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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730527/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-acanthoscelides-obtectus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-bruchinae-with-phylogenetic-analysis
#1
Jie Yao, Hong Yang, Renhuai Dai
Acanthoscelides obtectus is a common species of the subfamily Bruchinae and a worldwide-distributed seed-feeding beetle. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. obtectus is 16,130 bp in length with an A + T content of 76.4%. It contains a positive AT skew and a negative GC skew. The mitogenome of A. obtectus contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a non-coding region (D-loop). All PCGs start with an ATN codon, and seven (ND3, ATP6, COIII, ND3, ND4L, ND6, and Cytb) of them terminate with TAA, while the remaining five (COI, COII, ND1, ND4, and ND5) terminate with a single T, ATP8 terminates with TGA...
July 20, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730345/does-fear-beget-fear-risk-mediated-habitat-selection-triggers-predator-avoidance-at-lower-trophic-levels
#2
Carmen K Blubaugh, Ivy V Widick, Ian Kaplan
Non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators are ubiquitous in food webs with well-detailed impacts on trophic cascades over multiple levels. However, integrating NCEs with other predator-mediated interactions, like intraguild predation, as well as context-specific habitat factors that shape top-down pressure, remains a challenge. Focusing on two common seed predators, mice (Peromyscus spp.) and carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), we quantify trophic and behavioral consequences of predation risk and availability of refuge vegetation on both intraguild predators (mice) and intraguild prey (beetles)...
July 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727772/description-of-an-establishment-event-by-the-invasive-asian-longhorned-beetle-anoplophora-glabripennis-in-a-suburban-landscape-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#3
Helen Hull-Sanders, Eugene Pepper, Kevin Davis, Robert Talbot Trotter
The establishment of non-native species is commonly described as occurring in three phases: arrival, establishment, and dispersal. Both arrival and dispersal by the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), a xylophagous Cerambycid native to China and the Korean peninsula, has been documented for multiple locations in both North America and Europe, however the transitional phase, establishment, is not well understood for this species due to the need to rapidly remove populations to prevent dispersal and assist eradication, and the evident variation in the behavior of populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727439/solid-state-nmr-study-of-the-cicada-wing
#4
John David Gullion, Terry Gullion
Wings of flying insects are part of the cuticle which forms the exoskeleton. The primary molecular components of cuticle are protein, chitin, and lipid. How these components interact with one another to form the exoskeleton is not completely understood. The difficulty in characterizing the cuticle arises because it is insoluble and noncrystalline. These properties severely limit the experimental tools that can be used for molecular characterization. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments have been used in the past to characterize the exoskeleton of beetles and have found that chitin and protein make comparable contributions to the molecular matrix...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725367/the-effect-of-seed-traits-on-geographic-variation-in-body-size-and-sexual-size-dimorphism-of-the-seed-feeding-beetle-acanthoscelides-macrophthalmus
#5
Eloísa B Haga, Marcelo N Rossi
Explaining large-scale patterns of variation in body size has been considered a central question in ecology and evolutionary biology because several life-history traits are directly linked to body size. For ectothermic organisms, little is known about what processes influence geographic variation in body size. Changes in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) have been associated with environmental variables, particularly for Bruchinae insects, which feed exclusively on seeds during the larval stage. However, the effect of important seed traits on body size variation has rarely been investigated, and whether SSD varies substantially among populations within bruchine species is poorly known...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724648/mass-scaling-of-metabolic-rates-in-carabid-beetles-carabidae-the-importance-of-phylogeny-regression-models-and-gas-exchange-patterns
#6
Agnieszka Gudowska, Bartosz W Schramm, Marcin Czarnoleski, Andrzej Antoł, Ulf Bauchinger, Jan Kozłowski
The origin of the allometric relationship between standard metabolic rate (MR) and body mass (M), often described as MR=aM (b) , remains puzzling and interpretation of the mass-scaling exponent, b may depend on the methodological approach, shapes of residuals, coefficient of determination (r(2) ) and sample size. We investigated the mass scaling of MRs within and between species of Carabidae beetles. We used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, phylogenetically generalized least squares (PGLS) regression and standardized major axis (SMA) regression to explore the effects of different model-fitting methods and data clustering caused by phylogenetic clades (grade shift) and gas exchange patterns (discontinuous, cyclic and continuous)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724347/use-of-a-special-brazilian-red-light-emitting-railroad-worm-luciferase-in-bioassays-of-nek7-protein-kinase-and-creatine-kinase
#7
Arina Marina Perez, Bruno Aquino, Vadim Viviani, Jörg Kobarg
BACKGROUND: Luciferases, enzymes that catalyze bioluminescent reactions in different organisms, have been extensively used for bioanalytical purposes. The most well studied bioluminescent system is that of firefly and other beetles, which depends on a luciferase, a benzothiazolic luciferin and ATP, and it is being widely used as a bioanalytical reagent to quantify ATP. Protein kinases are proteins that modify other proteins by transferring phosphate groups from a nucleoside triphosphate, usually ATP...
