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Sperm mix

Mikhail E Kandel, Michael Fanous, Catherine Best-Popescu, Gabriel Popescu
As a label-free, nondestructive method, phase contrast is by far the most popular microscopy technique for routine inspection of cell cultures. However, features of interest such as extensions near cell bodies are often obscured by a glow, which came to be known as the halo . Advances in modeling image formation have shown that this artifact is due to the limited spatial coherence of the illumination. Nevertheless, the same incoherent illumination is responsible for superior sensitivity to fine details in the phase contrast geometry...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Bivas Panigrahi, Chang-Hung Lu, Neha Ghayal, Chia-Yuan Chen
The zebrafish sperm activation profoundly depends upon the homogeneous mixing of the sperm cells with its diluent in a quick succession as it alters the cell's extracellular medium and initiates their motility. Manual stirring, the traditional method for zebrafish sperm activation is tedious, time-consuming, and has a poor outcome. In this aspect, an artificial cilia embedded serpentine microfluidic is designed through which hydrodynamic factors of the microfluidic environment can be precisely regulated to harness uniform mixing, hence ensuring a superior sperm activation...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Alejandro Peñalva, Silvia Antollini, Ernesto Ambroggio, Marta I Aveldaño, Maria Laura Fanani
In rat sperm head, sphingomyelin (SM) species that contain very long chain PUFA (V-SM) become ceramides (V-Cer) after inducing in vitro the acrosomal reaction. The reason for such a specific location of this conversion, catalysed by a sphingomyelinase (SMase), has received little investigation so far. Here, the effects of SMase were compared in unilamellar vesicles (LUVs, GUVs) containing phosphatidylcholine and either V-SM or a palmitate-rich SM (P-SM). In uniformly sized LUVs at 37 °C, more V-Cer was generated, and more rapidly, than P-Cer...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Alberto Elmi, Federico Banchelli, Francesca Barone, Paolo Fantinati, Domenico Ventrella, Monica Forni, Maria Laura Bacci
The evaluation of sperm functionality and morphology allows discerning between high and low quality ejaculates, but does not give detailed predictive information regarding in vivo fertility. The current developments in statistical modeling have helped in carrying out reproductive studies, but their biggest limitation is in the size of the dataset to be used. The aim of the present observational study was to evaluate whether advanced statistical approaches, such as mixed effects regression models and bootstrap resampling, can help in assessing the predictive ability of semen parameters in terms of in vivo fertility (farrowing rate and litter size), on a small/medium farm with a limited number of animals...
February 23, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Paula Nicolini, Rocío Amorín, Yi Han, Francisco Peñagaricano
BACKGROUND: Service sire has a considerable impact on reproductive success in dairy cattle. Most gene mapping studies for bull fertility have focused on additive effects, while non-additive effects have been largely ignored. The main goal of this study was to assess the relevance of non-additive effects on Sire Conception Rate (SCR) in Holstein dairy cattle. The analysis included 7.5 k Holstein bulls with both SCR records and 57.8 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers spanning the entire genome...
February 27, 2018: BMC Genetics
Mariana Weigel Muñoz, A María Battistone, Guillermo Carvajal, Julieta A Maldera, Ludmila Curci, Pablo Torres, Daniel Lombardo, Omar P Pignataro, Vanina G Da Ros, Patricia S Cuasnicu
Epididymal sperm protein CRISP1 has the ability to both regulate murine CatSper, a key sperm calcium channel, and interact with egg-binding sites during fertilization. In spite of its relevance for sperm function, Crisp1-/- mice are fertile. Considering that phenotypes can be influenced by the genetic background, in the present work mice from the original mixed Crisp1-/- colony (129/SvEv*C57BL/6) were backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 strain for subsequent analysis of their reproductive phenotype. Whereas fertility and fertilization rates of C57BL/6 Crisp1-/- males did not differ from those reported for mice from the mixed background, several sperm functional parameters were clearly affected by the genetic background...
