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M Balakumar, L Raji, D Prabhu, C Sathishkumar, P Prabu, V Mohan, M Balasubramanyam
In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Tingxian Deng, Chunying Pang, Xiaoya Ma, Xingrong Lu, Anqin Duan, Peng Zhu, Xianwei Liang
Insulin-induced genes (INSIGs), including INSIG1 and INSIG2, are important mediators that play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism and could cause the retention of the SCAP/SREBP complex. Therefore, the objective of this study is to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of buffalo INSIG2 gene and evaluate their associations with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes. A total of four SNPs (g.621272A > G, g.621364A > C, g.632543G > A, and g.632684C > T) were identified using DNA pooled sequencing, and the SNP genotyping for the identified SNPs was performed by using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry method from 264 individuals...
September 27, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Qinghao Zhang, Cuihong You, Shuqi Wang, Yewei Dong, Óscar Monroig, Douglas R Tocher, Yuanyou Li
As the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus provides a good model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. Here the potential roles of miR-33 in such regulation were investigated. The miR-33 gene was identified within intron 16 of the gene encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp1), an activator of LC-PUFA biosynthesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
P G Toral, G Hervás, A Suárez-Vega, J J Arranz, P Frutos
Nutrigenomic studies of mammary lipogenesis in ruminants often rely on the use of mammary tissue (MT) collected either by biopsy or at slaughter. However, isolating RNA from milk would be a useful and cost-effective technique that may avoid distress to the animal and facilitate the collection of samples in time series experiments. This assay was therefore conducted to test the hypothesis that RNA extracted from milk somatic cells (MSC) in dairy sheep would be a feasible alternative to the performance of MT biopsies for nutrigenomic analyses...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Shanshan Li, Afshin Hosseini, Marina Danes, Carolina Jacometo, Jianxin Liu, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to study how changing the ratio of Lys to Thr, Lys to His, and Lys to Val affects the expression of lipogenic genes and microRNA (miRNA) in bovine mammary epithelial cells. RESULTS: Triplicate cultures with the respective "optimal" amino acid (AA) ratio (OPAA = Lys:Met 2.9:1; Thr:Phe 1.05:1; Lys:Thr 1.8:1; Lys:His 2.38:1; Lys:Val 1.23:1) plus rapamycin (OPAARMC; positive control), OPAA, Lys:Thr 2.1:1 (LT2.1), Lys:Thr 1...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Lina Gölz, Benedikt C Buerfent, Andrea Hofmann, Heiko Rühl, Nadine Fricker, Wiebke Stamminger, Johannes Oldenburg, James Deschner, Achim Hoerauf, Markus M Nöthen, Johannes Schumacher, Marc P Hübner, Andreas Jäger
UNLABELLED: Nickel-containing alloys are frequently used in the biomedical field, although, owing to corrosive processes metal ion leaching is inevitable. Due to nickel ion (Ni(2+)) leaching several adverse effects are described in the literature. However, only a few studies evaluated the genetic profile of Ni(2+) in human cells which is of great importance since nickel-induced effects differ between humans and mice as a result of species-specific receptor variability. Thus, we investigated gene expression induced by Ni(2+)in human monocytes using a transcriptome-wide approach determining new target genes implicated in nickel-induced pathologies...
October 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
D Carreño, G Hervás, P G Toral, T Castro-Carrera, P Frutos
Several studies in dairy cows have shown a relationship between milk fat depression (MFD) and alterations caused in lipogenic gene expression by dietary nutrients. However, information on small ruminants is not only scarce but also inconsistent. Therefore, this experiment was conducted in dairy ewes to study the effect of a diet known to induce MFD on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA abundance of key candidate genes involved in mammary lipogenesis. Twelve lactating Assaf ewes (on average 63d in milk) were randomly assigned to 2 treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and concentrates (50:50), supplemented with 0 (control) or 17g of fish oil/kg of diet dry matter (FO)...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Hui Wang, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo, Yongqing Yi, Dawei Yao, Xueying Zhang, Gongzhen Ma, Juan J Loor
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level to cause translational repression or degradation of targets. The profiles of miRNAs across stages of lactation in small ruminant species such as dairy goats is unknown. A small RNA library was constructed using tissue samples from mammary gland of Saanen dairy goats harvested at mid-lactation followed by sequencing via Solexa technology. A total of 796 conserved miRNAs, 263 new miRNAs and 821 pre-miRNAs were uncovered...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
E Theusch, K Kim, K Stevens, J D Smith, Y-DI Chen, J I Rotter, D A Nickerson, M W Medina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
C Z Chen, Y N Zhu, M L Chai, L S Dai, Y Gao, H Jiang, L J Zhang, Y Ding, S Y Liu, Q Y Li, W F Lu, J B Zhang
Our study clarifies the role of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) gene in porcine preadipocyte differentiation. AMFR-siRNA was transfected into porcine preadipocytes and the preadipocytes were induced to differentiation. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted to examine changes in mRNA expression of a series of genes in porcine preadipocytes, including AMFR, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP1a), SREBP2, insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), and Insig2. Expression changes in the mRNA of genes regulating adipocyte differentiation were also analyzed using qRT-PCR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2)...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Peng He, Lin Sun, Dan Zhu, Hong Zhang, Liang Zhang, Yujie Guo, Siwen Liu, Jingjing Zhou, Xiaoyan Xu, Peng Xie
Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) have been discovered in the genomes of various animals including humans, whose functions have been seldom studied. To explore the biological functions of human EBLNs, we constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a short-hairpin RNA against human EBLN1, which successfully inhibited EBLN1 expression by above 80% in infected human oligodendroglia cells (OL cells). We found that EBLN1 silencing suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest, and promoted apoptosis in OL cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Grazyna Janikowska, Tomasz Janikowsk, Alina Pyka, Adam Wilczok, Urszula Mazurek
Cyclosporin A is an immunosuppressant drug that is used not only in solid transplant rejection, but also in moderate and severe forms of psoriasis, pyoderma, lupus or arthritis. Serious side effects of the drug such as skin cancer or gingival hyperplasia probably start with the latent proliferation process. Little is known about the influence of cyclosporin A on molecular signaling in epidermal tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the influence of cyclosporin A on the process of proliferation in normal human dermal fibroblasts...
