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Severe Oral bacterial infection and thrush

Adam Dalal, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Daniel Mimouni, Sujoy Ray, Walford Days, Emmilia Hodak, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos, Beatriz Beitler, Gracia A Martinez, Juliana Pereira, José Ulysses Amigo Filho, Giselle Burlamaqui Klautau, Yu Cheng Lian, Marinella Della Negra, Alberto José da Silva Duarte
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 - CD18 deficiency) is a rare disease characterized by disturbance of phagocyte function associated with less severe cellular and humoral dysfunction. The main features are bacterial and fungal infections predominantly in the skin and mucosal surfaces, impaired wound healing and delayed umbilical cord separation. The infections are indolent, necrotic and recurrent. In contrast to the striking difficulties in defense against bacterial and fungal microorganisms, LAD 1 patients do not exhibit susceptibility to viral infections and neoplasias...
December 2014: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
L G Tillekeratne, N M Thielman, R A Kiwera, H Y Chu, L Kaale, S C Morpeth, J Ostermann, S P Mtweve, J F Shao, J A Bartlett, J A Crump
Community home-based care (CHBC) plays an integral role in the care of HIV-infected patients living in resource-limited regions. A longitudinal cohort study has recently been conducted, in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania, in order to identify the components of an effective CHBC programme. Structured questionnaires were administered to clients over two census rounds, one in October 2003-February 2004 and the other in January 2005-October 2005. In the second round, follow-up interviews were completed for 226 (87...
April 2009: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology
Hanifa Bachou, Thorkild Tylleskär, Deogratias H Kaddu-Mulindwa, James K Tumwine
BACKGROUND: To establish the magnitude of bacteraemia in severely malnourished children, and describe the types of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity by HIV status. METHOD: Isolates were recovered from 76 blood specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using commercial antibiotic disks and demographic and clinical findings were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 450 children 63% were male; median age 17.0 months (inter quartile range, IQR 12-24) and 57% had oedema...
2006: BMC Infectious Diseases
May-Lill Garly, Carlitos Balé, Cesário Lourenco Martins, Hilton C Whittle, Jens Nielsen, Ida M Lisse, Peter Aaby
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prophylactic antibiotics can prevent complications of measles. DESIGN: Community based, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Bandim Health Project study area in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. PARTICIPANTS: 84 patients with measles during a measles epidemic in Bissau in 1998 (fewer than originally planned owing to interruption by war). INTERVENTIONS: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole) or placebo for seven days...
December 16, 2006: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Sandeep B Bavdekar, Rinku Agarwal
BACKGROUND: As HIV infection presents with several manifestations, none of which is specific, several children are subjected to HIV testing. Very few studies have examined the issue of probability of HIV infection with a given clinical manifestation. AIM: To determine the probability of HIV infection when a child is hospitalized with at least one of the selected manifestations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children aged 18 mo and above, admitted to a tertiary care center in Mumbai, India with chronic diarrhea, severe malnutrition, persistent cough, generalized lymphadenopathy, oral thrush, hepatomegaly, repeated common infections, generalized dermatitis, chronic parotid swelling, recurrent bacterial infection, disseminated tuberculosis and/ or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were enrolled in a prospective study after obtaining informed consent...
December 2005: Indian Pediatrics
David K Lewis, Maria Callaghan, Kamija Phiri, James Chipwete, James G Kublin, Eric Borgstein, Ed E Zijlstra
Despite high seroprevalence there are few recent studies of the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined 1226 consecutive patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in Blantyre, Malawi during two 2-week periods in October 1999 and January 2000: 70% of medical patients were HIV-positive and 45% had acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); 36% of surgical patients were HIV-positive and 8% had AIDS. Seroprevalence rose to a peak among 30-40 year olds; 91% of medical, 56% of surgical and 80% of all patients in this age group were HIV-positive...
January 2003: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Hui-Ru Ma, Shu-Chi Mu, Yao-Hsu Yang, Chung-Min Chen, Bor-Luen Chiang
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited phagocytic disorder caused by defective oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes. Patients with CGD may present with recurrent, life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections and often need repeated hospitalization as early as infancy. We report a case of a boy aged 3 years and 1 month with a history of oral thrush, chronic diarrhea, skin abscesses, multiple small joints osteomyelitis, and multiple liver abscesses since 2 months of age. X-linked chronic granulomatous disease was diagnosed by nitroblue tetrazolium test and further confirmed by genetic study using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and genomic DNA sequencing...
