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Shengzhe S, Yongna Z, Song L, Yan L, Jing Z
AIM: To investigate the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the regulation of odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs). METHODOLOGY: SCAPs were obtained from human impacted third molars (n=15). Isolated SCAPs were transfected with CREB overexpressing/silenced lentivirus. Transfected cells were stained with alizarin red to investigate mineralized nodule formation. The expression of the mineralization-related genes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I (Col I), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OCN), was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 7, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Kristian K Jensen, Marija Tadin-Strapps, Sheng-Ping Wang, James Hubert, Yanqing Kan, Yong Ma, David G McLaren, Stephen F Previs, Kithsiri B Herath, Ablatt Mahsut, Andy Liaw, Shubing Wang, Steven J Stout, CarolAnn Keohan, Gail Forrest, David Coelho, Satya Yendluri, Stephanie Williams, Martin Koser, Steven Bartz, Karen O Akinsanya, Shirly Pinto
SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) is a key protein in the regulation of lipid metabolism and a potential target for treatment of dyslipidemia. SCAP is required for activation of the transcription factors SREBP-1 and -2. SREBPs regulate the expression of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis, and LDL-C clearance through the regulation of LDLR and PCSK9 expression. To further test the potential of SCAP as a novel target for treatment of dyslipidemia, we used short interfering RNAs (siRNA) to inhibit hepatic SCAP expression and assess the effect on PCSK9, LDLR and lipids in mice and rhesus monkeys...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Shou-Chu Chou, How-Wen Ko, Ying-Chin Lin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-10 genes with susceptibility and severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-nine CAP patients were selected for the case group and 156 healthy individuals for the control group. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed for genotyping of CRP +1059G/C (rs1800947) and +1846C/T (rs1205), IL-6 -597G/A (rs1800797) and -572C/G (rs1800796), and IL-10 -592C/A (rs1800872) and -1082G/A (rs1800896)...
October 5, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Tingxian Deng, Chunying Pang, Xiaoya Ma, Xingrong Lu, Anqin Duan, Peng Zhu, Xianwei Liang
Insulin-induced genes (INSIGs), including INSIG1 and INSIG2, are important mediators that play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism and could cause the retention of the SCAP/SREBP complex. Therefore, the objective of this study is to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of buffalo INSIG2 gene and evaluate their associations with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes. A total of four SNPs (g.621272A > G, g.621364A > C, g.632543G > A, and g.632684C > T) were identified using DNA pooled sequencing, and the SNP genotyping for the identified SNPs was performed by using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry method from 264 individuals...
September 27, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Shaowei Sun, Juan Wen, Fei Qiu, Yufang Yin, Guina Xu, Tianping Li, Juan Nie, Guozuo Xiong, Caiping Zhang, Duangfang Liao, Jianxiong Chen, Qinhui Tuo
Daxx is a highly conserved nuclear transcriptional factor, which has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. Our previous study demonstrated Daxx also plays a role in regulation of intracellular cholesterol content. Daxx contains several domains that are essential for interaction with a growing number of proteins. To delineate the underlying mechanism of hypocholesterolemic activity of Daxx, we constructed a set of plasmids which can be used to overexpress different fragments of Daxx and transfected to HepG2 cells...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qian Jia, Xiaolin Chen, Wenkai Jiang, Wei Wang, Bin Guo, Longxing Ni
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA) plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs) behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation)...
2016: Stem Cells International
Lijia Guo, Luyuan Jin, Juan Du, Chunmei Zhang, Zhipeng Fan, Songlin Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the biological function of SHANK2 on the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potentials of human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of SHANK2 in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to knockdown the SHANK2 in SCAPs. The knockdown efficiency was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western Blot. The in vitro osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potentials of SCAPs were investigated using ALP staining, ALP activity, alizarin red staining, quantitative calcium, the expression levels of DSPP, DMP1, RUNX2 and OSX...
