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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#1
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640543/evolutionary-optimized-photonic-network-structure-in-white-beetle-wing-scales
#2
Bodo D Wilts, Xiaoyuan Sheng, Mirko Holler, Ana Diaz, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Jörg Raabe, Robert Hoppe, Shu-Hao Liu, Richard Langford, Olimpia D Onelli, Duyu Chen, Salvatore Torquato, Ullrich Steiner, Christian G Schroer, Silvia Vignolini, Alessandro Sepe
Most studies of structural color in nature concern periodic arrays, which through the interference of light create color. The "color" white however relies on the multiple scattering of light within a randomly structured medium, which randomizes the direction and phase of incident light. Opaque white materials therefore must be much thicker than periodic structures. It is known that flying insects create "white" in extremely thin layers. This raises the question, whether evolution has optimized the wing scale morphology for white reflection at a minimum material use...
June 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637914/soiled-adhesive-pads-shear-clean-by-slipping-a-robust-self-cleaning-mechanism-in-climbing-beetles
#3
Guillermo J Amador, Thomas Endlein, Metin Sitti
Animals using adhesive pads to climb smooth surfaces face the problem of keeping their pads clean and functional. Here, a self-cleaning mechanism is proposed whereby soiled feet would slip on the surface due to a lack of adhesion but shed particles in return. Our study offers an in situ quantification of self-cleaning performance in fibrillar adhesives, using the dock beetle as a model organism. After beetles soiled their pads by stepping into patches of spherical beads, we found that their gait was significantly affected...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637431/continuous-long-term-cytotoxicity-monitoring-in-3d-spheroids-of-beetle-luciferase-expressing-hepatocytes-by-nondestructive-bioluminescence-measurement
#4
Mayu Yasunaga, Yasuko Fujita, Rumiko Saito, Mitsuo Oshimura, Yoshihiro Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) spheroids are frequently used in toxicological study because their morphology and function closely resemble those of tissue. As these properties are maintained over a long term, repeated treatment of the spheroids with a test object is possible. Generally, in the repeated treatment test to assess cytotoxicity in the spheroids, ATP assay, colorimetric measurement using pigments or high-content imaging analysis is performed. However, continuous assessment of cytotoxicity in the same spheroids using the above assays or analysis is impossible because the spheroids must be disrupted or killed...
June 20, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631879/context-dependent-effects-of-cold-stress-on-behavioral-physiological-and-life-history-traits-of-the-red-flour-beetle
#5
Inon Scharf, Keren-Or Wertheimer, Joy Lim Xin, Tomer Gilad, Inna Goldenberg, Aziz Subach
Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events vs. a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch...
June 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630672/circularly-polarized-reflection-from-the-scarab-beetle-chalcothea-smaragdina-light-scattering-by-a-dual-photonic-structure
#6
Luke T McDonald, Ewan D Finlayson, Bodo D Wilts, Pete Vukusic
Helicoidal architectures comprising various polysaccharides, such as chitin and cellulose, have been reported in biological systems. In some cases, these architectures exhibit stunning optical properties analogous to ordered cholesteric liquid crystal phases. In this work, we characterize the circularly polarized reflectance and optical scattering from the cuticle of the beetle Chalcothea smaragdina (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) using optical experiments, simulations and structural analysis. The selective reflection of left-handed circularly polarized light is attributed to a Bouligand-type helicoidal morphology within the beetle's exocuticle...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630013/receptor-mediated-endocytosis-of-vicilin-in-callosobruchus-maculatus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larval-midgut-epithelial-cells
#7
Daniele Kunz, Gabriel B Oliveira, Adriana F Uchôa, Richard I Samuels, Maria Lígia R Macedo, Carlos P Silva
The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626604/seasonal-shifts-in-accumulation-of-glycerol-biosynthetic-gene-transcripts-in-mountain-pine-beetle-dendroctonus-ponderosae-hopkins-coleoptera-curculionidae-larvae
#8
Jordie D Fraser, Tiffany R Bonnett, Christopher I Keeling, Dezene P W Huber
Winter mortality is a major factor regulating population size of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Glycerol is the major cryoprotectant in this freeze intolerant insect. We report findings from a gene expression study on an overwintering mountain pine beetle population over the course of 35 weeks. mRNA transcript levels suggest glycerol production in the mountain pine beetle occurs through glycogenolytic, gluconeogenic and potentially glyceroneogenic pathways, but not from metabolism of lipids...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624536/microrna-dependent-regulation-of-metamorphosis-and-identification-of-micrornas-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#9
Wei Wu, Wenfeng Xiong, Chengjun Li, Mengfan Zhai, Yao Li, Fei Ma, Bin Li
To date, although some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in the holometabolism insect Tribolium castaneum, large numbers of miRNAs still require investigation. Knocking down Dicer-1 (Dcr-1) and Argonaute-1 (Ago-1) in late larvae impaired miRNA synthesis, affected the juvenile hormone pathway by up-regulating Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüppel-homolog1 (Kr-h1) transcript levels, and resulted in a series of defects in T. castaneum development and metamorphosis. Thus, high-throughput Illumina/Solexa sequencing was performed with a mixed sample of eight key developmental stages of T...
