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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018483/the-angiogenic-potential-of-dpscs-and-scaps-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-dental-pulp-regeneration
#1
Petra Hilkens, Annelies Bronckaers, Jessica Ratajczak, Pascal Gervois, Esther Wolfs, Ivo Lambrichts
Adequate vascularization, a restricting factor for the survival of engineered tissues, is often promoted by the addition of stem cells or the appropriate angiogenic growth factors. In this study, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) were applied in an in vivo model of dental pulp regeneration in order to compare their regenerative potential and confirm their previously demonstrated paracrine angiogenic properties. 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing DPSCs and/or SCAPs were subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised mice...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986711/blockade-of-lgr4-inhibits-proliferation-and-odonto-osteogenic-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-apical-papillae
#2
Meng Zhou, Shuyu Guo, Lichan Yuan, Yuxin Zhang, Mengnan Zhang, Huimin Chen, Mengting Lu, Jianrong Yang, Junqing Ma
During tooth root development, stem cells from apical papillae (SCAPs) are indispensable, and their abilities of proliferation, migration and odontoblast differentiation are linked to root formation. Leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCR 4 (LGR4) modulates the biological processes of proliferation and differentiation in multiple stem cells. In this study, we showed that LGR4 is expressed in all odontoblast cell lineage cells and Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) during the mouse root formation in vivo. In vitro we determined that LGR4 is involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulating proliferation and odonto/osteogenic differentiation of SCAPs...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974767/the-neurotrophic-effects-of-different-human-dental-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Mallappa K Kolar, Vinay N Itte, Paul J Kingham, Lev N Novikov, Mikael Wiberg, Peyman Kelk
The current gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury is nerve grafting but this has disadvantages such as donor site morbidity. New techniques focus on replacing these grafts with nerve conduits enhanced with growth factors and/or various cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dental-MSCs (D-MSCs) including stem cells obtained from apical papilla (SCAP), dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) are potential sources of MSCs for nerve repair. Here we present the characterization of various D-MSCs from the same human donors for peripheral nerve regeneration...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947064/impact-of-pre-incubation-time-of-silk-fibroin-scaffolds-in-culture-medium-on-cell-proliferation-and-attachment
#4
Mehdi Amirikia, Seyed Mohammad Ali Shariatzadeh, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani
Cell behaviours such as proliferation and attachment can be affected by the length of pre-incubation period of the scaffolds in the culture medium for long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the long term pre-incubation of 3D silk fibroin scaffolds in complete culture medium on cell attachment and proliferation. After the preparation of silk fibroin scaffolds by the technique of freeze drying, the scaffolds were pre-incubated in complete culture medium for 2 d, 6 d or 10 d before apical papilla stem cells (SCAP) seeding...
September 20, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901252/the-origin-and-identification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-teeth-from-odontogenic-to-non-odontogenic
#5
Dixin Cui, Hongyu Li, Mian Wan, Yiran Peng, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in teeth have been exploited as vital seed cells for stem cell-based dental medicine. To date, several mesenchymal stem cell populations originated from odontogenic tissue have been isolated and characterized by their expression of MSC surface markers and capacity of multi-lineage differentiation, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and so on. However, their identity in vivo remains elusive, which hinders further understanding of their application in stem cell-based tooth regeneration...
September 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894386/oxidative-stress-in-patients-with-endodontic-pathologies
#6
Veiko Vengerfeldt, Reet Mändar, Mare Saag, Anneli Piir, Tiiu Kullisaar
BACKGROUND: Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful. PURPOSE: To compare oxidative stress (OxS) levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents) in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP), 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP), eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883496/overexpression-of-insig-2-inhibits-atypical-antipsychotic-induced-adipogenic-differentiation-and-lipid-biosynthesis-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#7
Chien-Chih Chen, Li-Wen Hsu, Kuang-Tzu Huang, Shigeru Goto, Chao-Long Chen, Toshiaki Nakano
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are considered to possess superior efficacy for treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia; however, AAP use often causes excessive weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. Recently, several reports have demonstrated that AAPs activate sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). SREBP, SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and insulin-induced gene (Insig) regulate downstream cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we explored the effects of clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone on SREBP signaling and downstream lipid biosynthesis genes in the early events of adipogenic differentiation in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856702/avoidance-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-radiorecurrent-prostate-cancer-as-a-clinically-meaningful-endpoint-for-salvage-cryoablation
#8
Kevin B Ginsburg, Ahmed Elshafei, Changhong Yu, J Stephen Jones, Michael L Cher
BACKGROUND: To investigate the ability of salvage cryoablation of the prostate (SCAP) to delay the need for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in local recurrence after radiation therapy to the prostate using the Cryo-On-Line Database (COLD) registry. METHODS: The COLD registry is comprised of a combination of retrospectively and prospectively collected data on patients undergoing primary and SCAP. Patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were identified...