September 19, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Aiswarya Viswanath, Julie Vanacker, Loïc Germain, Julian G Leprince, Anibal Diogenes, Kevin Shakesheff, Lisa J White, Anne des Rieux
Decellularised mammalian extracellular matrices (ECM) have been widely accepted as an ideal substrate for repair and remodelling of numerous tissues in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from site-specific homologous tissues to direct cell differentiation. The present study investigated the suitability of hydrogels derived from different source tissues: bone, spinal cord and dentine, as suitable carriers to deliver human apical papilla derived mesenchymal stem cells (SCAP) for spinal cord regeneration...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Panuroot Aguilar, Veera Lertchirakarn
CD24 was suggested as a marker to SCAPs and has been reported for a decade. CD24 has been shown to involve stem cell activities such as self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. However, the percentage variations of CD24 positive cells were reported among the studies. It is possible that this variation may affect these SCAPs behaviors. In this study, the variation was confirmed. To elucidate the influence of CD24 positive cells quantity on SCAPs stem cell behaviors, the 3 cell lines with the most maximum and the least numbers of CD24 positive cells (High-CD24 and Low-CD24 group) were selected to study...
October 2016: Tissue & Cell
Masami Shimizu-Albergine, Brian Van Yserloo, Martin G Golkowski, Shao-En Ong, Joseph A Beavo, Karin E Bornfeldt
Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates steroidogenesis largely through a surge in cyclic AMP (cAMP). Steroidogenic rates are also critically dependent on the availability of cholesterol at mitochondrial sites of synthesis. This cholesterol is provided by cellular uptake of lipoproteins, mobilization of intracellular lipid, and de novo synthesis. Whether and how these pathways are coordinated by cAMP are poorly understood. Recent phosphoproteomic analyses of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation sites in MA10 Leydig cells suggested that cAMP regulates multiple steps in these processes, including activation of the SCAP/SREBP pathway...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bartłomiej Górski
Since the discovery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), many researchers have focused their attention on new sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Consequently, MSCs that display self-renewal capacity, multidifferentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties have been isolated from human oral tissues, including tooth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Oral MSCs involve dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle stem cells (DFCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and gingival stem cells (GMSCs)...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Rainer Neumann, Jutta M Schneider
BACKGROUND: Socially cued anticipatory plasticity (SCAP) has been proposed as a widespread mechanism of adaptive life-history shifts in semelparous species with extreme male mating investment. Such mating systems evolved several times independently in spiders and male reproductive success should critically depend on timely maturation and rapid location of a receptive and, ideally, virgin female. We experimentally investigated socially cued anticipatory plasticity in two sympatric, closely related Nephila species that share many components of their mating systems, but differ in the degree to which male reproductive success depends on mating with virgin females...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Hiroki Sakai, Ken Watanabe, Fuki Kudoh, Rui Kamada, Yoshiro Chuman, Kazuyasu Sakaguchi
There has been considerable interest in the patterning of functionalized nanowires because of the potential applications of these materials to the construction of nanodevices. A variety of biomolecular building blocks containing amyloid peptides have been used to functionalize nanowires. However, the patterning of self-assembled nanowires can be challenging because of the difficulties associated with controlling the self-assembly of these functionalized building blocks. Herein, we present a versatile approach for the patterning of nanowires based on the combination of templated fibril growth with a versatile functionalization method using our structure-controllable amyloid peptides (SCAPs)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Craig Bellamy, Suja Shrestha, Calvin Torneck, Anil Kishen
INTRODUCTION: This 2-part study hypothesized that a bioactive scaffold containing a sustained transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-releasing nanoparticle system will promote migration and enhance differentiation of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP). The study aimed to develop and characterize a novel modified chitosan-based scaffold containing TGF-β1-releasing chitosan nanoparticles (TGF-β1-CSnp) to enhance migration and differentiation of SCAP. METHODS: Part I concerns the synthesis and characterization of a carboxymethyl chitosan-based scaffold and TGF-β1-CSnp...
