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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777111/knockdown-of-rna-interference-pathway-genes-impacts-the-fitness-of-western-corn-rootworm
#1
Courtney Davis-Vogel, Angel Ortiz, Lisa Procyk, Jonathan Robeson, Adane Kassa, Yiwei Wang, Emily Huang, Carl Walker, Amit Sethi, Mark E Nelson, Dipali G Sashital
Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is a serious agricultural pest known for its high adaptability to various management strategies, giving rise to a continual need for new control options. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal RNAs represents a novel mode of action for rootworm management that is dependent on the RNA interference (RNAi) pathways of the insect for efficacy. Preliminary evidence suggests that western corn rootworm could develop broad resistance to all insecticidal RNAs through changes in RNAi pathway genes; however, the likelihood of field-evolved resistance occurring through this mechanism remains unclear...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776677/myotropic-activity-of-allatostatins-in-tenebrionid-beetles
#2
Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Mariola Kuczer, Grzegorz Rosiński
Neuropeptides control the functioning of the nervous system of insects, and they are the most diverse signalling molecules in terms of structure and function. Allatostatins are pleiotropic neuropeptides that are considered potent myoinhibitors of muscle contractions in insects. We investigated the effects caused by three distinct allatostatins, Dippu-AST1 (LYDFGL-NH2 from Diploptera punctata), Grybi-MIP1 (GWQDLNGGW-NH2 from Gryllus bimaculatus) and Trica-ASTC (pESRYRQCYFNPISCF-OH from Tribolium castaneum) on contractile activity of the myocardium, oviduct and hindgut of two tenebrionid beetles, Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus...
May 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774620/cellulose-degradation-in-gastrophysa-viridula-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-functional-characterization-of-two-cazymes-belonging-to-glycoside-hydrolase-family-45-reveals-a-novel-enzymatic-activity
#3
André Busch, Grit Kunert, Natalie Wielsch, Yannick Pauchet
Cellulose is a major component of the primary and secondary cell walls in plants. Cellulose is considered to be the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and represents a large potential source of metabolic energy. Yet, cellulose degradation is rare and mostly restricted to cellulolytic microorganisms. Recently, various metazoans, including leaf beetles, have been found to encode their own cellulases, giving them the ability to degrade cellulose independently of cellulolytic symbionts. Here, we analyzed the cellulosic capacity of the leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula, which typically feeds on Rumex plants...
May 17, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772015/the-influence-of-spatial-and-temporal-discontinuities-of-forest-habitats-on-the-current-presence-of-flightless-saproxylic-beetles
#4
Eugénie Cateau, Pierre-Alexis Herrault, David Sheeren, Sylvie Ladet, Hervé Brustel
Flightless saproxylic beetles were selected in order to study the impact of temporal and spatial discontinuity of forests. They were chosen because: (1) they are unable to fly, making them dispersal-limited species, (2) they have a saproxylic diet, which means they are closely linked to the forest, and (3), they have rarely been studied. Forest temporal continuity was expected to be the main factor explaining the presence of these species, modulated by the past and present amount of forest in the surrounding landscape...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771340/reproductive-manipulators-in-the-bark-beetle-pityogenes-chalcographus-coleoptera-curculionidae-the-role-of-cardinium-rickettsia-spiroplasma-and-wolbachia
#5
Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Belen Marín, Susanne Krumböck, Hannes Schuler, Christian Stauffer
Heritable bacterial endosymbionts can alter the biology of numerous arthropods. They can influence the reproductive outcome of infected hosts, thus affecting the ecology and evolution of various arthropod species. The spruce bark beetle Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was reported to express partial, unidirectional crossing incompatibilities among certain European populations. Knowledge on the background of these findings is lacking; however, bacterial endosymbionts have been assumed to manipulate the reproduction of this beetle...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770906/volatile-and-contact-chemical-cues-associated-with-host-and-mate-recognition-behavior-of-sphenophorus-venatus-and-sphenophorus-parvulus-coleoptera-dryophthoridae
#6
Alexandra G Duffy, Gabriel P Hughes, Matthew D Ginzel, Douglas S Richmond