July 19, 2017: BMC Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723912/ginger-and-the-beetle-evidence-of-primitive-pollination-system-in-a-himalayan-endemic-alpine-ginger-roscoea-alpina-zingiberaceae
#8
Babu Ram Paudel, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G Dyer, Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722121/the-importance-of-species-identity-and-interactions-on-multifunctionality-depends-on-how-ecosystem-functions-are-valued
#9
Eleanor M Slade, Laura Kirwan, Thomas Bell, Christopher Philipson, Owen T Lewis, Tomas Roslin
Studies investigating how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning increasingly focus on multiple functions measured simultaneously ('multifunctionality'). However, few such studies assess the role of species interactions, particularly under alternative environmental scenarios, despite interactions being key to ecosystem functioning. Here we address five questions of central importance to ecosystem multifunctionality using a terrestrial animal system: 1) Does the contribution of individual species differ for different ecosystem functions?; 2) Do inter-species interactions affect the delivery of single functions and multiple functions?; 3) Does the community composition which maximises individual functions also maximise multifunctionality?; 4) Is the functional role of individual species, and the effect of interspecific interactions, modified by changing environmental conditions?; and 5) How do these roles and interactions change under varying scenarios where ecosystem services are weighted to reflect different societal preferences? We manipulated species' relative abundance in dung beetle communities and measured 16 functions contributing to dung decomposition, plant productivity, nutrient recycling, reduction of greenhouse gases, and microbial activity...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719883/sublethal-insecticide-exposure-affects-reproduction-chemical-phenotype-as-well-as-offspring-development-and-antennae-symmetry-of-a-leaf-beetle
#10
Thorben Müller, Alexander Prosche, Caroline Müller
The area of agriculturally used land and following to that the use of pesticides are steadily increasing. Insecticides do not only reduce pest organisms on crops but can also affect non-target organisms when present in sublethal concentrations in the environment. We investigated the effects of an exposure to sublethal pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) concentrations, at doses 20 and 60 times lower than the LC50, respectively, on reproductive traits and adult cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of a leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae Fabricius)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719031/desert-beetle-inspired-superwettable-patterned-surfaces-for-water-harvesting
#11
Zhenwei Yu, Frank F Yun, Yanqin Wang, Li Yao, Shixue Dou, Kesong Liu, Lei Jiang, Xiaolin Wang
With the impacts of climate change and impending crisis of clean drinking water, designing functional materials for water harvesting from fog with large water capacity has received much attention in recent years. Nature has evolved different strategies for surviving dry, arid, and xeric conditions. Nature is a school for human beings. In this contribution, inspired by the Stenocara beetle, superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces are fabricated on the silica poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated superhydrophobic surfaces using a pulsed laser deposition approach with masks...
