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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815424/hexamermis-popilliae-n-sp-nematoda-mermithidae-parasitizing-the-japanese-beetle-popillia-japonica-newman-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-in-italy
#1
Giuseppe Mazza, Francesco Paoli, Agostino Strangi, Giulia Torrini, Leonardo Marianelli, Giuseppino Sabbatini Peverieri, Francesco Binazzi, Giovanni Bosio, Stefano Sacchi, Claudia Benvenuti, Davide Venanzio, Emanuela Giacometto, Pio F Roversi, George O Poinar
A new species of mermithid nematode, Hexamermis popilliae n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman in Italy, an area of new introduction for this invasive pest. The combination of the following characters separates H. popilliae from other members of the genus Hexamermis Steiner, 1924: adult head obtuse; amphidial pouches slightly posterior to lateral head papillae in female but adjacent to lateral head papillae in males; amphidial openings large, well developed; amphidial pouches elliptical in females and oblong in males; cuticular vulvar cone well developed, vulvar lips greatly reduced or lacking, vagina curved at tip where meeting uteri, without reverse bend (not S-shaped), spicules slightly curved, with a slight bend in the basal portion, approximately equal to body width at cloaca...
August 16, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813106/first-record-of-scybalocanthon-nigriceps-harold-1868-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae-in-rio-grande-do-sul-state-southern-brazil
#2
Sheila C Ferreira, Rocco A DI Mare, Pedro G DA Silva
The dung beetle, Scybalocanthon nigriceps (Harold, 1868), is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, for the first time, at the Moreno Fortes Biological Reserve, municipality of Dois Irmãos das Missões, northwest region of the state, expanding the area of occurrence and distribution of this species in the country.
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811504/complementarity-among-natural-enemies-enhances-pest-suppression
#3
Matteo Dainese, Gudrun Schneider, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Natural enemies have been shown to be effective agents for controlling insect pests in crops. However, it remains unclear how different natural enemy guilds contribute to the regulation of pests and how this might be modulated by landscape context. In a field exclusion experiment in oilseed rape (OSR), we found that parasitoids and ground-dwelling predators acted in a complementary way to suppress pollen beetles, suggesting that pest control by multiple enemies attacking a pest during different periods of its occurrence in the field improves biological control efficacy...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811313/a-key-role-for-foxq2-in-anterior-head-and-central-brain-patterning-in-insects
#4
Peter Kitzmann, Matthias Weißkopf, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Gregor Bucher
Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum ortholog of foxQ2 (Tc-foxQ2) as a novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809508/effects-of-high-temperatures-on-the-mortality-of-stegobium-paniceum-l-coleoptera-anobiidae
#5
Jianhua Lü
As an alternative to chemical fumigants, heat treatment has been a widely used physical method to successfully control stored-product insects in empty grain storage and food processing facilities. The drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) is one of the most destructive stored-product insects in the world. The mortality of the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of S. paniceum was investigated when exposed to 43, 47, 51, and 55°C for different time intervals. The mortality rate of the S...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808822/is-prey-specificity-constrained-by-geography-semiochemically-mediated-oviposition-in-rhizophagus-grandis-coleoptera-monotomidae-with-its-specific-prey-dendroctonus-micans-coleoptera-curculionidae-scolytinae-and-with-exotic-dendroctonus-species
#6
Loïc Dohet, Jean-Claude Grégoire
Examples of totally specific predators are rare, and the mechanisms underlying this specificity are often poorly understood. In Eurasia, the Monotomid beetle Rhizophagus grandis is found only in the galleries of its prey, the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans. The specificity of R. grandis relies on kairomones which female predators use to adjust their oviposition to the number of prey larvae available in a gallery. Yet these chemical signals are still largely unknown. The North American D. punctatus and D. valens, which are not sympatric with R...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800623/quantifying-immediate-and-delayed-effects-of-anthelmintic-exposure-on-ecosystem-functioning-supported-by-a-common-dung-beetle-species
#7
Paul Manning, Sarah A Beynon, Owen T Lewis
Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) support numerous ecosystem functions in livestock-grazed pastures. Exposure to veterinary anthelmintic residues in livestock dung can have lethal and sublethal effects on dung beetles, and can reduce rates of dung removal, but the immediate and longer-term consequences for other dung beetle mediated functions have rarely been studied. We investigated the consequences of anthelmintic exposure on survival of the dung beetle Aphodius fossor and its delivery of four ecosystems functions that underpin pasture production: dung removal, soil fauna feeding activity, primary productivity, and reduction of soil compaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800588/non-lethal-genotyping-of-tribolium-castaneum-adults-using-genomic-dna-extracted-from-wing-tissue
#8
Frederic Strobl, J Alexander Ross, Ernst H K Stelzer
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become the second most important insect model organism and is frequently used in developmental biology, genetics and pest-associated research. Consequently, the methodological arsenal increases continuously, but many routinely applied techniques for Drosophila melanogaster and other insect species are still unavailable. For example, a protocol for non-lethal genotyping has not yet been adapted but is particularly useful when individuals with known genotypes are required for downstream experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800134/bacterial-volatile-ammonia-regulates-the-consumption-sequence-of-d-pinitol-and-d-glucose-in-a-fungus-associated-with-an-invasive-bark-beetle
#9
Fangyuan Zhou, Letian Xu, Shanshan Wang, Bo Wang, Qiaozhe Lou, Min Lu, Jianghua Sun
Interactions among microbial symbionts have multiple roles in the maintenance of insect-microbe symbiosis. However, signals mediating microbial interactions have been scarcely studied. In the classical model system of bark beetles and fungal associates, fungi increase the fitness of insects. However, not all interactions are mutualistic, some of these fungal symbionts compete for sugars with beetle larvae. How this antagonistic effect is alleviated is unknown, and recent research suggests potential roles of bacterial symbionts...
