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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286387/establishment-of-an-extracellular-acidic-ph-culture-system
#1
Ayano Kondo, Tsuyoshi Osawa
Conditions of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia or nutrient starvation, play critical roles in cancer progression and malignancy. However, the role of acidic extracellular pH in tumor aggressiveness and its underlying mechanism has not been extensively studied compared to hypoxic or nutrient starvation conditions. In addition, a well-defined culture method to mimic the acidic extracellular tumor microenvironment has not been fully reported. Here we present a simple in vitro culture method to maintain acidic extracellular pH using reduced bicarbonate and increased lactate or HCl concentrations in the culture medium...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250447/electronic-northern-analysis-of-genes-and-modeling-of-gene-networks-underlying-bovine-milk-fat-production
#2
Bhaskar Ganguly, Tanuj Kumar Ambwani, Sunil Kumar Rastogi
Milk fat is one of the most important economic traits in dairy animals. Yet, the biological machinery involved in milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. In the present study, expression profiling of 45 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and secretion was performed using a computational approach to identify those genes that are differentially expressed in mammary tissue. Transcript abundance was observed for genes associated with nine bioprocesses, namely, fatty acid import into cells, xenobiotic and cholesterol transport, acetate and fatty acid activation and intracellular transport, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, sphingolipid synthesis, lipid droplet formation, ketone body utilization, and regulation of transcription in mammary, skin, and muscle tissue...
2017: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232835/expression-profile-of-genes-regulating-steroid-biosynthesis-and-metabolism-in-human-ovarian-granulosa-cells-a-primary-culture-approach
#3
Wiesława Kranc, Maciej Brązert, Katarzyna Ożegowska, Mariusz J Nawrocki, Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Maurycy Jankowski, Michal Jeseta, Leszek Pawelczyk, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
Because of the deep involvement of granulosa cells in the processes surrounding the cycles of menstruation and reproduction, there is a great need for a deeper understanding of the ways in which they function during the various stages of those cycles. One of the main ways in which the granulosa cells influence the numerous sex associated processes is hormonal interaction. Expression of steroid sex hormones influences a range of both primary and secondary sexual characteristics, as well as regulate the processes of oogenesis, folliculogenesis, ovulation, and pregnancy...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228631/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-lncrnas-and-mirnas-which-are-associated-with-tumor-malignant-phenotypes-in-hepatoblastoma-patients
#4
Sida Liu, Fujing Xie, Xiaohong Xiang, Sinan Liu, Shunbin Dong, Kai Qu, Ting Lin
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is one of the most common hepatic malignancies in the pediatric population. HB are composed of a variety of tumors, which derived from different origins and had varying clinical outcomes. However, the unclear underlying mechanisms of HB limited exploring novel biomarkers and effective therapeutic targets. We searched microarray datasets on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and selected GSE75271 and GSE75283 datasets for comprehensive analysis. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was employed to identify genes which were associated with tumor malignant phenotypes, including HB subtypes, Cairo classification and tumor stage...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193738/cooperative-role-of-the-glp-1-receptor-and-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-mediated-signaling-on-fat-mass-reduction-through-the-down-regulation-of-pka-akt-ampk-signaling-in-the-adipose-tissue-and-muscle-of-rats
#5
Juan Decara, Patricia Rivera, Sergio Arrabal, Antonio Vargas, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Carlos Dieguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Juan Suárez
AIM: To explore the cooperation of GLP-1 receptor and β3-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling in the control of fat mass/feeding behavior by studying the effects of a combined therapy composed of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide and the β3-AR agonist CL316243. METHODS: The study included the analysis of key mechanisms regulating lipid/cholesterol metabolism, and thermogenesis in brown (BAT) and epididymal white (eWAT) adipose tissues, abdominal muscle and liver of male rats...
November 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155178/induction-of-immune-related-gene-expression-by-seminal-exosomes-in-the-porcine-endometrium
#6
Rulan Bai, Zeinab Latifi, Kazuya Kusama, Keigo Nakamura, Masayuki Shimada, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Seminal plasma (SP) is considered as a vehicle to carry sperm into female reproductive tract, of which functions have not been completely understood. This study aimed to identify the function of seminal exosomes on porcine endometrium. Exosomes were isolated from the sperm-rich fraction of boar semen and were confirmed by the expression of exosome marker HSP70 and size distribution using nano-sight tracking analysis. Porcine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) were then treated with seminal exosomes, and RNA extracted were subjected to global expression analysis...