October 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846071/er-phospholipid-composition-modulates-lipogenesis-during-feeding-and-in-obesity
#9
Xin Rong, Bo Wang, Elisa Nd Palladino, Thomas Q de Aguiar Vallim, David A Ford, Peter Tontonoz
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841344/retrospective-on-cholesterol-homeostasis-the-central-role-of-scap
#10
Michael S Brown, Arun Radhakrishnan, Joseph L Goldstein
Scap is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a molecular machine to control the cholesterol content of membranes in mammalian cells. In the 21 years since our laboratory discovered Scap, we have learned how it binds sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and transports them from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi for proteolytic processing. Proteolysis releases the SREBP transcription factor domains, which enter the nucleus to promote cholesterol synthesis and uptake. When cholesterol in ER membranes exceeds a threshold, the sterol binds to Scap, triggering several conformational changes that prevent the Scap-SREBP complex from leaving the ER...
August 25, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833816/depletion-of-hoxa5-inhibits-the-osteogenic-differentiation-and-proliferation-potential-of-stem-cells-from-the-apical-papilla
#11
Wenzhi Li, Xiao Lin, Haoqing Yang, Yangyang Cao, Chen Zhang, Zhipeng Fan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a prospective cell source for tissue regeneration due to their self-renewal abilities and potential to differentiate into different cell lineages, but the molecular mechanisms of the directed differentiation and proliferation are still unknown. Recently, multiple studies have indicated the crucial role of HOX genes in MSC differentiation and proliferation. However, the role of HOXA5 in MSCs remains unknown. Here, we investigated HOXA5 function in stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs)...
August 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827785/a-highly-sensitive-plasma-based-amyloid-%C3%AE-detection-system-through-medium-changing-and-noise-cancellation-system-for-early-diagnosis-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Yong Kyoung Yoo, Jinsik Kim, Gangeun Kim, Young Soo Kim, Hye Yun Kim, Sejin Lee, Won Woo Cho, Seongsoo Kim, Sang-Myung Lee, Byung Chul Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Kyo Seon Hwang
We developed an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor system for blood-based Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis based on impedimetric detection of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which is a representative candidate biomarker for AD. The IME sensing device was fabricated using a surface micromachining process. For highly sensitive detection of several tens to hundreds of picogram/mL of Aβ in blood, medium change from plasma to PBS buffer was utilized with signal cancellation and amplification processing (SCAP) system...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822568/effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-the-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-the-apical-papilla
#13
Veera Lertchirakarn, Panuroot Aguilar
INTRODUCTION: Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) were suggested as the stem cell source in regenerative endodontic procedures. However, bone and/or cementum-like structure were observed in root canals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in infected root canals might alter SCAPs' osteogenic differentiation pattern. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of LPS on SCAPs' proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. METHODS: The mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of SCAPs were confirmed...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794794/sfrp2-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-apical-papilla-stem-cells-by-antagonizing-the-canonical-wnt-pathway
#14
Luyuan Jin, Yu Cao, Guoxia Yu, Jinsong Wang, Xiao Lin, Lihua Ge, Juan Du, Liping Wang, Shu Diao, Xiaomeng Lian, Songlin Wang, Rui Dong, Zhaochen Shan
BACKGROUND: Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying directed differentiation is helpful in the development of clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our previous study on dental tissue-derived MSCs demonstrated that secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt inhibitor, could enhance osteogenic differentiation in stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs). However, how SFRP2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of dental tissue-derived MSCs remains unclear...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757246/evaluation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-modulation-of-trigeminal-neuronal-responses-to-cold
#15
Michael A Eskander, Koyo Takimoto, Anibal Diogenes
Tissue engineering protocols, such as regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs), comprise biologically based procedures designed to restore normal physiologic function. For REPs, the goal is reconstitution of the pulp-dentin complex by delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including the stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) into a root canal system. Many patients regain cold sensitivity after REPs, but the mechanism is not understood. We hypothesized that SCAP modulate nociceptive function through a paracrine mechanism that activates cold-sensitive ion channels in neurons...