September 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Peng Ru, Peng Hu, Feng Geng, Xiaokui Mo, Chunming Cheng, Ji Young Yoo, Xiang Cheng, Xiaoning Wu, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Ichiro Nakano, Etienne Lefai, Balveen Kaur, Arnab Chakravarti, Deliang Guo
Dysregulated lipid metabolism is a characteristic of malignancies. Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), a transcription factor playing a central role in lipid metabolism, is highly activated in malignancies. Here, we unraveled a link between miR-29 and the SCAP (SREBP cleavage-activating protein)/SREBP-1 pathway in glioblastoma (GBM) growth. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling enhances miR-29 expression in GBM cells via upregulation of SCAP/SREBP-1, and SREBP-1 activates miR-29 expression via binding to specific sites in its promoter...
August 9, 2016: Cell Reports
D Carreño, G Hervás, P G Toral, T Castro-Carrera, P Frutos
Several studies in dairy cows have shown a relationship between milk fat depression (MFD) and alterations caused in lipogenic gene expression by dietary nutrients. However, information on small ruminants is not only scarce but also inconsistent. Therefore, this experiment was conducted in dairy ewes to study the effect of a diet known to induce MFD on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA abundance of key candidate genes involved in mammary lipogenesis. Twelve lactating Assaf ewes (on average 63d in milk) were randomly assigned to 2 treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and concentrates (50:50), supplemented with 0 (control) or 17g of fish oil/kg of diet dry matter (FO)...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Changyong Yuan, Penglai Wang, Shaoyue Zhu, Ting Zou, Shuai Wang, Jianguang Xu, Boon Chin Heng, Anibal Diogenes, Chengfei Zhang
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the roles of ephrinB2 in stabilizing vascularlike structures generated by stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: HUVECs were seeded alone or with SCAPs concurrently or 12 hours later. Angiogenesis and ephrinB2 phosphorylation were assayed at different time points. Additionally, ephrinB2 expression in SCAPs and HUVECs was silenced with small interfering RNA, and vascularlike structure formation within coculture was assessed; 1 × 10(5) HUVECs were seeded in transwell inserts, and 6 × 10(5) SCAPs were plated in lower wells with or without ephrinB2-Fc...
September 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Ajay Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Vidya Rattan, Vivekanand Jha, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya
Dental tissue is emerging as a promising source of stem cells especially in nerve regeneration mainly due to their neural origin and ease of harvest. We isolated dental stem cells from three sources, namely, dental pulp (DPSCs), dental follicle (DFSCs), and apical papilla (SCAP), and explored the efficacy of each towards neural differentiation in comparison to bone marrow-derived stem cells. The neural differentiation potential was assessed by expression of various neural markers and neurosphere assay. We observed that DPSCs were inherently predisposed towards neural lineage...
July 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Kada Klouche, Jean Paul Cristol, Julie Devin, Vincent Gilles, Nils Kuster, Romaric Larcher, Laurent Amigues, Philippe Corne, Olivier Jonquet, Anne Marie Dupuy
BACKGROUND: The soluble CD14 subtype, Presepsin, appears to be an accurate sepsis diagnostic marker, but data from intensive care units (ICUs) are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of Presepsin in ICU patients with severe sepsis (SS), septic shock (SSh) and severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP). METHODS: Presepsin and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were determined for patients at admission to ICU. Four groups have been differentiated: (1) absence or (2) presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, (3) SS or (4) SSh; and 2 groups, among the patients admitted for acute respiratory failure: absence or presence of sCAP...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Ankur A Gholkar, Keith Cheung, Kevin J Williams, Yu-Chen Lo, Shadia A Hamideh, Chelsea Nnebe, Cindy Khuu, Steven J Bensinger, Jorge Z Torres
The sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors have become attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition in the treatment of metabolic diseases and cancer. SREBPs are critical for the production and metabolism of lipids and cholesterol, which are essential for cellular homeostasis and cell proliferation. Fatostatin was recently discovered as a specific inhibitor of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), which is required for SREBP activation. Fatostatin possesses antitumor properties including the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, and it arrests cancer cells in G2/M phase...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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