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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525563/omics-biomarkers-in-ophthalmology
#1
Susette Lauwen, Eiko K de Jong, Dirk J Lefeber, Anneke I den Hollander
"Omics" refers to high-throughput analyses of genes, proteins, or metabolites in a biological system, and is increasingly used for ophthalmic research. These system-based approaches can unravel disease-related processes and are valuable for biomarker discovery. Furthermore, potential therapeutic targets can be identified based on omics results, and targeted follow-up experiments can be designed to gain molecular understanding of the disease and to test new therapies. Here, we review the application of omics techniques in eye diseases, focusing on age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal detachment (RD), myopia, glaucoma, Fuchs' corneal dystrophy (FCD), cataract, keratoconus, and dry eyes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524929/xeno-free-cultivation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-corneal-stroma
#2
Steffi Matthyssen, Sorcha Ní Dhubhghaill, Veerle Van Gerwen, Nadia Zakaria
Purpose: The human cornea has recently been described as a source of corneal stroma-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vitro expansion of these cells involves basal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). As animal-derived serum can confer a risk of disease transmission and can be subject to considerable lot-to-lot variability, it does not comply with newer Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-required animal component-free culture protocols for clinical translation. Methods: This study investigated animal-free alternatives to FBS for cultivation of human corneal stromal MSCs...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524886/fungal-keratitis-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#3
S Farrell, E McElnea, S Moran, S Knowles, C C Murphy
PurposeFungal keratitis is relatively rare in temperate climates with only one previous population-based study, which reported a minimum annual incidence of 0.32 per million population in the United Kingdom. We performed a nationwide study in the Republic of Ireland of cases over a 6-year period to establish the incidence, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes of fungal keratitis.Patients and methodsAll corneal scraping specimens positive for fungal species over a 6-year period were identified at the microbiology departments of the seven main ophthalmology units in the Republic of Ireland...
May 19, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524142/-effectiveness-of-epithelialization-therapy-after-surgical-treatment-of-pterygiu
#4
A V Petraevskiy, K S Trishkin, I A Gndoyan
Pterygium is widely distributed in regions with hot and dry climate. Frequent relapses of the disease are due to delayed epithelialization of postoperative corneal erosion, associated inflammation and formation of dry areas of the cornea. Effective stimulation of corneal epithelium regeneration in the postoperative period could reduce the frequency of relapses. AIM: to compare the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of different keratoprotectors in patients after surgical treatment of pterygium...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523043/determining-the-efficacy-of-corneal-crosslinking-in-progressive-keratoconus
#5
Sidra Malik, Sadia Humayun, Shahzad Nayyar, Mazhar Ishaq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the Efficacy of Corneal Crosslinkage (CXL), using Corneal Topography, in eyes with progressive Keratoconus. METHODS: This randomized control trial was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from October 2013 to April 2014. A total of 60 eyes of 30 patients were included who presented with bilateral progressive Keratoconus. Each eye of the patient was randomized either to a treatment group (Group-A) or control untreated group (Group-B) of 30 eyes each...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520882/ocular-determinants-of-refractive-error-and-its-age-and-sex-related-variations-in-the-chinese-american-eye-study
#6
Grace M Richter, Mingwu Wang, Xuejuan Jiang, Shuang Wu, Dandan Wang, Mina Torres, Farzana Choudhury, Rohit Varma
Importance: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously. Objective: To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Chinese American Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016...
May 18, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517110/outcome-after-medical-and-surgical-intervention-in-horses-with-temporohyoid-osteoarthropathy
#7
P M Espinosa, J E Nieto, K E Estell, P H Kass, M Aleman
BACKGROUND: Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO) is a cause of neurological disease in horses characterised by facial and vestibulocochlear nerve deficits. Studies reporting and comparing survival following medical or surgical treatment of THO are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To compare survival and prognosis of horses with THO treated medically or surgically; and to report surgical complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. METHODS: Medical records of horses diagnosed with THO were retrieved, and signalment, clinical signs and duration, presence of corneal ulceration and bilateral occurrence were recorded...