Beetles in the genus Sphenophorus Schönherr, or billbugs, potentially utilize both volatile and non-volatile behavior-modifying chemical signals. These insects are widely distributed across North America, often occurring in multi-species assemblages in grasses. However, details about their host- and mate-finding behavior are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that volatile organic compounds from host-plants and conspecifics direct the dispersal behavior of hunting billbug S. venatus Say. Further, we characterized the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of two widespread pest species, S...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767753/benzaldehyde-synergizes-the-response-of-female-xyleborinus-saxesenii-coleoptera-curculionidae-scolytinae-to-ethanol
#7
Chang Yeol Yang, Junheon Kim, Hyeong-Hwan Kim
The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infests physiologically stressed apple and peach trees in Korea. Dispersing females utilize the degradation product ethanol and host-related volatiles to locate and colonize new host trees. We examined the extent to which 12 chemicals emitted from fruit trees act synergistically with ethanol to attract X. saxesenii. The addition of benzaldehyde to ethanol significantly increased beetle attraction, although benzaldehyde was not attractive by itself...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767708/resinosis-inhibits-monochamus-spp-coleoptera-cerambycidae-colonization-of-healthy-shortleaf-pines-in-southeastern-united-states
#8
Matthew W Ethington, Larry D Galligan, Fred M Stephen
The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762719/repellence-of-common-tobacco-flavorants-on-lasioderma-serricorne-coleoptera-anobiidae
#9
Hongfei Zhang, Weizheng Li, Jingjing An, Gaoping Wang, Xianru Guo, Pu Hu, Guohui Yuan
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) is a destructive pest species of tobacco. Olfactory repellents derived from permitted tobacco flavorants have the advantage of not adversely effecting tobacco flavor. Among 12 test compounds, neral exhibited the strongest repellent effect. Among six binary blends prepared, three blends (neral + ethyl cinnamate, neral + cinnamaldehyde, and neral + methyl cinnamate) evoked the strongest repellent response. The interactions between neral and any one of the cinnamic acid derivatives were additive, and the interactions between neral and the cinnamic acid derivatives were antagonistic...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758027/single-generation-effects-on-terpenoid-defenses-in-lodgepole-pine-populations-following-mountain-pine-beetle-infestation
#10
Sharleen L Balogh, Dezene P W Huber, B Staffan Lindgren
The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in western Canada provides an opportunity to study the selection and heritability of tree defenses. We examined terpenoid-based defenses of seedling lodgepole pines which were offspring of mature trees subjected to high levels of mountain pine beetle selective pressure. Seedlings were grown from one of three types of cones: old cones on live trees; young cones on live trees; and cones on trees killed by beetles. Offspring thus represented crosses of non-surviving (NS) x surviving (S), S x S, and NS x NS parents, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753140/influence-of-surface-flattening-on-biodiversity-of-terrestrial-arthropods-during-early-stages-of-brown-coal-spoil-heap-restoration
#11
Jabbar Moradi, Pavel Potocký, Petr Kočárek, Martin Bartuška, Karel Tajovský, Filip Tichánek, Jan Frouz, Robert Tropek
Heterogeneity of environmental conditions is the crucial factor supporting biodiversity in various habitats, including post-mining sites. The effects of micro-topographic heterogeneity on biodiversity and conservation potential of arthropod communities in post-industrial habitats had not been studied before now. At one of the largest European brown coal spoil heaps, we sampled eight groups of terrestrial arthropods with different life strategies (moths, spiders, ground beetles, ants, orthopteroids, centipedes, millipedes, and woodlice), in successionally young plots (5-18 y), with a heterogeneous wavy surface after heaping, and compared the communities with plots flattened by dozing...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751568/cyanogenesis-in-arthropods-from-chemical-warfare-to-nuptial-gifts
#12
REVIEW
Mika Zagrobelny, Érika Cristina Pinheiro de Castro, Birger Lindberg Møller, Søren Bak
Chemical defences are key components in insect⁻plant interactions, as insects continuously learn to overcome plant defence systems by, e.g., detoxification, excretion or sequestration. Cyanogenic glucosides are natural products widespread in the plant kingdom, and also known to be present in arthropods. They are stabilised by a glucoside linkage, which is hydrolysed by the action of β-glucosidase enzymes, resulting in the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide and deterrent aldehydes or ketones. Such a binary system of components that are chemically inert when spatially separated provides an immediate defence against predators that cause tissue damage...