February 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Melissa M Smarr, Masato Honda, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Zhen Chen, Sungduk Kim, Germaine M Buck Louis
Antimicrobials including parabens, triclosan, and triclocarban have endocrine disrupting properties. Among 501 male partners of couples planning to become pregnant, preconception urinary biomarkers of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban exposure were quantified in spot urine samples. Men also provided two fresh semen samples collected approximately one month to undergo 24-hour semen quality analysis. Linear mixed-effects models, adjusted for creatinine, race, age and body mass index, were utilized to assess the relationship between log transformed chemical concentrations rescaled by their standard deviations and semen parameters...
February 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Kefu Zhou, Xiao-Dan Xie, Xin-Yan Hu, Ming-Cheng Chen, Chang-Tang Chang
Response surface methodology was adopted to obtain ternary mixed catalysts of TiO2-loaded ZSM-5 zeolite and graphene. Oxytetracycline was used as challenged toxicant to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the composites. The optimal weight ratio of graphene, TiO2, and ZSM-5 was 1:8:1. The composites were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and transmission electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy system, etc...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
S Macedo, M Bliebernicht, J Carvalheira, A Costa, F Ribeiro, A Rocha
Glycerol-based extenders are widely utilized for freezing equine semen, but media combining methylformamide may better preserve sperm motility and mitochondrial function. Semen is cryopreserved utilizing either a Styrofoam box filled with liquid nitrogen or an automatic freezer. The objective of this experiment was to compare the post-thaw characteristics of the same ejaculates cryopreserved in a Styrofoam box or in an automatic freezer, utilizing a glycerol-based extender (Gent) and an extender that combines methylformamide and glycerol (BotuCrio® )...
January 30, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Maisarah Yusoff, Mohd Badrul Nizam Hassan, Muhammad Ikhwanuddin, Shahreza Md Sheriff, Fatimah Hashim, Sufian Mustafa, Ivan Chong Chu Koh
This study developed the cryopreservation of brown-marbled grouper spermatozoa for practical application. We examined 32 cryodiluents, developed from four types of cryoprotectants [propylene glycol (PG), dimethyl-sulphoxide (Me2SO), dimethyl-acetamide (DMA) and ethylene glycol (EG)] at four concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% in combination with two extenders [Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and artificial seminal plasma (ASP). Cooling rates were examined by adjusting the height of straws (2.5-12.5 cm) from the liquid nitrogen (LN) vapour and cooled for 5 min before immersion into LN...
January 18, 2018: Cryobiology
M D Xi, P Li, H Du, X M Qiao, Z G Liu, Q W Wei
Acipenser sinensis and Acipenser dabryanus are critically endangered species, so germplasm conservation via cryopreservation of sperm is necessary. Disaccharides can act as membrane-impermeable cryoprotectants, and enolase3 (ENO3) and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform (PMCA2) are proteins associated with sperm quality. We considered seven characteristics of sperm quality in cultured brood stock from A. sinensis and A. dabryanus. We tested use of sucrose or trehalose alone and in combination at different concentrations for cryopreservation of A...
January 19, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
H Schneider, D Fischer, K Failing, C Ehling, S Meinecke-Tillmann, A Wehrend, M Lierz
The aim of the present study was the establishment of an effective protocol for cryopreservation of psittacine semen. Therefore, pooled semen samples of 30 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) were diluted with modified Lake diluent (1:4), partitioned into four equal parts. Three portions were mixed with three cryoprotectants (dimethylacetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol) in 4%, 8% and 12% final concentration, respectively, whereas the 4rth part served as control. Altogether, 96 incremental diluted semen samples were obtained for investigation...