June 14, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624516/pleistocene-range-shifts-refugia-and-the-origin-of-widespread-species-in-western-palaearctic-water-beetles
#10
David García-Vázquez, David T Bilton, Garth N Foster, I Ribera
Quaternary glacial cycles drove major shifts in both the extent and location of the geographical ranges of many organisms. During glacial maxima, large areas of central and northern Europe were inhospitable to temperate species, and these areas are generally assumed to have been recolonized during interglacials by range expansions from Mediterranean refugia. An alternative is that this recolonization was from non-Mediterranean refugia, in central Europe or western Asia, but data on the origin of widespread central and north European species remain fragmentary, especially for insects...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623366/a-novel-imaging-method-for-correlating-2d-light-microscopic-data-and-3d-volume-data-based-on-block-face-imaging
#11
Yuki Tajika, Tohru Murakami, Keiya Iijima, Hiroki Gotoh, Maiko Takahashi-Ikezawa, Hitoshi Ueno, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Hiroshi Yorifuji
We have developed an imaging method designated as correlative light microscopy and block-face imaging (CoMBI), which contributes to improve the reliability of morphological analyses. This method can collect both the frozen sections and serial block-face images in a single specimen. The frozen section can be used for conventional light microscopic analysis to obtain 2-dimensional (2D) anatomical and molecular information, while serial block-face images can be used as 3-dimensional (3D) volume data for anatomical analysis...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622353/transmission-electron-microscopic-observation-of-body-cuticle-structures-of-phoretic-and-parasitic-stages-of-parasitaphelenchinae-nematodes
#12
Taisuke Ekino, Toyoshi Yoshiga, Yuko Takeuchi-Kaneko, Natsumi Kanzaki
Using transmission electron microscopy, we examined the body cuticle ultrastructures of phoretic and parasitic stages of the parasitaphelenchid nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, B. conicaudatus, B. luxuriosae, B. rainulfi; an unidentified Bursaphelenchus species, and an unidentified Parasitaphelenchus species. Nematode body cuticles usually consist of three zones, a cortical zone, a median zone, and a basal zone. The phoretic stages of Bursaphelenchus spp., isolated from the tracheal systems of longhorn beetles or the elytra of bark beetles, have a thick and radially striated basal zone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620971/the-adipokinetic-hormone-of-the-coleopteran-suborder-adephaga-structure-function-and-comparison-of-distribution-in-other-insects
#13
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
The aim of the current study is to identify the adipokinetic hormone(s) (AKHs) of a basal suborder of the species-rich Coleoptera, the Adephaga, and possibly learn more about the ancestral AKH of beetles. Moreover, we wanted to compare the ancestral AKH with AKHs of more advanced beetles, of which a number are pest insects. This would allow us to assess whether AKH mimetics would be suitable as insecticides, that is, be harmful to the pest species but not to the beneficial species. Nine species of the Adephaga were investigated and all synthesize only one octapeptide in the corpus cardiacum, as revealed by Edman degradation sequencing techniques or by mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620738/variation-in-sex-pheromone-emission-does-not-reflect-immunocompetence-but-affects-attractiveness-of-male-burying-beetles-a-combination-of-laboratory-and-field-experiments
#14
Johanna Chemnitz, Nadiia Bagrii, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615659/invisible-noise-obscures-visible-signal-in-insect-motion-detection
#15
Ghaith Tarawneh, Vivek Nityananda, Ronny Rosner, Steven Errington, William Herbert, Bruce G Cumming, Jenny C A Read, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza
The motion energy model is the standard account of motion detection in animals from beetles to humans. Despite this common basis, we show here that a difference in the early stages of visual processing between mammals and insects leads this model to make radically different behavioural predictions. In insects, early filtering is spatially lowpass, which makes the surprising prediction that motion detection can be impaired by "invisible" noise, i.e. noise at a spatial frequency that elicits no response when presented on its own as a signal...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615501/x-ray-micro-ct-scanning-reveals-temporal-separation-of-male-harm-and-female-kicking-during-traumatic-mating-in-seed-beetles