July 18, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717597/cuticle-hydrocarbons-in-saline-aquatic-beetles
#12
María Botella-Cruz, Adrián Villastrigo, Susana Pallarés, Elena López-Gallego, Andrés Millán, Josefa Velasco
Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae), using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715857/difference-in-growth-and-coalescing-patterns-of-droplets-on-bi-philic-surfaces-with-varying-spatial-distribution
#13
Martand Mayukh Garimella, Sudheer Koppu, Shantanu Shrikant Kadlaskar, Venkata Pillutla, Abhijeet, Wonjae Choi
This paper reports the condensation and subsequent motion of water droplets on bi-philic surfaces, surfaces that are patterned with regions of different wettability. Bi-philic surfaces can enhance the water collection efficiency: droplets condensing on hydrophobic regions wick into hydrophilic drain channels when droplets grow to a certain size, renewing the condensation on the dry hydrophobic region. The onset of drain phenomenon can be triggered by multiple events with distinct nature ranging from gravity, direct contact between a droplet and a drain channel, to a mutual coalescence between droplets...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712285/freeze-thaw-sample-preparation-method-improves-the-detection-of-volatile-compounds-in-insects-using-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-hs-spme
#14
Jian Chen
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is commonly used in analyzing insect volatiles. In order to improve the detection of volatiles in insects, a freeze-thaw method was applied to insect samples before the HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. Insect samples were first frozen at -80 ⁰C for 10 min and then thawed at 25 ⁰C for 5 min before SPME extraction was performed. The freeze-thaw method clearly improved the detection of volatile compounds for all six tested insect species, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri Forel, little black ants, Monomorium minimum (Buckley), pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus); eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar); and spotted lady beetles, Coleomegilla maculate De Geer...
July 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706321/cryptaphelenchus-varicaudatus-n-sp-rhabditida-ektaphelenchinae-from-tehran-province-iran
#15
Majid Pedram
Cryptaphelenchus varicaudatus n. sp. is described and illustrated. It was isolated from bark samples of dead or dying pine (Pinus spp.) trees with bark beetle frass and galleries, in Tehran province. The new species has 275- to 367-µm-long females (a medium-sized species) with distinctly annulated cuticle having three bands in lateral fields, lip region continuous with body contour, delicate knobbed stylet, monodelphic-prodelphic reproductive system with distinct spermatheca, short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), transverse vulval slit with raised posterior lip and body narrowing behind it, sclerotized vagina, simple intestine ending in a blind sac, having no rectum but vestigial anus in some specimens, and distal body end tip (tail tip) with variation in morphology (shape), from sharply or slightly pointed to bluntly rounded...
June 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704496/latitudinal-cogradient-variation-of-development-time-and-growth-rate-and-a-negative-latitudinal-body-weight-cline-in-a-widely-distributed-cabbage-beetle
#16
Jianjun Tang, Haimin He, Chao Chen, Shu Fu, Fangsen Xue
The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701806/meteorological-and-landscape-influences-on-pollen-beetle-immigration-into-oilseed-rape-crops
#17
Matthew P Skellern, Sue J Welham, Nigel P Watts, Samantha M Cook
Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop...
April 1, 2017: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700590/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dung-pats-vary-with-dung-beetle-species-and-with-assemblage-composition
#18
Irene Piccini, Fabrizio Arnieri, Enrico Caprio, Beatrice Nervo, Simone Pelissetti, Claudia Palestrini, Tomas Roslin, Antonio Rolando
Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species), we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed) and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694120/ecological-preferences-of-metarhizium-spp-from-russia-and-neighboring-territories-and-their-activity-against-colorado-potato-beetle-larvae
#19
Vadim Kryukov, Olga Yaroslavtseva, Maksim Tyurin, Yuriy Akhanaev, Evgeniy Elisaphenko, Ting-Chi Wen, Oksana Tomilova, Yuri Tokarev, Viktor Glupov
Thirty-four isolates of Metarhizium spp. from Russian collections were genotyped using 5' EF-1α gene sequence analysis. Four species were identified, of which M. robertsii and M. brunneum were the most frequent, whereas M. anisopliae and M. pemphigum were sporadic. Radial growth studies in the temperature range of 10-40°C revealed that growth at high temperatures (35-37.5°C) was inherent for M. robertsii isolates but not for M. brunneum isolates. In contrast, M. brunneum isolates were more active at cold temperatures (10°C) compared to M...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693632/longitudinal-study-of-parasite-induced-mortality-of-a-long-lived-host-the-importance-of-exposure-to-non-parasitic-stressors
#20
Hilary M-H Chin, Lien T Luong, Allen W Shostak
Hosts face mortality from parasitic and environmental stressors, but interactions of parasitism with other stressors are not well understood, particularly for long-lived hosts. We monitored survival of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) in a longitudinal design incorporating cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection, starvation and exposure to the pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). We found that cestode cysticercoids exhibit increasing morphological damage and decreasing ability to excyst over time, but were never eliminated from the host...
July 11, 2017: Parasitology
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