December 16, 2017: Theriogenology
Niya Zhou, Changtan Jiang, Qing Chen, Huan Yang, Xiaogang Wang, Peng Zou, Lei Sun, Jiaojiao Liu, Ling Li, Lianbing Li, Linping Huang, Hongqiang Chen, Lin Ao, Ziyuan Zhou, Jinyi Liu, Zhihong Cui, Jia Cao
Studies have shown that the effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) may be related to particle's size. However, results on the relationships between different PM and reproductive health are controversial. To explore the impacts of various PM fractions on male reproductive health, a total of 796 eligible subjects recruited in 2013 baseline investigation. In addition, there were 656 (82.4%) and 568 (71.3%) subjects participated follow-up surveys in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We used multivariable regression analysis and mixed-effect model to investigate the associations between air pollutants PM10 , PM10-2...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kathrein von Kopylow, Wolfgang Schulze, Andrea Salzbrunn, Matthias Schaks, Elke Schäfer, Beate Roth, Stefan Schlatt, Andrej-Nikolai Spiess
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to induce in-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) biopsies, maintain their long-term cultivation in a 2D system and identify cellular compositions? SUMMARY ANSWER: In-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from TESE biopsies and their long-term cultivation on uncoated cell culture dishes is feasible and the cellular compositions can be uncovered through gene expression and microscopic analyses...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Don R Levitan
The evolution of gametic compatibility and the effectiveness of compatibility, within and across species, depend on whether sperm from different males directly compete for an egg and whether eggs ever have a choice. Direct sperm competition and egg choice depend on whether sperm from different males arrive at an egg in the brief interval between first sperm contact and fertilization. Although this process may be relevant for all sexually reproducing organisms, it is most easily examined in aquatic external fertilizers...
January 2018: American Naturalist
Courtney C Carignan, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Paige L Williams, John D Meeker, Heather M Stapleton, Craig M Butt, Thomas L Toth, Jennifer B Ford, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Use of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) has increased over the past decade following the phase out of some brominated flame retardants, leading to increased human exposure. We recently reported that increasing maternal PFR exposure is associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes among women from a fertility clinic. Because a small epidemiologic study previously reported an inverse association between male PFR exposures and sperm motility, we sought to examine associations of paternal urinary concentrations of PFR metabolites and their partner's pregnancy outcomes...
December 11, 2017: Environment International
Kristina U Wensing, Mareike Koppik, Claudia Fricke
Competition between males creates potential for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict. Theory predicts that males facing risk of sperm competition should evolve traits to secure their reproductive success. If those traits are costly to females, the evolution of such traits may also increase conflict between the sexes. Conversely, under the absence of sperm competition, one expectation is for selection on male competitive traits to relax thereby also relaxing sexual conflict. Experimental evolution studies are a powerful tool to test this expectation...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Sullip Kumar Majhi, Santosh Kumar
The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C...
October 2017: Heliyon
Juliane Vehof, Gerhard Scholtz, Carola Becker
Two fundamentally different sperm storage organs occur in Brachyura. The probably paraphyletic podotremes show intersegmental spermathecae, which are distant from oviducts and coxal gonopores. Hence, fertilization is external. In contrast to this, the seminal receptacles of Eubrachyura are directly connected with the ovaries. Thus, at least initial fertilization is internal. This pattern has been interpreted as an apomorphy of Eubrachyura. To test this hypothesis, we studied the morphology of the reproductive organs of Paradorippe granulata, a representative of the putatively early diverging eubrachyuran lineage Dorippoidea...
January 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Laura B Duvall, Nipun S Basrur, Henrik Molina, Conor J McMeniman, Leslie B Vosshall
Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes typically mate only once with one male in their lifetime, a behavior known as "monandry" [1]. This single mating event provisions the female with sufficient sperm to fertilize the >500 eggs she will produce during her ∼4- to 6-week lifespan in the laboratory [2]. Successful mating induces lifetime refractoriness to subsequent insemination by other males, enforcing the paternity of the first male [3-5]. Ae. aegypti mate in flight near human hosts [6], and females become refractory to remating within seconds [1, 3, 4], suggesting the existence of a rapid mechanism to prevent female remating...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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