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Sea turtle

Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Luca Bracchetti, John Mark Nalocca, Emanuela Frapiccini, Mauro Marini, Giovanni Caprioli, Gianni Sagratini, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are priority contaminants that bioaccumulate through the food webs and affect the biology of a variety of resident and migratory species, including sea turtles. Few studies have evaluated toxicological biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and PCBs in these animals. The present paper reports the results of an initial field study to quantify the association between plasma concentrations of PAHs/PCBs and whole blood cell expression of gene biomarkers in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) rescued along the Italian coasts of the northern and central areas of the Adriatic Sea...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Emily V Buckner, Daniel L Hernández, Jameal F Samhouri
Conservation efforts tend to focus on the direct impacts humans have on their surrounding environment; however there are also many ways in which people indirectly affect ecosystems. Recent research on ecological subsidies-the transfer of energy and nutrients from one ecosystem to another-has highlighted the importance of nutrient exchange for maintaining productivity and diversity at a landscape scale, while also pointing toward the fragility of ecotones and vulnerability of subsidies to human activities. We review the recent literature on landscape connectivity and ecosystem subsidies from aquatic systems to terrestrial systems...
November 10, 2017: Ambio
Karen Pankaew, Sarah L Milton
Following emergence from the nest, sea turtle hatchling dispersal can be disrupted by artificial lights or skyglow from urban areas. Mis- or disorientation may increase exposure to predation, thermal stress, and dehydration, and consume valuable energy, thus decreasing the likelihood of survival. In this study hatchlings were run on a treadmill for 200m or 500m to investigate the physiological impacts of disorientation crawling on loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtle hatchlings...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Javier Hernández-Fernández
The hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, is an endangered species of the Caribbean Colombian coast due to anthropic and natural factors that have decreased their population levels. Little is known about the genes that are involved in their immune system, sex determination, aging and others important functions. The data generated represents RNA sequencing and the first de-novo assembly of transcripts expressed in the blood of the hawksbill sea turtle. The raw FASTQ files were deposited in the NCBI SRA database with accession number SRX2653641...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Kenji Tsukano, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Jun Noda, Makio Yanagisawa, Kazunari Kameda, Koichiro Sera, Yasunobu Nishi, Toshio Shimamori, Yasuyo Morimoto, Hiroshi Yokota, Mitsuhiko Asakawa
The purpose of this study was to compare the concentration of trace elements in the plasma of sea turtles that inhabited the suburban (Okinawa Main Island, n=8) and the rural coast (Yaeyama Island, n=57) in Okinawa, Japan. Particle induced X-ray emission allowed detection of 20 trace and major elements. The wild sea turtles in the suburban coast in Okinawa were found to have high concentrations of Pb, Si, and Ti in the plasma when compared to the rural area but there were no significant changes in the Al, As, and Hg concentrations...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Shamim Shamim, Thomas B Waltzek, Roger Huerlimann, Ellen Ariel
Green turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) are endangered marine herbivores that break down food particles, primarily sea grasses, through microbial fermentation. However, the microbial community and its role in health and disease are still largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated and compared the fecal bacterial communities of eight wild-captured green turtles to four stranded turtles in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) regions that include Bowen and Townsville. We used high-throughput sequencing analysis targeting the hypervariable V1- V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
October 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
K A Thompson, M G Papich, B Higgins, J Flanagan, E F Christiansen, C A Harms
Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent that nonselectively inhibits cyclooxygenase, with both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition. Recent studies on COX receptor expression in reptiles suggest that nonselective COX inhibitors may be more appropriate than more selective inhibitors in some reptiles, but few pharmacokinetic studies are available. The goal of this study was to determine single- and multidose (three consecutive days) pharmacokinetics of racemic ketoprofen administered intravenously and intramuscularly at 2 mg/kg in healthy juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta)...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Fernández, E Sierra, J Díaz-Delgado, S Sacchini, Y Sánchez-Paz, C Suárez-Santana, M Arregui, M Arbelo, Y Bernaldo de Quirós
Diving air-breathing vertebrates have long been considered protected against decompression sickness (DCS) through anatomical, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. However, an acute systemic gas and fat embolic syndrome similar to DCS in human divers was described in beaked whales that stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises involving high-powered sonar. More recently, DCS has been diagnosed in bycaught sea turtles. Both cases were linked to human activities. Two Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) out of 493 necropsied cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands in a 16-year period (2000-2015), had a severe acute decompression sickness supported by pathological findings and gas analysis...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Catalina Pimiento, John N Griffin, Christopher F Clements, Daniele Silvestro, Sara Varela, Mark D Uhen, Carlos Jaramillo
The end of the Pliocene marked the beginning of a period of great climatic variability and sea-level oscillations. Here, based on a new analysis of the fossil record, we identify a previously unrecognized extinction event among marine megafauna (mammals, seabirds, turtles and sharks) during this time, with extinction rates three times higher than in the rest of the Cenozoic, and with 36% of Pliocene genera failing to survive into the Pleistocene. To gauge the potential consequences of this event for ecosystem functioning, we evaluate its impacts on functional diversity, focusing on the 86% of the megafauna genera that are associated with coastal habitats...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Adriana A Cortés-Gómez, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Mariana Teles, Rafaela Cuenca, Gisela Fuentes-Mascorro, Diego Romero