May 3, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750564/effects-of-offspring-and-parental-inbreeding-on-parent-offspring-communication
#13
Sarah N Mattey, Jon Richardson, Tom Ratz, Per T Smiseth
There is mounting evidence that inbreeding can have complex effects on social interactions among inbred and outbred individuals. Here, we investigate effects of offspring and maternal inbreeding on parent-offspring communication in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We find effects of the interaction between offspring and maternal inbreeding on maternal behavior. Outbred females provided more direct care toward inbred larvae, while inbred females provided similar levels of direct care toward inbred and outbred larvae...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750246/comparison-of-water-relation-in-two-powderpost-beetles-relative-to-body-size-and-ontogenetic-and-behavioral-traits
#14
Lee-Jin Bong, Kok-Boon Neoh, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Lyctidae) are distributed mainly in tropical regions. The primary mechanism allowing these beetles to survive in cold and arid habitats beyond the native tropical region is a reduced water loss rate. This study investigated the water relations of these two beetles in relation to their size, ontogenetic traits, and behavioral characteristics to determine how they can survive in desiccated wood. H. aequalis and L...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748752/validation-of-analytical-method-for-rhynchophorol-quantification-and-stability-in-inorganic-matrix-for-the-controlled-release-of-this-pheromone
#15
Arão Cardoso Viana, Ingrid Graça Ramos, Edeilza Lopes Dos Santos, Artur José Santos Mascarenhas, Marcos Dos Santos Lima, Antônio Euzébio Goulart Sant'Ana, Janice Izabel Druzian
A fast method for the identification and stability evaluation of the aggregation pheromone rhynchophorol, which is the main substance used for chemical communication by the beetle Rhynchophorus palmarum L., was validated. In addition, the technique was applied to the evaluation of two inorganic matrices, with the objective of using them as controlled-release devices. The analytical method showed good linearity (R2  = 0.9978), precision (CV% < 1.79), recovery (84-105%) and limits of detection (0.2 mg mL-1 ) and quantification (0...
May 10, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747428/a-new-alien-invasive-longhorn-beetle-xylotrechus-chinensis-cerambycidae-is-infesting-mulberries-in-catalonia-spain
#16
Víctor Sarto I Monteys, Glòria Torras I Tutusaus
In this paper, the invasion of a new alien beetle species to Europe, the longhorn Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat) (Cerambycidae), originating from East Asia, is revealed. It has settled in Catalonia (Spain), occupying at present an area of at least 44.1 km², where it has been shown to severely infest (ca. 10 to 45%) and eventually kill mulberry trees in private and public grounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate its impact and provide new significant insights into its life history, seasonality, reproductive capacity (females produce an average of 83...
May 9, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747009/transoceanic-stepping-stones-between-cretaceous-waterfalls-the-enigmatic-biogeography-of-pantropical-oocyclus-cascade-beetles
#17
Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Andrew Short
Beetles have colonized freshwater habitats multiple times throughout their evolutionary history. Some of these aquatic lineages are associated exclusively with waterfall-like habitats, often with modified morphologies to cope with their unusual way of life. The historical biogeography of such cascade beetle lineages has been shown to strongly reflect ancient tectonic events. We focus on the pantropical genus Oocyclus of which species dwell in waterfalls and associated habitats. We infer the first molecular phylogeny of Oocyclus using a dataset of seven gene fragments...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743928/genome-sequencing-of-rhinorhipus-lawrence-exposes-an-early-branch-of-the-coleoptera
#18
Dominik Kusy, Michal Motyka, Carmelo Andujar, Matej Bocek, Michal Masek, Katerina Sklenarova, Filip Kokas, Milada Bocakova, Alfried P Vogler, Ladislav Bocak
Background: Rhinorhipidae Lawrence, 1988 is an enigmatic beetle family represented by a single species, Rhinorhipus tamborinensis Lawrence, 1988, from Australia, with poorly established affinities near the superfamily Elateroidea (click beetles, soldier beetles and fireflies) or the more inclusive series (infraorder) Elateriformia. Its evolutionary position may inform the basal relationships of the suborder Polyphaga, the largest clade of Coleoptera. Results: We analyzed four densely sampled DNA datasets of major coleopteran lineages for mitogenomes, rRNA genes and single copy nuclear genes...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743622/genetic-mapping-identifies-loci-that-influence-tomato-resistance-against-colorado-potato-beetles
#19
Erandi Vargas-Ortiz, Itay Gonda, John R Smeda, Martha A Mutschler, James J Giovannoni, Georg Jander
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), the most economically important insect pest on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), also feeds on other Solanaceae, including cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). We used tomato genetic mapping populations to investigate natural variation in CPB resistance. CPB bioassays with 74 tomato lines carrying introgressions of Solanum pennellii in S. lycopersicum cv. M82 identified introgressions from S. pennellii on chromosomes 1 and 6 conferring CPB susceptibility, whereas introgressions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 10 conferred higher resistance...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742204/brazilian-bioluminescent-beetles-reflections-on-catching-glimpses-of-light-in-the-atlantic-forest-and-cerrado
#20
Etelvino J H Bechara, Cassius V Stevani
Bioluminescence - visible and cold light emission by living organisms - is a worldwide phenomenon, reported in terrestrial and marine environments since ancient times. Light emission from microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals may have arisen as an evolutionary response against oxygen toxicity and was appropriated for sexual attraction, predation, aposematism, and camouflage. Light emission results from the oxidation of a substrate, luciferin, by molecular oxygen, catalyzed by a luciferase, producing oxyluciferin in the excited singlet state, which decays to the ground state by fluorescence emission...
2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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