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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340591/interactions-of-coccinella-novemnotata-coleoptera-coccinellidae-and-coccinella-septempunctata-coleoptera-coccinellidae-while-foraging-for-aphids
#1
Todd A Ugine, Evan Hoki, John E Losey
The importation and establishment of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in North America purportedly caused the displacement and local extirpation of the native ninespotted lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), across most of its former range, and several reports have shown that C. septempunctata maintains competitive advantages over C. novemnotata. We investigated the role of aphid density on the retention time of these two species on fava bean plants, and the effect of con- versus heterospecific pairings of adult beetles on the foraging behavior of C...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337404/mass-trapping-designs-for-organic-control-of-the-japanese-beetle-popillia-japonica-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#2
Jaime C Piñero, Austen P Dudenhoeffer
BACKGROUND: In some regions of North America, damage caused by the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, has been increasing as beetle populations continue to become established and expand. This poses a pest management challenge for crop farmers, in particular organic producers. From 2014 to 2016 we evaluated the ability of novel mass trapping systems to capture P. japonica in elderberry and blueberry orchards in Missouri, U.S.A. RESULTS: Across a three-year period in two locations, the mass trapping systems collected 10...
January 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336444/the-structural-diversity-of-c-rich-dna-aggregates-unusual-self-assembly-of-beetle-like-nanostructures
#3
A D Protopopova, V B Tsvetkov, A M Varizhuk, N A Barinov, V V Podgorsky, D V Klinov, G E Pozmogova
We studied the ability of oligonucleotides CnT25 (n = 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 25) to form an intermolecular i-motif using circular dichroism, ultra-violet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution atomic force microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and molecular dynamics simulations. The arrangement of single-stranded oligonucleotides in multimer i-motifs was very unusual: C-tracts of different oligonucleotides followed each other consecutively in order to fold into a closed intermolecular i-motif core with minimal loops (one cytidine in a loop spanning over a minor groove, three cytidines in a loop over a major groove); intact T-tracts protruded from predefined loci allowing visualization of beetle-like nanostructures by atomic force microscopy...
January 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335414/evolutionary-history-of-coleoptera-revealed-by-extensive-sampling-of-genes-and-species
#4
Shao-Qian Zhang, Li-Heng Che, Yun Li, Dan Liang, Hong Pang, Adam Ślipiński, Peng Zhang
Beetles (Coleoptera) are the most diverse and species-rich group of insects, and a robust, time-calibrated phylogeny is fundamental to understanding macroevolutionary processes that underlie their diversity. Here we infer the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Coleoptera by analyzing 95 protein-coding genes in 373 beetle species, including ~67% of the currently recognized families. The subordinal relationships are strongly supported as Polyphaga (Adephaga (Archostemata, Myxophaga)). The series and superfamilies of Polyphaga are mostly monophyletic...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334415/early-burst-in-body-size-evolution-is-uncoupled-from-species-diversification-in-diving-beetles-dytiscidae
#5
Aurélie Désamoré, Benjamin Laenen, Kelly B Miller, Johannes Bergsten
Changes in morphology are often thought to be linked to changes in species diversification, which is expected to leave a signal of Early Burst (EB) in phenotypic traits. However, such signal is rarely recovered in empirical phylogenies, even for groups with well-known adaptive radiation. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic approach in Dytiscidae, which harbors ~4,300 species with as much as 50-fold variation in body size among them, we ask whether pattern of species diversification correlates with morphological evolution...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333681/myotropic-activity-and-immuno-localization-of-selected-neuropeptides-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-coleoptera-silphidae
#6
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333346/boundaries-in-ground-beetle-coleoptera-carabidae-and-environmental-variables-at-the-edges-of-forest-patches-with-residential-developments
#7
Doreen E Davis, Sara A Gagné
Background: Few studies of edge effects on wildlife objectively identify habitat edges or explore non-linear responses. In this paper, we build on ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) research that has begun to address these domains by using triangulation wombling to identify boundaries in beetle community structure and composition at the edges of forest patches with residential developments. We hypothesized that edges are characterized by boundaries in environmental variables that correspond to marked discontinuities in vegetation structure between maintained yards and forest...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330074/a-nonlinear-continuous-time-model-for-a-semelparous-species
#8
A Veprauskas
Periodical semelparous insects such as cicadas and May beetles exhibit synchronization in age classes such that only one age class is present at any point of time. This leads to outbreaks of adults as they all reach maturity around the same time. Discrete-time models of semelparous species have shown that this type of synchronous cycling can occur as a result of greater between-class competition relative to within-class competition. However, relatively few studies have examined continuous-time models of semelparous species...