May 18, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516453/dba-2j-mouse-model-for-experimental-glaucoma-pitfalls-and-problems
#8
Anita J Turner, Roshana Vander Wall, Vivek Gupta, Alex Klistorner, Stuart L Graham
PURPOSE: The DBA/2J mouse has been described as a model for congenital experimental glaucoma. It develops anterior segment anomalies with synechiae and pigment dispersion leading to raised intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous damage. However there are serious practical considerations when using this model in longitudinal studies. METHODS: We followed 118 mice from 12 - 48 weeks of age in a pharmaceutical trial. Here we report on the findings in control animals (n=37)...
May 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516225/a-case-of-bilateral-keratitis-caused-by-providencia-alcalifaciens-a-rarely-encountered-ocular-pathogen
#9
Won Choi, Yong Sok Ji, Kyung Chul Yoon
PURPOSE: To report a case of keratitis caused by Providencia alcalifaciens. METHODS: A 70-year-old man presented with pain, redness, and decreased vision in both of his eyes. On initial presentation, the visual acuity in both of his eyes was hand motion, and slit lamp examination showed diffuse infiltrates and total epithelial defects of the cornea, conjunctival hyperemia, and severe anterior chamber reactions with 2-mm-height hypopyon. The results of laboratory studies revealed elevated liver function tests, which indicated the presence of alcoholic liver disease...
May 17, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512019/novel-inulin-based-mucoadhesive-micelles-loaded-with-corticosteroids-as-potential-transcorneal-permeation-enhancers
#10
Giulia Di Prima, Silvia Saladino, Flavia Bongiovì, Giorgia Adamo, Giulio Ghersi, Giovanna Pitarresi, Gaetano Giammona
In this work a new copolymer of inulin (INU) derivatized with ethylendiamine (EDA) and retinoic acid (RA), named INU-EDA-RA, was synthetized, characterized and employed to produce micelles as carriers for topical administration of corticosteroids for the potential treatment of diseases of posterior eye segment. Spectroscopic analysis confirmed a molar derivatization degree of 11.30 and 4.30 % in EDA and RA, respectively. INU-EDA-RA micelles are capable of strong mucoadhesive interactions which result time-independent and stable over time but concentration depending...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511203/-intraindividual-keratoconus-progression
#11
Susanne Goebels, Timo Eppig, Berthold Seitz, Achim Langenbucher
Introduction Keratoconus is a typically bilateral, progressive-extending corneal disease. The aim of this work is to evaluate the intraindividual progression of keratoconus. Patients and Methods This single-center retrospective study of disease progression based on topographic data from non-operated keratoconus patients (n = 48) was examined over a period of two years. Seven topographical keratoconus indices derived from Scheimpflug tomography were used to compare both the initial findings, as well as the progression of the fellow eyes...
May 16, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509673/immune-responses-to-invasive-aspergillosis-new-understanding-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#12
Tobias M Hohl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive aspergillosis is a worldwide disease that primarily affects immune-compromised patients, agricultural workers with corneal abrasions, individuals with structural lung disease, and patients with primary immune deficiency. The critical function of the immune system is to prevent the germination of airborne conidia into tissue-invasive hyphae. This review covers recent advances that shape our understanding of anti-Aspergillus immunity at the molecular and cellular level...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508467/keratitis-due-to-microfilariae-in-dogs-a-newly-recognized-disease
#13
Adriana Morales, Eduardo Perlmann, Aline Nayara Vechiato Abelha, Carlos Emilio Levy, Ana Carolina Almeida de Goes, Angélica M V Safatle
Parasitic agents have been associated with keratitis, but a diagnosis of parasitic keratitis has not been commonly made in domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and histopathological findings in seven dogs with chronic keratitis caused by microfilariae diagnosed in Brazil. All dogs presented with superficial corneal opacities of varying degrees affecting the perilimbal and central regions of the cornea, with other opaque areas appearing as crystalline deposits and corneal vascularization...
May 15, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508023/an-unusual-presentation-of-lcat-deficiency-as-nephrotic-syndrome-with-normal-serum-hdl-c-level
#14
Manish R Balwani, Vijaykumar A Ghodela, Vivek B Kute, Pankaj R Shah, Himanshu V Patel, Dinesh N Gera, Aruna Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
Clinical and biochemical manifestations of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency include an abnormal lipid profile (characterized by hypercholesterolemia with markedly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and hypertriglyceridemia), corneal opacities, hematologic abnormalities (normochromic anemia of varying intensity), splenomegaly, variable early coronary artery disease and nephropathy (initially proteinuria followed by progressive deterioration of renal function). We presented a patient with nephrotic syndrome, which renal biopsy revealed classic features of LCAT deficiency...
