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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925686/slc4a11-three-dimensional-homology-model-rationalizes-corneal-dystrophy-causing-mutations
#1
Katherine E Badior, Kumari Alka, Joseph R Casey
We studied the structural effects of point mutations of a membrane protein that cause genetic disease. SLC4A11 is a membrane transport protein (OH(-) /H(+) /NH3 /H2 O) of basolateral corneal endothelium, whose mutations cause some cases of Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy and Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy. We created a three-dimensional homology model of SLC4A11 membrane domain, using Band 3 (SLC4A1) crystal structure as template. The homology model was assessed in silico and by analysis of mutants designed on the basis of the model...
December 7, 2016: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922676/identification-of-functional-pathways-associated-with-the-conditional-ablation-of-serum-response-factor-in-dstncorn1-mice
#2
Yanan Huo, Xin Xie, Bo Jiang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the signaling pathways associated with functional alterations in corneal tissues following the conditional ablation of serum response factor (Srf) in Dstncorn1 mice. The gene expression profiling array GSE49688, which includes 3 samples each from the wild‑type (WT), Dstncorn1 mutant (corn1) and corn1 mice following the conditional ablation of Srf from the corneal epithelium [namely rescued (res)] mouse groups, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#3
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913991/24-hour-efficacy-and-ocular-surface-health-with-preservative-free-tafluprost-alone-and-in-conjunction-with-preservative-free-dorzolamide-timolol-fixed-combination-in-open-angle-glaucoma-patients-insufficiently-controlled-with-preserved-latanoprost-monotherapy
#4
Anastasios-Georgios Konstas, Konstadinos G Boboridis, Paraskevas Kapis, Konstantinos Marinopoulos, Irini C Voudouragkaki, Dimitrios Panayiotou, Dimitrios G Mikropoulos, Eirini Pagkalidou, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Andreas Katsanos, Luciano Quaranta
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the 24-h efficacy, tolerability, and ocular surface health with preservative-free (PF) tafluprost and a PF triple drug regimen comprising tafluprost and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC) in open-angle glaucoma patients who were insufficiently controlled with preserved branded or generic latanoprost monotherapy and who exhibited signs or symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD). METHODS: Prospective, observer-masked, crossover, comparison...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913232/visual-acuity-and-quality-of-life-in-dry-eye-disease-proceedings-of-the-ocean-group-meeting
#5
José Benítez-Del-Castillo, Marc Labetoulle, Christophe Baudouin, Maurizio Rolando, Yonca A Akova, Pasquale Aragona, Gerd Geerling, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Elisabeth M Messmer, Kostas Boboridis
Dry eye disease (DED) results in tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, inflammation of the ocular surface and, ultimately, visual disturbance that can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. The effects on visual acuity result in difficulties with driving, reading and computer use and negatively impact psychological health. These effects also extend to the workplace, with a loss of productivity and quality of work causing substantial economic losses. The effects of DED and the impact on vision experienced by patients may not be given sufficient importance by ophthalmologists...
November 29, 2016: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911424/-effectiveness-of-soft-contact-lenses-in-severe-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca-treated-with-local-immunosuppressive-therapy
#6
T N Safonova, O V Gladkova, V I Boev, A A Fedorov
AIM: To study the effectiveness of soft contact lenses in severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) treated with local immunosuppressive therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have examined 41 patients (60 eyes) with severe KCS, including 3 men (4 eyes) and 38 women (56 eyes) aged from 27 to 76 years. Group 1 consisted of 22 persons (30 eyes) who were prescribed cyclosporine А 0.05% instillations 2 times daily, artificial tears, and soft contact lenses. Group 2 consisted of 19 patients (30 eyes) who received instillations of cyclosporine А 0...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911423/-core-principles-of-treatment-of-corneal-damage-in-patients-with-thyroid-eye-disease
#7
Ya O Grusha, D S Ismailova, L V Sherstneva
AIM: To develop a therapeutic approach and to estimate the efficiency of complex treatment of corneal damage in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 44 patients (52 eyes) divided into 2 groups depending on the severity of corneal damage. Treatment of those with severe involvement included pathogenetic measures (pulse steroid therapy and/or radiation therapy) and surgery (orbital decompression, eyelid and corneal surgery)...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911382/a-simple-mechanical-procedure-to-create-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-in-mouse
#8
Neda Afsharkhamseh, Elham Ghahari, Medi Eslani, Ali R Djalilian
Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a state of malfunction or loss of limbal epithelial stem cells, after which the corneal epithelium is replaced with conjunctiva. Patients suffer from recurrent corneal defects, pain, inflammation, and loss of vision. Previously, a murine model of LSCD was described and compared to two other models. The goal was to produce a consistent mouse model of LSCD that both mimics the phenotype in humans and lasts long enough to make it possible to study the disease pathophysiology and to evaluate new treatments...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904945/-sarcoidosis-and-uveitis-an-update
#9
REVIEW
J G Garweg
Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis is present in up to one third of patients and is frequently manifested before the underlying systemic disease has been diagnosed. With a view to the therapeutic consequences an early diagnosis of the underlying disease is advantageous. In cases of visual loss early diagnostic measures include invasive procedures, such as ultrasound-guided bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy, if nodular conjunctival or cutaneous manifestations which would confirm the diagnosis are not present...