This study was designed to determine the concentrations of p-nitrophenyl acetate esterase activity (EA) and cortisol in serum of marine Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) from a Mexican Pacific population ("La Escobilla" beach) and to evaluate the possible relationship of inorganic elements with these biomarkers. EA, cortisol, and selected chemical elements (Cd, Pb, Ti, Sr, Se, Al, As, and Zn) were measured in the blood of 44 sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific (Southeast Mexico). Serum EA ranged from 0...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Johan Lindgren, Takeo Kuriyama, Henrik Madsen, Peter Sjövall, Wenxia Zheng, Per Uvdal, Anders Engdahl, Alison E Moyer, Johan A Gren, Naoki Kamezaki, Shintaro Ueno, Mary H Schweitzer
The holotype (MHM-K2) of the Eocene cheloniine Tasbacka danica is arguably one of the best preserved juvenile fossil sea turtles on record. Notwithstanding compactional flattening, the specimen is virtually intact, comprising a fully articulated skeleton exposed in dorsal view. MHM-K2 also preserves, with great fidelity, soft tissue traces visible as a sharply delineated carbon film around the bones and marginal scutes along the edge of the carapace. Here we show that the extraordinary preservation of the type of T...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maria L Rodgers, Catherine A Toline, Charles D Rice
Serum from Kemp's ridley and loggerhead sea turtles was collected in summers of 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum IgY recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacteria species and whole bacteria-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition in some species more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, E. rhusiopathiae, and B. vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley turtles, while titers IgY against V...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Erica Marchiori, Enrico Negrisolo, Rudi Cassini, Luisa Garofalo, Lisa Poppi, Cinzia Tessarin, Federica Marcer
BACKGROUND: The northern Adriatic Sea represents one of the most important neritic foraging grounds for the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta L. in the Mediterranean Sea. Four genera of blood flukes with variable prevalence and pathogenic impact have been reported worldwide in this species. Hapalotrema Looss, 1899 and Amphiorchis Price, 1934 are the only two genera reported in Mediterranean waters; however, updated data describing spirorchiidiasis in the central and eastern Mediterranean and infection prevalence are still lacking...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Roland Zimm, Blair P Bentley, Jeanette Wyneken, Jacqueline E Moustakas-Verho
The turtle shell is often described as an evolutionary novelty that facilitated the radiation of the clade Testudines. The scutes, or keratinous plates, of the turtle shell are hypothesized to be patterned by reaction-diffusion dynamics, and this property of their development provides explanatory power to mechanisms of anomalous variation. A mathematical model of scute development predicts that anomalous variation in the phylogenetically stable pattern of scutes is achieved by environmental influence on the developmental program...
July 25, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Antonios D Mazaris, Gail Schofield, Chrysoula Gkazinou, Vasiliki Almpanidou, Graeme C Hays
We document a tendency for published estimates of population size in sea turtles to be increasing rather than decreasing across the globe. To examine the population status of the seven species of sea turtle globally, we obtained 299 time series of annual nesting abundance with a total of 4417 annual estimates. The time series ranged in length from 6 to 47 years (mean, 16.2 years). When levels of abundance were summed within regional management units (RMUs) for each species, there were upward trends in 12 RMUs versus downward trends in 5 RMUs...
September 2017: Science Advances
N G Rasamimanana, J C Randrianandrasana, K D Andrianarimanana, H Rabesandratana, N E Raveloson, A Ralison
Chelonitoxism is a form of food poisoning due to the consumption of sea turtle flesh or viscera, which contain marine toxins called chelonitoxins. Because the passage of these toxins into breast milk is thought to be fatal to breastfed babies, we sought to confirm the possibility of this transmission of toxins through breastfeeding and to determine the symptoms of mothers and the severity of poisoning in babies. A recent case of collective consumption of sea turtle meat from the species Eretmochelys imbricata in western Madagascar affected 76 victims...
August 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Justin R Perrault, Nicole I Stacy, Andreas F Lehner, Savannah K Poor, John P Buchweitz, Catherine J Walsh
Toxic elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, thallium) are a group of contaminants that are known to elicit developmental, reproductive, general health, and immune system effects in reptiles, even at low concentrations. Reptiles, including marine turtles, are susceptible to accumulation of toxic elements due to their long life span, low metabolic rate, and highly efficient conversion of prey into biomass. The objectives of this study were to (1) document concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, and thallium in whole blood and keratin from nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from Casey Key, Florida and document correlations thereof and (2) correlate whole blood toxic element concentrations to various hematological and plasma biochemistry analytes...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
Milad Adel, Adriana A Cortés-Gómez, Maryam Dadar, Hossein Riyahi, Marc Girondot
Due to their bioaccumulation and biomagnification pathways, inorganic elements can accumulate in high-level aquatic organisms in the food web. Then, this species can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. Blood concentration of nine inorganic elements, including possible toxic metals (An, Cu, Mn, Se, As, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Hg), in 20 males and 20 females from eight different locations with high industry and agriculture activities in Iran were evaluated in this work. Additionally, size, sex, condition index, and locations were also included and analyzed...
November 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Loren McClenachan, Grace O'Connor, Benjamin P Neal, John M Pandolfi, Jeremy B C Jackson
Massive declines in population abundances of marine animals have been documented over century-long time scales. However, analogous loss of spatial extent of habitat-forming organisms is less well known because georeferenced data are rare over long time scales, particularly in subtidal, tropical marine regions. We use high-resolution historical nautical charts to quantify changes to benthic structure over 240 years in the Florida Keys, finding an overall loss of 52% (SE, 6.4%) of the area of the seafloor occupied by corals...
September 2017: Science Advances
Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Benny K K Chan, John D Zardus, John P Wares
Symbiotic relationships are often species specific, allowing symbionts to adapt to their host environments. Host generalists, on the other hand, have to cope with diverse environments. One coping strategy is phenotypic plasticity, defined by the presence of host-specific phenotypes in the absence of genetic differentiation. Recent work indicates that such host-specific phenotypic plasticity is present in the West Pacific lineage of the commensal barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated genetic and morphological host-specific structure in the genetically distinct Atlantic sister lineage of C...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
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