Ellis, S R McCully Phillips, F Poisson
There is a need to better understand the survivorship of discarded fishes, both for commercial stocks and species of conservation concern. Within European waters, the landing obligations that are currently being phased in as part of the European Union's reformed common fisheries policy means that an increasing number of fish stocks, with certain exceptions, should not be discarded unless it can be demonstrated that there is a high probability of survival. This study reviews the various approaches that have been used to examine the discard survival of elasmobranchs, both in terms of at-vessel mortality (AVM) and post-release mortality (PRM), with relevant findings summarized for both the main types of fishing gear used and by taxonomic group...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864912/inferring-contemporary-and-historical-genetic-connectivity-from-juveniles
#19
Pierre Feutry, Oliver Berry, Peter M Kyne, Richard D Pillans, Rich Hillary, Peter M Grewe, James R Marthick, Grant Johnson, Rasanthi M Gunasekera, Nicholas J Bax, Mark Bravington
Measuring population connectivity is a critical task in conservation biology. While genetic markers can provide reliable long-term historical estimates of population connectivity, scientists are still limited in their ability to determine contemporary patterns of gene flow, the most practical time frame for management. Here, we tackled this issue by developing a new approach that only requires juvenile sampling at a single time period. To demonstrate the usefulness of our method, we used the Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), a critically endangered species of river sharks found only in tropical northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862476/analysis-of-the-binding-loops-configuration-and-surface-adaptation-of-different-crystallized-single-domain-antibodies-in-response-to-various-antigens
#20
Mohammed M Al Qaraghuli, Valerie A Ferro
Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the biomedical field through their ubiquitous utilization in different diagnostics and therapeutic applications. Despite this widespread use, their large size and structural complexity have limited their versatility in specific applications. The antibody variable region that is responsible for binding antigen is embodied within domains that can be rescued individually as single-domain antibody (sdAb) fragments. Because of the unique characteristics of sdAbs, such as low molecular weight, high physicochemical stability, and the ability to bind antigens inaccessible to conventional antibodies, they represent a viable alternative to full-length antibodies...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
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