July 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736205/developmental-and-extrahepatic-physiological-functions-of-srebp-pathway-genes-in-mice
#16
REVIEW
Luke J Engelking, Mary Jo Cantoria, Yanchao Xu, Guosheng Liang
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), master transcriptional regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, have been found to contribute to a diverse array of cellular processes. In this review, we focus on genetically engineered mice in which the activities of six components of the SREBP gene pathway, namely SREBP-1, SREBP-2, Scap, Insig-1, Insig-2, or Site-1 protease have been altered through gene knockout or transgenic approaches. In addition to the expected impacts on lipid metabolism, manipulation of these genes in mice is found to affect a wide array of developmental and physiologic processes ranging from interferon signaling in macrophages to synaptic transmission in the brain...
July 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734036/-epicatechin-regulates-blood-lipids-and-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats-fed-high-fat-diet
#17
Hui Cheng, Na Xu, Wenxia Zhao, Jingjing Su, Mengru Liang, Zhongwen Xie, Xianli Wu, Qinglin Li
SCOPE: (-)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol monomer found in cocoa, green tea, and a variety of other plant foods. In this study, effects of EC on blood lipids and hepatic steatosis, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: A hyperlipidemic rat model was induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. EC was then administrated to the animals by gavage at doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 12 weeks. Simvastatin was included as a positive control...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725049/loss-of-calreticulin-uncovers-a-critical-role-for-calcium-in-regulating-cellular-lipid-homeostasis
#18
Wen-An Wang, Wen-Xin Liu, Serpen Durnaoglu, Sun-Kyung Lee, Jihong Lian, Richard Lehner, Joohong Ahnn, Luis B Agellon, Marek Michalak
A direct link between Ca(2+) and lipid homeostasis has not been definitively demonstrated. In this study, we show that manipulation of ER Ca(2+) causes the re-distribution of a portion of the intracellular unesterified cholesterol to a pool that is not available to the SCAP-SREBP complex. The SREBP processing pathway in ER Ca(2+) depleted cells remained fully functional and responsive to changes in cellular cholesterol status but differed unexpectedly in basal activity. These findings establish the role of Ca(2+) in determining the reference set-point for controlling cellular lipid homeostasis...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675011/-characterization-of-micrornas-profiles-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reprogrammed-from-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-and-stem-cells-from-apical-papilla
#19
Tan Xiaobing, Dai Qingyuan
OBJECTIVE: To compare characterization of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and screen-specific microRNA. METHODS: Human DPSCs and SCAP were reprogrammed into iPSCs using a Sendai virus vector. Total RNA of human DPSCs-iPSCs and SCAP-iPSCs were extracted. miRNAs were labeled and hybridized. Slides were scanned, and images were imported into GenePix Pro 6...
June 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664184/microrna-29-mediates-a-novel-negative-feedback-loop-to-regulate-scap-srebp-1-and-lipid-metabolism
#20
Peng Ru, Deliang Guo
The membrane-bound transcription factors, SREBPs (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins), play a central role in regulating lipid metabolism. The transcriptional activation of SREBPs requires the key protein SCAP (SREBP-cleavage activating protein) to translocate their precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi for subsequent proteolytic activation, a process tightly regulated by a cholesterol-mediated negative feedback loop. Our previous work showed that the SCAP/SREBP-1 pathway is significantly upregulated in human glioblastoma (GBM), the most deadly brain cancer, and that glucose-mediated N-glycosylation of SCAP is a prerequisite step for SCAP/SREBP trafficking...
2017: RNA & Disease
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