March 2003: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
A M Oudshoorn, C Ramaker
Two boys of 1 and 16 year had painful buccal lesions and were admitted for dehydration. The younger had finger and toe blisters; the older, severely ill, had conjunctivitis, urethritis and skin lesions. Only symptomatic treatment with lidocaine gel and paracetamol gave good recovery. A 5-year-old Turkish girl had recurrent painful buccal ulcers which each time cleared up spontaneously. Stomatitis is common in childhood. Viral infections are the most common causes of stomatitis, in particular infections with herpes simplex virus (herpes gingivostomatitis), Coxsackie virus (herpangina, hand-foot-mouth-disease), chickenpox and infectious mononucleosis...
October 14, 2000: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
A Sibal, A K Patwari, V K Anand, A K Chhabra, D Chandra
Seventy-eight children diagnosed as cases of persistent diarrhoea (PD) from 1 month to 5 years of age (mean age 8.92 months) hospitalized during a 2-year study period were screened for the presence of non-gastrointestinal infections. Clinical screening suggested acute respiratory infection (ARI) in 30 per cent cases, urinary tract infection (UTI) in 19 per cent and acute suppurative otitis media (ASOM) in 10 per cent of cases. Investigations revealed pneumonia on chest X-ray (39 per cent), positive urine culture (32 per cent), leucocytosis (31 per cent) and positive blood culture (22 per cent)...
April 1996: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
R P Brettle, A Foreman, S Povey
In order to describe the clinical features of HIV (non-AIDS), particularly injection drug use (IDU) related HIV, in patients attending the Regional Infectious Diseases Unit in Edinburgh, a prospective review utilizing the WHO staging system of the 680 HIV positive patients, 30% of whom were women and 68% were infected via IDU, was undertaken. Despite the fact that the majority of drug users and heterosexuals enrolled asymptomatic, by 1993, 71% of the patients had developed some HIV related clinical problem...
March 1996: International Journal of STD & AIDS
G Kamanfu, N Mlika-Cabanne, P M Girard, S Nimubona, B Mpfizi, A Cishako, P Roux, J P Coulaud, B Larouzé, P Aubry
To determine the types of pulmonary disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we conducted a prospective study of 302 consecutive patients admitted for acute respiratory disease to a university hospital in Bujumbura, Burundi. Diagnoses were made according to well-defined criteria. Of the total, 222 patients (73.5%) were HIV seropositive, with women younger than men. Features suggestive of underlying HIV infection were the clinical findings of oral thrush, peripheral lymphadenopathy, or herpes zoster and the radiographic abnormalities of hilar-mediastinal adenopathy or a reticulonodular infiltrate...
March 1993: American Review of Respiratory Disease
M T Hessen, M J Ingerman, D H Kaufman, P Weiner, J Santoro, O M Korzeniowski, J Boscia, M Topiel, L M Bush, D Kaye
The efficacy and toxicity of ciprofloxacin, an orally administered fluoroquinolone, were evaluated in 24 infections in 23 patients with osteomyelitis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings and the results of bone biopsy and culture of bone or deep soft tissue. The aerobic gram-negative bacilli were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15 isolates), Serratia marcescens (five isolates), Escherichia coli (three isolates), Enterobacter species (three isolates), Proteus mirabilis (one isolate), Pseudomonas fluorescens (one isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one isolate)...
April 27, 1987: American Journal of Medicine
G A Ferretti, R C Ash, A T Brown, M D Parr, E H Romond, T T Lillich
Conditioning chemoradiotherapy damages the mucosal barrier of the mouth and throat and often produces severe oral inflammation and infection. In a prospective, double-blind, randomized study, we examined the use of a chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse for prophylaxis against oral mucosal complications in 51 bone marrow transplant patients. Use of chlorhexidine mouthrinse produced significant reductions in the incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Mucositis also resolved more quickly in patients receiving chlorhexidine...
September 1988: Bone Marrow Transplantation
M Singh, A K Deorari, R C Khajuria, V K Paul
The neonatal morbidity was studied in 7015 neonates born at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, New Delhi. The incidence of low birth weight babies was 26.7 per cent; one seventh (13.5%) of the series were preterm (less than 37 wk), while 6.6 per cent were 'small-for-dates'. Birth asphyxia of varying severity developed in 5.9 per cent infants. Respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed in 5.7 per 100 live-births; most being due to hyaline membrane disease (33.5%), which affected 14.1 per cent of preterm babies...
June 1991: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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