November 30, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902849/oral-antivirals-for-preventing-recurrent-herpes-simplex-keratitis-in-people-with-corneal-grafts
#10
REVIEW
Uday K Bhatt, M N Abdul Karim, Jeremy I Prydal, Senthil V Maharajan, Usama Fares
BACKGROUND: Ocular herpes is a viral infection of the eye caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), a double-stranded DNA virus. Corneal scarring caused by herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is the leading infectious cause of penetrating corneal graft in high-income countries. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug known to have a protective effect against recurrences in herpetic eye disease. While there are some studies which have evaluated the effects of intervention with oral antiviral in preventing such recurrences in people with corneal grafts, a systematic review of all comparative clinical trials has not been previously undertaken...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900962/association-of-conjunctival-and-corneal-calcification-with-vascular-calcification-among-hepatitis-c-seropositive-hemodialysis-patients
#11
Khaled AbouSeif, Dawlat Sany, Yasser Elshahawy, Ayman Seddik, Khedr Rahman, Moustapha Gaber
Disorders associated with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been reported including cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system diseases. Since chronic HCV infections may be curable, their identification as causal contributors to cardiovascular risk could offer new perspectives in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between HCV and aortic arch calcification (AAC) and corneal and conjunctival calcification (CCC) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients; further, we assessed the correlation of CCC with vascular calcification...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900926/-corneal-cross-linking-as-a-treatment-for-progressive-keratoconus
#12
R P L Wisse, N Soeters, D A Godefrooij, N G de Koning-Tahzib
Keratoconus is a corneal disease with onset typically occurring during puberty or early adulthood. The cornea progressively thins and acquires a cone-like shape which negatively affects visual acuity. In the early stages, visual acuity can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. In more advanced cases, a corneal transplant is ultimately indicated to restore visual acuity. Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is a treatment given at a relatively early stage that protects patients against deterioration of visual acuity and further corneal deformation in progressive cases of keratoconus...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898580/resident-compliance-with-the-american-academy-of-ophthalmology-preferred-practice-patterns-for-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-suspect
#13
Melanie Mihlstin, Mark S Juzych, Heidi T Kromrei, Frank S Hwang, Jia Yin
PURPOSE: To study resident compliance with the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Patterns (PPPs) for primary open-angle glaucoma suspect (POAGS) in a resident ophthalmology clinic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred charts were selected for analysis of adult patients with the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis code for POAGS during their initial visit between November 2, 2010 and May 6, 2014 at the Kresge Eye Institute resident clinic...
December 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897118/smoking-and-eye-pathologies-a-systemic-review-part-i-anterior-eye-segment-pathologies
#14
Małgorzata Nita, Andrzej Grzybowski
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health and is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, associated with lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease and cardiovascular disease. AIM: The analysis of the influence of tobacco smoking on pathology of the anterior segment of the eye in adults and children. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, was published during the period 2000-2016...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896297/a-mouse-model-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-ocular-disease
#15
Nicole M Broekema, Inna V Larsen, Erika S Naruzawa, Marcin Filutowicz, Aaron W Kolb, Leandro B C Teixeira, Curtis R Brandt
Staphylococcus aureus infection of the cornea is a significant threat to vision. The percentage of bacterial isolates resistant to antibiotics is increasing as is the percentage of infections caused by methicillin resistant isolates. There is a critical need for additional therapeutic approaches and their development will require the use of animal models to test efficacy. Two mouse models of S. aureus keratitis have been described but only quantified stromal keratitis (corneal clouding and perforation). We have extended these models using the methicillin resistant S...