2017: Journal of Nephropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505677/-influence-of-aging-on-severity-and-anti-inflammatory-treatment-of-experimental-dry-eye-disease
#15
Philipp Steven, Tobias Braun, Sonja Krösser, Uta Gehlsen
Purpose Aging is an important factor in dry-eye disease that has not been studied in the context of therapeutic measures. Aging-associated modifications of the ocular immune system implicate that anti-inflammatory therapies may act differently among younger individuals in terms of onset and effect of different substances. The goal of this study was to determine differences in clinical phenotype and topical anti-inflammatory therapy using a desiccating stress mouse model. Methods An experimental dry-eye disease (desiccating stress model) was induced in 12-week and 12-month-old female BALB/c mice...
May 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505034/pediatric-corneal-transplants
#16
Danielle Trief, Maria C Marquezan, Christopher J Rapuano, Christina R Prescott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric keratoplasty poses unique challenges in clinical and surgical management. However, successful transplantation can afford a child vision in an otherwise poorly seeing eye. This review will provide an update on recent advances in pediatric keratoplasty. RECENT FINDINGS: Although children who receive corneal transplants remain at increased risk of rejection, infection, and graft dehiscence compared with adult corneal transplant recipients, new surgical techniques, and advances in clinical management have led to better outcomes...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503439/dry-eye-and-corneal-sensitivity-after-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-and-femtosecond-laser-assisted-in-situ-keratomileusis-a-meta-analysis
#17
Wen-Ting Cai, Qing-Yu Liu, Cheng-Da Ren, Qing-Quan Wei, Jun-Ling Liu, Qian-Yi Wang, Ya-Ru Du, Meng-Mei He, Jing Yu
AIM: To assess the corneal sensitivity and the incidences of dry eye after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). METHODS: The Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. We searched on PubMed from inception to March 2016. Summary weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to analyze the datum. Random-effects or fixed-effects models were chosen up to between-study heterogeneity...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501670/treg-recruiting-microspheres-prevent-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-dry-eye-disease
#18
Michelle L Ratay, Andrew J Glowacki, Stephen C Balmert, Abhinav P Acharya, Julia Polat, Lawrence P Andrews, Morgan V Fedorchak, Joel S Schuman, Dario A A Vignali, Steven R Little
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common ocular disorder affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The pathology of DED involves the infiltration of CD4(+) lymphocytes, leading to tear film instability and destructive inflammation. In the healthy steady state, a population of immunosuppressive T-cells called regulatory T-cells (Treg) regulates proliferation of immune cells that would otherwise lead to a disruption of immunological homeostasis. For this reason, it has been suggested that Tregs could restore the immunological imbalance in DED...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500230/conjunctival-lymphangiectasia-associated-with-classic-fabry-disease
#19
Melanie D Sivley, Eric L Wallace, David G Warnock, William J Benjamin
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) is a treatable multisystem disease caused by a defect in the alpha-galactosidase gene. Ocular signs of FD, including corneal verticillata, are among the earliest diagnostic findings. Conjunctival lymphangiectasia (CL) has not previously been associated with FD. METHODS: We examined the eyes of a cohort of 13 adult patients, eight men and five women, with documented classic FD, all treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between February 2014 and April 2015...
May 12, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497458/ocular-surface-disease-in-patients-under-topical-treatment-for-glaucoma
#20
Francisco Pérez-Bartolomé, Jose M Martínez-de-la-Casa, Pedro Arriola-Villalobos, Cristina Fernández-Pérez, Vicente Polo, Julián García-Feijoó
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between ocular surface disease (OSD) and topical antiglaucoma therapy. METHODS: A total of 211 eyes of 211 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension on topical medication were recruited over 10 months. Controls were 51 eyes of 51 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. In each patient, we recorded the intraocular pressure-lowering eyedrops used, the number of medications used, and daily and cumulative preservative concentrations (PC)...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
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