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Sea turtle

Chihiro Kinoshita, Takuya Fukuoka, Yasuaki Niizuma, Tomoko Narazaki, Katsufumi Sato
The metabolic rate and activity of sea turtles generally decreases with decreasing seasonal ambient temperature. Juvenile loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea made prolonged inactive dives (>400 min), indicating a state of dormancy during the cold winter period. However, seasonal differences in dive duration were not detected in juvenile loggerheads in the western North Pacific, even though the ambient water temperature changed by more than 10°C. Thus, metabolic states might differ among populations, explaining differences in the diving behaviour of juveniles during winter...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Silvia Casini, Ilaria Caliani, Matteo Giannetti, Letizia Marsili, Silvia Maltese, Daniele Coppola, Nicola Bianchi, Tommaso Campani, Stefania Ancora, Chiara Caruso, Giovanni Furii, Mariluz Parga, Antonella D'Agostino, Maria Cristina Fossi
The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is a long-lived carnivorous reptile included in the IUCN Red List. The IUCN assessment for this species underlines the lack of information regarding pollution and pathogens and indicates as a priority effort to investigate and reduce the impacts of these threats. In this contest, the aim of our study was to conduct the first ecotoxicological assessment of this species in the Mediterranean Sea using a nondestructive integrated methodology. We set up and applied a monitoring protocol which includes endpoints, such as CYP1A, LPO, ENA assay, B esterases, never investigated before in this species...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Clara J Rodríguez-Zárate, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Erik van Sebille, Robert G Keane, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Jose Urteaga, Luciano B Beheregaray
Spatial and temporal scales at which processes modulate genetic diversity over the landscape are usually overlooked, impacting the design of conservation management practices for widely distributed species. We examine processes shaping population divergence in highly mobile species by re-assessing the case of panmixia in the iconic olive ridley turtle from the eastern Pacific. We implemented a biophysical model of connectivity and a seascape genetic analysis based on nuclear DNA variation of 634 samples collected from 27 nesting areas...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Daniel Garcia Párraga, Michael Moore, Andreas Fahlman
Hydrostatic lung compression in diving marine mammals, with collapsing alveoli blocking gas exchange at depth, has been the main theoretical basis for limiting N2 uptake and avoiding gas emboli (GE) as they ascend. However, studies of beached and bycaught cetaceans and sea turtles imply that air-breathing marine vertebrates may, under unusual circumstances, develop GE that result in decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms. Theoretical modelling of tissue and blood gas dynamics of breath-hold divers suggests that changes in perfusion and blood flow distribution may also play a significant role...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
David Terrington Booth, Andrew Dunstan
Raine Island hosts the largest nesting aggregation of green turtles in the world, but nest emergence success and hence recruitment of hatchlings off the beach appear to have significantly declined since the 1990s. Nests destroyed by subsequent nesting turtles, and nest failure due to flooding account for most of the nest failure, but many nests still have poor hatch success even when undisturbed and flood-free. In undisturbed, flood-free nests that experience high mortality, embryos typically die at a very early stage of development, a phenomenon we term early embryo death syndrome (EEDS)...
2018: PloS One
Seth T Sykora-Bodie, Vanessa Bezy, David W Johnston, Everette Newton, Kenneth J Lohmann
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew D Gentry, James F Parham, Dana J Ehret, Jun A Ebersole
Late Cretaceous members of Peritresius belong to a diverse clade of marine adapted turtles currently thought to be some of the earliest representatives of the lineage leading to modern hard-shelled sea turtles (Pan-Cheloniidae). Prior studies have suggested that Peritresius was monospecific, with a distribution restricted to Maastrichtian deposits in North America. However, new Peritresius specimens identified from Alabama and Mississippi, USA, show that the genus contains two taxa, Peritresius ornatus, and a new species Peritresius martini sp...
2018: PloS One
Isaure Scavezzoni, Valentin Fischer
Modern marine turtles (chelonioids) are the remnants of an ancient radiation that roots in the Cretaceous. The oldest members of that radiation are first recorded from the Early Cretaceous and a series of species are known from the Albian-Cenomanian interval, many of which have been allocated to the widespread but poorly defined genus Rhinochelys , possibly concealing the diversity and the evolution of early marine turtles. In order to better understand the radiation of chelonioids, we redescribe the holotype and assess the taxonomy of Rhinochelys amaberti Moret (1935) (UJF-ID...
2018: PeerJ
L Jeantet, F Dell'Amico, M A Forin-Wiart, M Coutant, M Bonola, D Etienne, J Gresser, S Regis, N Lecerf, F Lefebvre, B de Thoisy, Y Le Maho, M Brucker, N Châtelain, R Laesser, F Crenner, Y Handrich, R Wilson, D Chevallier
Accelerometers are becoming ever more important sensors in animal-attached technology, providing data that allow determination of body posture and movement and thereby helping elucidate behaviour in animals that are difficult to observe.We sought to validate the identification of sea turtle behaviours from accelerometer signals by deploying tags on the carapace of a juvenile loggerhead ( Caretta caretta ), an adult hawksbill ( Eretmochelys imbricata) and an adult green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) at Aquarium La Rochelle...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sinziana F Rivera, Valentin Vasselon, Katia Ballorain, Alice Carpentier, Carlos E Wetzel, Luc Ector, Agnès Bouchez, Frédéric Rimet
Sea turtles are distributed in tropical and subtropical seas worldwide. They play several ecological roles and are considered important indicators of the health of marine ecosystems. Studying epibiotic diatoms living on turtle shells suggestively has great potential in the study of turtle behavior because diatoms are always there. However, diatom identification at the species level is time consuming, requires well-trained specialists, and there is a high probability of finding new taxa growing on turtle shells, which makes identification tricky...