November 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113994/hepatocyte-specific-deletion-of-bap31-promotes-srebp1c-activation-promotes-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-worsens-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#7
Jia-Lin Xu, Li-Ya Li, Yan-Qing Wang, Ya-Qi Li, Mu Shan, Shi-Zhuo Sun, Yang Yu, Bing Wang
Conditional knockout mice with targeted disruption of BAP31 in adult mouse liver were generated and challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 36 or 96 days, markers of obesity, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis were determined. Mutant mice were indistinguishable from wild-type littermates, but exhibited increased HFD-induced obesity. BAP31-deletion in hepatocytes increased the expression of SREBP1C and the target genes, including ACC1 and SCD1, increased hepatic lipid accumulation and HFD-induced liver steatosis...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031877/individual-variation-of-the-extent-of-milk-fat-depression-in-dairy-ewes-fed-fish-oil-milk-fatty-acid-profile-and-mrna-abundance-of-candidate-genes-involved-in-mammary-lipogenesis
#8
P Frutos, P G Toral, G Hervás
Dairy ewes are less prone than cows to milk fat depression (MFD) but suffer from this syndrome when marine lipids are added to their diet to modulate milk fatty acid (FA) profile. However, there are large individual differences in MFD extent, and the reasons behind this variability are uncertain. On this basis, a study was conducted in lactating sheep to test the hypotheses that individual susceptibility to the low-fat milk condition may be explained by differences in (1) the milk concentration of some FA, particularly antilipogenic FA, or (2) the transcriptional regulation of mammary lipogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988043/metabolic-signatures-of-bisphenol-a-and-genistein-in-atlantic-salmon-liver-cells
#9
Pål A Olsvik, Kaja H Skjærven, Liv Søfteland
Screening has revealed that aquafeeds with high inclusion of plant material may contain small amounts of endocrine disrupting agricultural pesticides. In this work, bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN) were selected as model endocrine disrupting toxicants with impact on DNA methylation in fish. Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were exposed in vitro to four concentrations of BPA and GEN (0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 μM) for 48 h. Toxicity endpoints included cytotoxicity, global DNA methylation, targeted transcriptomics and metabolomic screening (100 μM)...
December 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928276/precursor-microrna-122-inhibits-synthesis-of-insig1-isoform-mrna-by-modulating-polyadenylation-site-usage
#10
Kara L Norman, Tzu-Chun Chen, Gusti Zeiner, Peter Sarnow
The insulin-induced gene 1 protein (Insig1) inhibits the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway by retaining transcription factor SREBP in the endoplasmic reticulum, and by causing the degradation of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Liver-specific microRNA miR-122, on the other hand, enhances cholesterol biosynthesis by an unknown mechanism. We have found that Insig1 mRNAs are generated by alternative cleavage and polyadenylation, resulting in specific isoform mRNA species. During high cholesterol abundance, the short 1...
December 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599789/microrna-126-participates-in-lipid-metabolism-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#11
Meiqiang Chu, Yong Zhao, Yanni Feng, Hongfu Zhang, Jing Liu, Ming Cheng, Lan Li, Wei Shen, Hongfang Cao, Qiang Li, Lingjiang Min
Lipids are a major component of milk and are important for infant growth and development. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) has previously been observed in mammary glands and adipocytes and is known to be involved in lipid metabolism during the process of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unknown whether miR-126 also participates in lipid metabolism in mammary luminal epithelial cells (MECs). In the current investigation, miR-126-3p inhibition stimulated lipid synthesis in MECs in part through increasing levels of the lipid synthesis enzymes FASN, ACSL1, and Insig1...
October 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527797/mir-26b-promoter-analysis-reveals-regulatory-mechanisms-by-lipid-related-transcription-factors-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#12
Hui Wang, Jun Luo, Qiuya He, Dawei Yao, Jiao Wu, Juan J Loor
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate protein abundance and control diverse aspects of cellular processes and biological functions associated with lipid metabolism. MiR-26b and its host gene CTDSP1 regulate triacylglycerol synthesis by synergistically suppressing the insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1); however, the direct regulators of miR-26b expression remain unknown. In the present study, we characterized the activity of a novel putative promoter region in miR-26b. Results revealed that promoter activity and miR-26b expression are dynamically regulated by different transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), and liver X receptor α (LXRα)...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235404/progesterone-signalling-in-broiler-skeletal-muscle-is-associated-with-divergent-feed-efficiency
#13
Walter Bottje, Byung-Whi Kong, Antonio Reverter, Ashley J Waardenberg, Kentu Lassiter, Nicholas J Hudson
BACKGROUND: We contrast the pectoralis muscle transcriptomes of broilers selected from within a single genetic line expressing divergent feed efficiency (FE) in an effort to improve our understanding of the mechanistic basis of FE. RESULTS: Application of a virtual muscle model to gene expression data pointed to a coordinated reduction in slow twitch muscle isoforms of the contractile apparatus (MYH15, TPM3, MYOZ2, TNNI1, MYL2, MYOM3, CSRP3, TNNT2), consistent with diminishment in associated slow machinery (myoglobin and phospholamban) in the high FE animals...