January 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Hui Wang, Jun Luo, Tianying Zhang, Huibin Tian, Yue Ma, Huifen Xu, Dawei Yao, Juan J Loor
The microRNA-26 (miR-26) family is known to control adipogenesis in non-ruminants. The genomic loci of miR-26a and miR-26b have been localized in the introns of genes encoding for the proteins of the C-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase (CTDSP) family. Insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) encodes a protein with a key role in the regulation of lipogenesis in rodent liver. In the present study, we investigated the synergistic function of the miR-26 family and their host genes in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC)...
May 3, 2016: RNA Biology
Chongtae Kim, Heejin Lee, Hoin Kang, Jung Jae Shin, Hyosun Tak, Wook Kim, Myriam Gorospe, Eun Kyung Lee
Although triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the pancreas leads to β-cell dysfunction and raises the chance to develop metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the molecular mechanisms whereby intracellular TG levels are regulated in pancreatic β cells have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present evidence that the RNA-binding protein HuD regulates TG production in pancreatic β cells. Mouse insulinoma βTC6 cells stably expressing a small hairpin RNA targeting HuD (shHuD) (βTC6-shHuD) contained higher TG levels compared to control cells...
April 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
E Theusch, K Kim, K Stevens, J D Smith, Y-D I Chen, J I Rotter, D A Nickerson, M W Medina
Statins are widely prescribed to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. They also modestly reduce plasma triglyceride (TG), an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor, in most people. The mechanism and inter-individual variability of TG statin response is poorly understood. We measured statin-induced gene expression changes in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 150 participants of a simvastatin clinical trial and identified 23 genes (false discovery rate, FDR=15%) with expression changes correlated with plasma TG response...
March 1, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Haizhao Song, Zihuan Zheng, Jianan Wu, Jia Lai, Qiang Chu, Xiaodong Zheng
Insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis are the most common complications of obesity. Pitaya is an important source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoid and vitamin C which are related to its antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of white pitaya juice (WPJ) on obesity-related metabolic disorders (e.g. insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis) in high-fat diet-fed mice. Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into four groups and fed low-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ, or fed high-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ for 14 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Hsiao-Fan Chen, Kou-Juey Wu
Hypoxia in tumors is primarily a pathophysiologic consequence of structurally and functionally disturbed microcirculation with inadequate supply of oxygen. Tumor hypoxia is strongly associated with tumor propagation, malignant progression, and resistance to therapy. Aberrant epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in the process of hypoxia-driven malignant progression. Convert of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays important biological functions in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease...
March 2016: BioMedicine
Lingjun Zuo, Tong Wang, Xiandong Lin, Jijun Wang, Yunlong Tan, Xiaoping Wang, Xueqing Yu, Xingguang Luo
In the present study, we aimed to report the individual sex-different genetic markers across autosomes in European- and African-origin populations. A total of 8,400 females and 8,081 males in 19 independent cohorts were genotyped across genomes using Illumina or Affymetrix arrays. The allele frequencies were compared between females and males in 9 non-clean cohorts (with some human disease traits) using genome-wide logistic regression and then the nominally significant associations were replicated across 10 clean cohorts (without disease traits)...
December 1, 2015: Genes & Genomics
Haizhao Song, Qiang Chu, Dongdong Xu, Yang Xu, Xiaodong Zheng
Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
January 13, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
H F Xu, J Luo, W S Zhao, Y C Yang, H B Tian, H B Shi, M Bionaz
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1; gene name SREBF1) is known to be the master regulator of lipid homeostasis in mammals, including milk fat synthesis. The major role of SREBP1 in controlling milk fat synthesis has been demonstrated in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Except for a demonstrated role in controlling the expression of FASN, a regulatory role of SREBP1 on milk fat synthesis is very likely, but has not yet been demonstrated in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). To explore the regulatory function of SREBP1 on de novo fatty acids and triacylglycerol synthesis in GMEC, we overexpressed the mature form of SREBP1 (active NH2-terminal fragment) in GMEC using a recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-nSREBP1), with Ad-GFP (recombinant adenovirus of green fluorescent protein) as control, and infected the GMEC for 48 h...
January 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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