2018: PloS One
J Roger Brothers, Kenneth J Lohmann
The canonical drivers of population genetic structure, or spatial genetic variation, are isolation by distance and isolation by environment. Isolation by distance predicts that neighboring populations will be genetically similar and geographically distant populations will be genetically distinct [1]. Numerous examples also exist of isolation by environment, a phenomenon in which populations that inhabit similar environments (e.g., same elevation, temperature, or vegetation) are genetically similar even if they are distant, whereas populations that inhabit different environments are genetically distinct even when geographically close [2-4]...
April 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Zhiyong Hu, Hongda Hu, Yuxia Huang
Artificial lighting at night has becoming a new type of pollution posing an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on organisms. The objective of this research was to examine the potential association between nighttime artificial light pollution and nest densities of the three main sea turtle species along Florida beaches, including green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Sea turtle survey data was obtained from the "Florida Statewide Nesting Beach Survey program". We used the new generation of satellite sensor "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)" (version 1 D/N Band) nighttime annual average radiance composite image data...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hideo Hatase, Kazuyoshi Omuta, Koutarou Itou, Teruhisa Komatsu
Exploring a trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring allows differences in the fitness between alternative life histories to be accurately evaluated. We addressed the mechanism that maintains alternative life histories (small oceanic planktivores vs. large neritic benthivores) observed in a loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ) population, which has been suggested to be environmental, based on the lack of genetic structure and a large difference in reproductive output. We examined whether maternal foraging habitat affects offspring quality, by measuring the morphology, emergence success, and righting response of hatchlings following incubation in a common open sand area over the whole nesting season at Yakushima Island, Japan, and by recording early growth and survival of offspring that were reared in a common environment at a Japanese aquarium...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Maria L Rodgers, Catherine A Toline, Charles D Rice
Serum from Kemp's ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii and loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta was collected during summer in 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacterial species and whole bacterium-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition for some species being more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against Vibrio vulnificus, V. anguillarum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Brevundimonas vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley sea turtles, while IgY titers against V...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Edwin Cadena, Juan Abella, Maria Gregori
The evolution and occurrence of fossil sea turtles at the Pacific margin of South America is poorly known and restricted to Neogene (Miocene/Pliocene) findings from the Pisco Formation, Peru. Here we report and describe the first record of Oligocene (late Oligocene, ∼24 Ma) Pan-Cheloniidae sea turtle remains of South America. The fossil material corresponds to a single, isolated and well-preserved costal bone found at the Montañita/Olón locality, Santa Elena Province, Ecuador. Comparisons with other Oligocene and extant representatives allow us to confirm that belongs to a sea turtle characterized by: lack of lateral ossification, allowing the dorsal exposure of the distal end of ribs; dorsal surface of bone sculptured, changing from dense vermiculation at the vertebral scute region to anastomosing pattern of grooves at the most lateral portion of the costal...
2018: PeerJ
Matthew G Burgess, Grant R McDermott, Brandon Owashi, Lindsey E Peavey Reeves, Tyler Clavelle, Daniel Ovando, Bryan P Wallace, Rebecca L Lewison, Steven D Gaines, Christopher Costello
Reductions in global fishing pressure are needed to end overfishing of target species and maximize the value of fisheries. We ask whether such reductions would also be sufficient to protect non-target species threatened as bycatch. We compare changes in fishing pressure needed to maximize profits from 4713 target fish stocks-accounting for >75% of global catch-to changes in fishing pressure needed to reverse ongoing declines of 20 marine mammal, sea turtle, and seabird populations threatened as bycatch. We project that maximizing fishery profits would halt or reverse declines of approximately half of these threatened populations...
March 16, 2018: Science
Mickey Agha, Joshua R Ennen, Deborah S Bower, A Justin Nowakowski, Sarah C Sweat, Brian D Todd
The projected rise in global mean sea levels places many freshwater turtle species at risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. Freshwater turtles are disproportionately more threatened than other taxa; thus, understanding the role of salinity in determining their contemporary distribution and evolution should be a research priority. Freshwater turtles are a slowly evolving lineage; however, they can adapt physiologically or behaviourally to various levels of salinity and, therefore, temporarily occur in marine or brackish environments...
March 25, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Patrizia Serratore, Emanuele Zavatta, Eleonora Fiocchi, Emanuele Serafini, Andrea Serraino, Federica Giacometti, Giorgia Bignami
V. vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 V. vulnificus strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a Carretta carretta turtle (n=1), were utilized...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Elizabeth Bevan, Scott Whiting, Tony Tucker, Michael Guinea, Andrew Raith, Ryan Douglas
Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1...
2018: PloS One
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
May 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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