February 24, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207535/an-investigation-of-obesity-susceptibility-genes-in-northern-han-chinese-by-targeted-resequencing
#14
Yili Wu, Weijing Wang, Wenjie Jiang, Jie Yao, Dongfeng Zhang
Our earlier genome-wide linkage study of body mass index (BMI) showed strong signals from 7q36.3 and 8q21.13. This case-control study set to investigate 2 genomic regions which may harbor variants contributed to development of obesity.We employed targeted resequencing technology to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7q36.3 and 8q21.13 from 16 individuals with obesity. These were compared with 504 East Asians in the 1000 Genomes Project as a reference panel. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) block analysis was performed for the significant SNPs located near the same gene...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146316/mir-92a-enhances-recombinant-protein-productivity-in-cho-cells-by-increasing-intracellular-cholesterol-levels
#15
Wan Ping Loh, Yuansheng Yang, Kong Peng Lam
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising targets for engineering of CHO cell factories to enhance recombinant protein productivity. Manipulation of miRNA levels in CHO cells have been shown to improve product yield by increasing proliferation and specific productivity (qP), resisting apoptosis and enhancing oxidative metabolism. The authors previously demonstrated that over-expressing miR-92a results in increases in qP and titer of CHO-IgG cells. However, the mechanisms by which miR-92a enhances qP in CHO cells are still uninvestigated...
April 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918728/cholesterol-metabolism-in-rabbit-blastocysts-under-maternal-diabetes
#16
S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Torsten Plösch, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Stefanie Hecht, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
In the rabbit reproductive model, maternal experimentally induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (expIDD) leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in blastocysts. Cholesterol metabolism is a likely candidate to explain such metabolic changes. Therefore, in the present study we analysed maternal and embryonic cholesterol concentrations and expression of related genes in vivo (diabetic model) and in vitro (embryo culture in hyperglycaemic medium). In pregnant expIDD rabbits, the serum composition of lipoprotein subfractions was changed, with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; in uterine fluid, total cholesterol concentrations were elevated...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699590/high-fructose-diet-is-as-detrimental-as-high-fat-diet-in-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes-mediated-by-hepatic-pancreatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress
#17
M Balakumar, L Raji, D Prabhu, C Sathishkumar, P Prabu, V Mohan, M Balasubramanyam
In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687066/four-novel-polymorphisms-of-buffalo-insig2-gene-are-associated-with-milk-production-traits-in-chinese-buffaloes
#18
Tingxian Deng, Chunying Pang, Xiaoya Ma, Xingrong Lu, Anqin Duan, Peng Zhu, Xianwei Liang
Insulin-induced genes (INSIGs), including INSIG1 and INSIG2, are important mediators that play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism and could cause the retention of the SCAP/SREBP complex. Therefore, the objective of this study is to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of buffalo INSIG2 gene and evaluate their associations with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes. A total of four SNPs (g.621272A > G, g.621364A > C, g.632543G > A, and g.632684C > T) were identified using DNA pooled sequencing, and the SNP genotyping for the identified SNPs was performed by using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry method from 264 individuals...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640649/the-mir-33-gene-is-identified-in-a-marine-teleost-a-potential-role-in-regulation-of-lc-pufa-biosynthesis-in-siganus-canaliculatus
#19
Qinghao Zhang, Cuihong You, Shuqi Wang, Yewei Dong, Óscar Monroig, Douglas R Tocher, Yuanyou Li
As the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus provides a good model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. Here the potential roles of miR-33 in such regulation were investigated. The miR-33 gene was identified within intron 16 of the gene encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp1), an activator of LC-PUFA biosynthesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497905/isolation-of-rna-from-milk-somatic-cells-as-an-alternative-to-biopsies-of-mammary-tissue-for-nutrigenomic-studies-in-dairy-ewes
#20
P G Toral, G Hervás, A Suárez-Vega, J J Arranz, P Frutos
Nutrigenomic studies of mammary lipogenesis in ruminants often rely on the use of mammary tissue (MT) collected either by biopsy or at slaughter. However, isolating RNA from milk would be a useful and cost-effective technique that may avoid distress to the animal and facilitate the collection of samples in time series experiments. This assay was therefore conducted to test the hypothesis that RNA extracted from milk somatic cells (MSC) in dairy sheep would be a feasible alternative to the performance of MT biopsies for nutrigenomic analyses...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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