January 9, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329457/a-novel-application-of-rnase-h2-dependent-quantitative-pcr-for-detection-and-quantification-of-grosmannia-clavigera-a-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbiont-in-environmental-samples
#9
Chandra H McAllister, Colleen E Fortier, Kate R St Onge, Bianca M Sacchi, Meaghan J Nawrot, Troy Locke, Janice E K Cooke
Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) is an economically and ecologically important pest of pine species in western North America. Mountain pine beetles form complex multipartite relationships with microbial partners, including the ophiostomoid fungi Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Ophiostoma montium (Rumbold) von Arx, Grosmannia aurea (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield, Leptographium longiclavatum (Lee, Kim, and Breuil) and Leptographium terebrantis (Barras and Perry)...
January 10, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329003/modified-forest-rotation-lengths-long-term-effects-on-landscape-scale-habitat-availability-for-specialized-species
#10
Jean-Michel Roberge, Karin Öhman, Tomas Lämås, Adam Felton, Thomas Ranius, Tomas Lundmark, Annika Nordin
We evaluated the long-term implications from modifying rotation lengths in production forests for four forest-reliant species with different habitat requirements. By combining simulations of forest development with habitat models, and accounting both for stand and landscape scale influences, we projected habitat availability over 150 years in a large Swedish landscape, using rotation lengths which are longer (+22% and +50%) and shorter (-22%) compared to current practices. In terms of mean habitat availability through time, species requiring older forest were affected positively by extended rotations, and negatively by shortened rotations...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327678/polymorphism-observed-in-mitochondrial-genes-of-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-of-different-origin-in-laboratory-cultures
#11
Hiromasa Yamauchi, Masami Harada, Akihiro Miyanoshita
Tribolium castaneum, a pest of stored grain, has a uniform morphology, preventing the visual identification of strains from different areas. Polymorphisms in the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genes of this species were examined, and combined into seven haplotypes among the test insect specimens originating from Japan, Thailand, and Canada. These results suggested the potential for geographical differentiation.
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324320/first-survey-of-forensically-important-insects-from-human-corpses-in-shiraz-iran
#12
Mohammad D Moemenbellah-Fard, Davood Keshavarzi, Mehran Fereidooni, Aboozar Soltani
The presence of insects on human cadavers has potential judicial value in medicolegal cases. This research emphasized the important role of insects in postmortem decomposition. It was conducted to investigate the composition and abundance of insects from human corpses during autopsies in legal medicine. It was implemented in the city of Shiraz, south Iran. Insects associated with human corpses were carefully collected and put into labelled vials. They were then identified using valid taxonomic keys. Fifteen outdoor (67%) and indoor discovered cadavers were examined...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322053/insect-fauna-of-human-cadavers-in-tehran-district
#13
Fahimeh Talebzadeh, Masoud Ghadipasha, Jaber Gharedaghi, Naser Yeksan, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi
Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran district. Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identified using morphological characteristics. Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae), one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae), and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) and a beetle Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae) was observed on the human cadavers...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321886/gap-formation-and-dynamics-after-long-term-steady-state-in-an-old-growth-picea-abies-stand-in-norway-above-and-belowground-interactions
#14
Per Holm Nygaard, Line Tau Strand, Arne Oddvar Stuanes
Stand dynamics and the gap initiation prior to gap formation are not well-understood because of its long-term nature and the scarcity of late-successional stands. Reconstruction of such disturbance is normally based on historical records and dendroecological methods. We investigated gap initiation and formation at the fine-scale stand level in the old-growth reserve of Karlshaugen in Norway. Given its long-term conservation history, and thorough mapping in permanent marked plots with spatially referenced trees, it provides an opportunity to present stand development before, during, and after gap formation...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321860/incorporating-variability-in-simulations-of-seasonally-forced-phenology-using-integral-projection-models