November 2016: Journal of Ocular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893109/safety-and-efficacy-clinical-trials-for-syl1001-a-novel-short-interfering-rna-for-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-disease
#16
José Manuel Benitez-Del-Castillo, Javier Moreno-Montañés, Ignacio Jiménez-Alfaro, Francisco José Muñoz-Negrete, Krista Turman, Kadi Palumaa, Belén Sádaba, María Victoria González, Verónica Ruz, Beatriz Vargas, Covadonga Pañeda, Tamara Martínez, Anne-Marie Bleau, Ana Isabel Jimenez
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of SYL1001, a short interfering (si) RNA targeting the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED). Methods: This study combines a phase I and two phase II clinical trials to test different doses of SYL1001 in a total of 156 healthy subjects and patients with DED. After 10 days of treatment, the primary efficacy endpoints were the effect on (1) the scoring in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaires, and (2) ocular tolerance evaluated by corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival hyperemia...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892757/basic-principles-and-current-status-of-transcorneal-and-transscleral-iontophoresis
#17
Taís Gratieri, Verena Santer, Yogeshvar N Kalia
Iontophoresis is an active non-invasive drug delivery technique that can increase the transport of charged and neutral molecules into and across biological membranes. Most research to-date has focused on (per)cutaneous iontophoretic drug delivery. However, recent studies illustrate its potential for drug delivery to the eye: corneal iontophoresis may enable targeted topical therapy of intracorneal diseases, whereas transscleral iontophoresis may enable non-invasive intraocular drug delivery. Areas covered: We describe iontophoretic principles in the context of ocular delivery before providing a summary of recent preclinical studies involving transcorneal and transscleral iontophoresis in vitro and in vivo...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892479/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-conjunctivochalasis-excision-on-tear-stability-and-contrast-sensitivity
#18
Weiqiang Qiu, Mingzhou Zhang, Ting Xu, Ziyuan Liu, Huibin Lv, Wei Wang, Xuemin Li
Conjunctivochalasis (CCh) disrupts tear flow and damages tear film stability. This study sought to evaluate the tear stability and contrast sensitivity of patients with CCh on whom CCh excision was performed. The study included 39 eyes from 39 patients; all patients had eyes with grade 2 or 3 CCh, underwent CCh excision, and were evaluated before and three months after the surgery. The evaluated variables included the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), the tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, corneal surface irregularity, Schirmer's I test, the tear meniscus area (TMA), and contrast sensitivity...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890728/the-role-of-alkyl-chain-length-of-monothiol-terminated-alkyl-carboxylic-acid-in-the-synthesis-characterization-and-application-of-gelatin-g-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-carriers-for-antiglaucoma-drug-delivery
#19
Li-Jyuan Luo, Jui-Yang Lai
To improve ocular bioavailability and extend pharmacological response, this study aims to investigate the role of alkyl chain length of monothiol-terminated alkyl carboxylic acids in the synthesis, characterization, and application of gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (GN) biodegradable in situ gelling carriers for antiglaucoma drug delivery. In the presence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), mercaptobutyric acid (MBA), or mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) as a chain transfer agent, the carboxylic end-capped poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) samples were prepared by free radical polymerization technique...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890620/drug-induced-corneal-epithelial-changes
#20
REVIEW
Michael B Raizman, Pedram Hamrah, Edward J Holland, Terry Kim, Francis S Mah, Christopher J Rapuano, Roger G Ulrich
Drugs across many pharmacologic classes induce corneal epithelial changes. Many of these drugs have cationic amphiphilic structures, with a hydrophobic ring and hydrophilic cationic amine side chain that allow them to cross cell membranes. These drugs lead to intracellular phospholipid accumulation, often manifested in the cornea by vortex keratopathy, with no effect on visual acuity and few ocular symptoms. Other drugs, notably antineoplastic agents, produce a fine diffuse corneal haze, sometimes accompanied by decreased vision that can be dose limiting...
November 24, 2016: Survey of Ophthalmology
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