August 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798311/genomic-regions-and-genes-related-to-inter-population-differences-in-body-size-in-the-ground-beetle-carabus-japonicus
#10
Ryohei Komurai, Tomochika Fujisawa, Yutaka Okuzaki, Teiji Sota
Body size is a key trait in diversification among animal species, and revealing the gene regions responsible for body size diversification among populations or related species is important in evolutionary biology. We explored the genomic regions associated with body size differences in Carabus japonicus ground beetle populations by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of F2 hybrids from differently sized parents from two populations using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and de novo assembly of the beetle whole genome...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796846/contests-over-reproductive-resources-in-female-roller-beetles-outcome-predictors-and-sharing-as-an-option
#11
Ivette A Chamorro-Florescano, Mario E Favila, Rogelio Macías-Ordóñez
Fights among females are frequent, although less attention has been placed on them than on male fights. They arise when females compete for food, oviposition, mates, brooding sites, or access to resources which increase offspring survival. It has been shown that the outcome of female fights may be less predictable by asymmetries in resource holding power, than in male fights. Male roller beetles fight over food resources, food balls, needed for mating and nesting, and it has been show in some species that asymmetries in reproductive experience and resource holding power in terms of size predict fight outcome, including ties in which contenders cut and split the food ball...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796437/a-selective-insecticidal-protein-from-pseudomonas-mosselii-for-corn-rootworm-control
#12
Jun-Zhi Wei, Jessica O'Rear, Ute Schellenberger, Barbara A Rosen, Young-Jun Park, Mark J McDonald, Genhai Zhu, Weiping Xie, Adane Kassa, Lisa Procyk, Mark Nelson, Claudia Perez Ortega, Jian-Zhou Zhao, Nasser Yalpani, Virginia C Crane, Scott H Diehn, Gary A Sandahl, Albert L Lu, Gusui Wu, Lu Liu
The coleopteran insect western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is an economically important pest in North America and Europe. Transgenic corn plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins have been useful against this devastating pest, but evolution of resistance has reduced their efficacy. Here we report the discovery of a novel insecticidal protein, PIP-47Aa, from an isolate of Pseudomonas mosselii. PIP-47Aa sequence shows no shared motifs, domains or signatures with other known proteins...