#15
Devin W Goodsman, Brian H Aukema, Nate G McDowell, Richard S Middleton, Chonggang Xu
Phenology models are becoming increasingly important tools to accurately predict how climate change will impact the life histories of organisms. We propose a class of integral projection phenology models derived from stochastic individual-based models of insect development and demography. Our derivation, which is based on the rate summation concept, produces integral projection models that capture the effect of phenotypic rate variability on insect phenology, but which are typically more computationally frugal than equivalent individual-based phenology models...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320159/bioinspired-nanostructured-surfaces-for-on-demand-bubble-transportation
#16
Xin Tang, Hairui Xiong, Tiantian Kong, Ye Tian, Wen-Di Li, Liqiu Wang
The maneuver of small bubbles in a programmed way will advance numerous processes, including gas evolution reaction and aeration. Unlike in-air droplets, rapidly rising bubbles in liquid medium can hardly be steered through interaction with solid substrates, causing difficulties in maneuvering bubbles. We pattern and lubricate nanoporous substrates with regions of contrasting wettability that is similar to the back of Namib desert beetles and subsequently immerse the lubricated surface underwater to spontaneously form spatially patterned Nepenthes-inspired slippery surfaces after the dewetting of lubricants...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317625/click-beetle-luciferase-mutant-and-near-infrared-naphthyl-luciferins-for-improved-bioluminescence-imaging
#17
Mary P Hall, Carolyn C Woodroofe, Monika G Wood, Ivo Que, Moniek Van't Root, Yanto Ridwan, Ce Shi, Thomas A Kirkland, Lance P Encell, Keith V Wood, Clemens Löwik, Laura Mezzanotte
The sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging in animals is primarily dependent on the amount of photons emitted by the luciferase enzyme at wavelengths greater than 620 nm where tissue penetration is high. This area of work has been dominated by firefly luciferase and its substrate, D-luciferin, due to the system's peak emission (~ 600 nm), high signal to noise ratio, and generally favorable biodistribution of D-luciferin in mice. Here we report on the development of a codon optimized mutant of click beetle red luciferase that produces substantially more light output than firefly luciferase when the two enzymes are compared in transplanted cells within the skin of black fur mice or in deep brain...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317537/dual-evolutionary-origin-of-insect-wings-supported-by-an-investigation-of-the-abdominal-wing-serial-homologs-in-tribolium
#18
David M Linz, Yoshinori Tomoyasu
The origin of insect wings is still a highly debated mystery in biology, despite the importance of this evolutionary innovation. There are currently two prominent, but contrasting wing origin hypotheses (the tergal origin hypothesis and the pleural origin hypothesis). Through studies in the Tribolium beetle, we have previously obtained functional evidence supporting a third hypothesis, the dual origin hypothesis. Although this hypothesis can potentially unify the two competing hypotheses, it requires further testing from various fields...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316090/diversity-of-pollination-ecology-in-the-schismatoglottis-calyptrata-complex-clade-araceae
#19
Y C Hoe, M Gibernau, S Y Wong
Field studies integrating pollination investigations with an assessment of floral scent composition and thermogenesis in tropical aroids are rather few. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the pollination biology of nine species belonging to Schismatoglottis Calyptrata Complex Clade. The flowering mechanism, visiting insect activities, reproductive system, thermogenesis, and floral scent composition were examined. Anthesis for all species started at dawn and lasted between 25 - 29 hours. Colocasiomyia (Diptera, Drosophilidae) are considered as the main pollinators for all the investigated species...
January 5, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316042/historical-and-event-based-bioclimatic-suitability-predict-regional-forest-vulnerability-to-compound-effects-of-severe-drought-and-bark-beetle-infestation
#20
F Lloret, T Kitzberger
Vulnerability to climate change, and particularly to climate extreme events, is expected to vary across species ranges. Thus, we need tools to standardize the variability of regional climatic legacy and extreme climate across populations and species. Extreme climate events (e.g. droughts) can erode populations close to the limits of species' climatic tolerance. Populations in climatic-core locations may also become vulnerable because they have developed a greater demand for resources (i.e. water) that cannot be enough satisfied during periods of scarcity...
January 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
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