#16
Liam R Dougherty, Leigh W Simmons
In the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, the male intromittent organ is covered in sharp spines that pierce the female copulatory tract wall during mating. Although the fitness consequences of traumatic mating are well studied in this species, we know much less about how the male and female genitalia interact during mating. This is partly due to the fact that genital interactions occur primarily inside the female, and so are difficult to observe. In this study, we use X-ray micro-CT scanning to examine the proximate mechanisms of traumatic mating in C...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615493/optically-ambidextrous-circularly-polarized-reflection-from-the-chiral-cuticle-of-the-scarab-beetle-chrysina-resplendens
#17
Ewan D Finlayson, Luke T McDonald, Pete Vukusic
The evolution of structural colour mechanisms in biological systems has given rise to many interesting optical effects in animals and plants. The instance of the scarab beetle Chrysina resplendens is particularly distinctive. Its exoskeleton has a bright, golden appearance and reflects both right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized light concurrently. The chiral nanostructure responsible for these properties is a helicoid, in which birefringent dielectric planes are assembled with an incremental rotation...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615084/community-wide-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-two-distinct-trophic-groups-in-a-service-providing-carabid-community
#18
S Kamenova, C Leroux, S E Polin, M Plantegenest
Disentangling trophic interactions among species is important for elucidating mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning and services. Carabid beetles are an important guild of predators that may regulate pest populations in arable landscapes, but their generalist feeding behavior hinders predictions about their actual contribution to pest control. In order to assess carabids' potential for pest control, we simultaneously analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of a community of 45 co-occurring species in wheat and oilseed rape fields...
June 15, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614665/a-novel-dual-colour-luciferase-reporter-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-estrogen-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation
#19
Patrick Tarnow, Steffi Bross, Lisa Wollenberg, Yoshihiro Nakajima, Yoshihiro Ohmiya, Tewes Tralau, Andreas Luch
Consumers are exposed to a plethora of anthropogenic and natural substances that can act as agonists or antagonists for various transcription factors. Depending on the exposure and potency such interactions can potentially lead to adverse health effects, particularly for substances with multiple molecular targets. The early detection of such interactions is thus of high toxicological interest. Here we report on the development of a new cellular dual-colour reporter assay which allows the time-resolved and quantitative recording of estrogen receptor (ER) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation in living cells...
June 14, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614629/land-use-strategies-to-balance-livestock-production-biodiversity-conservation-and-carbon-storage-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico
#20
David R Williams, Fredy Alvarado, Rhys E Green, Andrea Manica, Ben Phalan, Andrew Balmford
Balancing the production of food, particularly meat, with preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services is a major societal challenge. Research into the contrasting strategies of land sparing and land sharing has suggested that land sparing - combining high-yield agriculture with protection or restoration of natural habitats on non-farmed land - will have lower environmental impacts than other strategies. Ecosystems with long histories of habitat disturbance, however, could be resilient to low-yield agriculture and thus fare better under land sharing...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
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