August 10, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791602/ultrastructure-alterations-induced-by-gamma-irradiation-in-spermiogenesis-of-the-ground-beetle-blaps-sulcata-reference-to-environmental-radiation-protection
#13
Dalia Kheirallah, Lamia El-Samad, Naglaa Fahmi, Wafaa Osman
Ultrastructure alterations in spermiogenesis of the ground beetle, Blaps sulcata (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were studied in normal adult males and in two male groups irradiated by gamma rays of 3 and 16 μSv/h dose rate. Ultrastructure examination of irradiated sperms revealed many alterations both in the head and in the flagellum regions of mature sperm. Alterations of the head region included nuclei with uncondensed chromatin materials and irregular nuclear envelope. Abnormal flagella contained malformed mitochondrial derivatives and damaged axonemes in addition to the absence of accessory bodies...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783744/amphotis-marginata-coleoptera-nitidulidae-a-highwayman-of-the-ant-lasius-fuliginosus
#14
Bert Hölldobler, Christina L Kwapich
The space occupied by evolutionarily advanced ant societies can be subdivided into functional sites, such as broodchambers; peripheral nest chambers; kitchen middens; and foraging routes. Many predators and social parasites are specially adapted to make their living inside specific niches created by ants. In particular, the foraging paths of certain ant species are frequented by predatory and kleptoparasitic arthropods, including one striking example, the nitidulid beetle, Amphotis marginata. Adults of this species obtain the majority of their nutrition by acting as a kind of "highwayman" on the foraging trails of the ant Lasius fuliginosus, where they solicit regurgitation from food laden ant-workers by mimicking the ant's food-begging signals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780719/the-rare-north-american-cerambycid-beetle-dryobius-sexnotatus-shares-a-novel-pyrrole-pheromone-component-with-species-in-asia-and-south-america
#15
Natalie M Diesel, Yunfan Zou, Todd D Johnson, Donald A Diesel, Jocelyn G Millar, Judith A Mongold-Diers, Lawrence M Hanks
The compound 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,2-propanedione ("pyrrole") is an important pheromone component of several Asian and South American species of longhorned beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Here, we report the first confirmed identification of this compound as a pheromone component of a cerambycine species native to North America, the rare beetle Dryobius sexnotatus Linsley. Headspace volatiles from males contained (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and pyrrole (ratio 1:0.13), neither of which were detected in samples from a female...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778044/role-of-phenolic-compounds-during-antioxidative-responses-of-winter-triticale-to-aphid-and-beetle-attack
#16
Paweł Czerniewicz, Hubert Sytykiewicz, Roma Durak, Beata Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Grzegorz Chrzanowski
One of the earliest responses of plants to insects' attack is generation of reactive oxygen species. However, the elevated level of ROS can elicit oxidative burst within plant tissues, and plants employ antioxidant systems against these radicals. Due to their chemical structures, polyphenols are able to diminish the level of ROS. Thus, we investigated the role of phenolic compounds in oxidative stress within winter triticale caused by Sitobion avenae and Oulema melanopus. It was found, that infestation by insects induced a high increase in the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical within resistant Lamberto cv...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777802/evidence-of-compounded-disturbance-effects-on-vegetation-recovery-following-high-severity-wildfire-and-spruce-beetle-outbreak
#17
Amanda R Carlson, Jason S Sibold, Timothy J Assal, Jose F Negrón
Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774263/evaluation-of-high-throughput-isomir-identification-tools-illuminating-the-early-isomirome-of-tribolium-castaneum
#18
Daniel Amsel, Andreas Vilcinskas, André Billion
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs carry out post-transcriptional gene regulation in animals by binding to the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs, causing their degradation or translational repression. MicroRNAs influence many biological functions, and dysregulation can therefore disrupt development or even cause death. High-throughput sequencing and the mining of animal small RNA data has shown that microRNA genes can yield differentially expressed isoforms, known as isomiRs. Such isoforms are particularly relevant during early development, and the extension or truncation of the 5' end can change the profile of mRNA targets compared to the original mature sequence...
August 3, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772266/evolution-of-the-sex-chromosomes-in-beetles-i-the-loss-of-the-y-chromosome
#19
Anne-Marie Dutrillaux, Bernard Dutrillaux
In the males of Coleoptera, the most frequent sex chromosome constitution is XY. At metaphase I of meiosis, the X and Y are linked by nucleolar proteins, forming the so-called parachute bivalent (Xyp), which is assumed to allow the non-synapsed X and Y to segregate correctly at anaphase I. However, X0 males are not exceptional, and we explored the relationships between the X and nucleolar proteins in the absence of the Y chromosome in 6 species belonging to different families/subfamilies. Using C-banding and silver staining, we show that nucleolar proteins always remain in contact with the X until anaphase I...
August 4, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770674/do-native-rodents-prey-on-land-snails-an-experimental-and-quantitative-study-in-hokkaido-japan
#20
Yuta Morii, Hiroko Wakabayashi
Predator-prey interaction is one of the most important and pervasive pressures in the ecology and evolution of prey species. However, accurate description of the food web is sometimes extremely difficult as there are many predator-prey interactions in the wild are obscure. Recent studies have reported that two closely related land snails, Karaftohelix editha and K. gainesi, on Hokkaido Island, Japan, were diversified due to predation, probably by carabid beetles. However, it is unclear 1) whether native rodents prey upon land snails on Hokkaido Island, and 2) how frequently land snails are preyed upon by rodents in this region, although it has been reported that several species of rodents are predators of land snails in many regions...
August 2017: Zoological Science
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