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Sherry Adrianos, Marcé Lorenzen, Brenda Oppert
The Tribolium castaneum vermilion gene encodes tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a pivotal enzyme in the ommochrome pathway that is required for proper pigmentation of the eye. A white-eyed mutant strain of T. castaneum, vermilionwhite (vw ), lacks eye pigmentation due to a deletion of unknown size that removes all but the 3'- end of the vermilion gene. To create a more defined mutation in vermilion, the CRISPR/Cas9-nuclease system was used to target wild type vermilion in preblastoderm T. castaneum embryos. As adults, all injected beetles had wild type (black) eye pigmentation; however, when outcrossed to vw mates, one cross produced 19% white-eyed offspring...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Vincent Lefebvre, Claire Villemant, Colin Fontaine, Christophe Daugeron
The cross-pollination of most alpine plants depends on insects, whose altitudinal distribution is limited by temperature. However, although global warming is causing shifts in temporal and spatial species distribution, we are still largely unaware of how plant-pollinator interactions change with elevation and time along altitudinal gradients. This makes the detection of endangered interactions and species challenging. In this study, we aimed at providing such a reference, and tested if and how the major flower-visiting insect orders and families segregated by altitude, phenology and foraging preferences along an elevational gradient from 970 m to 2700 m in the Alps...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark R H Hurst, Amy Beattie, Sandra A Jones, Aurelie Laugraud, Chikako van Koten, Lincoln Harper
A highly virulent Serratia proteamaculans strain, AGR96X, exhibiting specific pathogenicity against larvae of the New Zealand grass grub ( Costelytra giveni ; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the New Zealand manuka beetle ( Pyronota festiva and P. setosa ; Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), was isolated from a diseased grass grub larva. A 12-day median lethal dose of 4.89 ± 0.92 × 103 cells per grass grub larva was defined for AGR96X, and death occurred within 5--12 days following ingestion of a high bacterial dose...
March 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Evgeny V Yan, Rolf G Beutel, John F Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Gyrinidae are a charismatic group of highly specialized beetles, adapted for a unique lifestyle of swimming on the water surface. They prey on drowning insects and other small arthropods caught in the surface film. Studies based on morphological and molecular data suggest that gyrinids were the first branch splitting off in Adephaga, the second largest suborder of beetles. Despite its basal position within this lineage and a very peculiar morphology, earliest Gyrinidae were recorded not earlier than from the Upper Triassic...
March 16, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Yi-Ting Lai, Kevin D Deem, Ferran Borràs-Castells, Nagraj Sambrani, Heike Rudolf, Kushal Suryamohan, Ezzat El-Sherif, Marc S Halfon, Daniel J McKay, Yoshinori Tomoyasu
Evolution of cis -regulatory elements (such as enhancers) plays an important role in the production of diverse morphology. However, a mechanistic understanding is often limited by the absence of methods to study enhancers in species outside of established model systems. Here, we sought to establish methods to identify and test enhancer activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum To identify possible enhancer regions, we first obtained genome-wide chromatin profiles from various tissues and stages of Tribolium via FAIRE (Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements)-sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Development
Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Sarah A Ahmed, Anne D van Diepeningen, Miranda Drogari-Apiranthitou, Paul E Verweij, Jacques F Meis, G Sybren de Hoog
The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with superficial and life-threatening infections in humans. Here we formally introduce Fusarium metavorans sp. nov., widely known as FSSC6 (Fusarium solani species complex lineage 6), one of the most frequent agents of human opportunistic infections. The species is described with multilocus molecular data including sequences of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), portions of the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (TEF1), and the partial RNA polymerase II gene (rPB2)...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Li Xu, Hong-Bo Jiang, Xiao-Feng Chen, Ying Xiong, Xue-Ping Lu, Yu-Xia Pei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Biogenic amines perform many kinds of important physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS) of insects, acting as neuromodulators, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones. The five most abundant types of biogenic amines in invertebrates are dopamine, histamine, serotonin, tyramine, and octopamine (OA). However, in beetles, an important group of model and pest insects, the role of tyramine β-hydroxylase (TβH) in the OA biosynthesis pathway and the regulation of behavior remains unknown so far...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
P K Christova, N K Christov, P V Mladenov, R Imai
Expression of the TaMDC1 in transgenic tomato plants confer resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens, as well as an insect pest and thus prove in planta function of the wheat cystatin. Cystatins are the polypeptides with cysteine proteinase inhibitory activities. Plant cystatins or phytocystatins are known to contribute to plant resistance against insect pests. Recently, increasing data proved that some of the phytocystatins also have antifungal activities in vitro. Here, we functionally characterized a wheat multidomain cystatin, TaMDC1, using in planta assays...
March 12, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Bryony Sands, Neludo Mgidiswa, Casper Nyamukondiwa, Richard Wall
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control ectoparasites of livestock, particularly ticks and biting flies. Their use in African livestock systems is increasing, driven by the need to increase productivity and local food security. However, insecticide residues present in the dung after treatment are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects. In a semiarid agricultural habitat in Botswana, dung beetle adult mortality, brood ball production, and larval survival were compared between untreated cattle dung and cattle dung spiked with deltamethrin, to give concentrations of 0...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Alison R Gerken, James F Campbell
Controlling postharvest pest species is a costly process with insecticide resistance and species-specific control requiring multiple tactics. Mating disruption (MD) can be used to both decrease a female's access to males and delay timing of mating and decreases overall mating success in a population and population growth rate. Development of new commercially available MD products requires an understanding of life history parameters associated with mating delay. These can provide information for targeting proportions of reproducing individuals using MD...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Eric W Riddick, Zhixin Wu, Fred J Eller, Mark A Berhow
Maximizing the reproductive potential of ladybird beetles fed factitious foods or artificial diets, in lieu of natural prey, is a major challenge to cost-effective mass rearing for augmentative biological control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that compounds in redcedar, Juniperus virginiana , stimulate oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata . We also tested the prediction that several bioflavonoids, identified in heartwood fractions, elicited this behavioral response. Phenolic compounds were extracted from J...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Octavio Menocal, Paul E Kendra, Wayne S Montgomery, Jonathan H Crane, Daniel Carrillo
Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0-2 m; middle: 2-4 m; high: 4-6 m)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Andrew Galimberti, Andrei Alyokhin
Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shahenda A Abu ElEla, Evgenios Agathokleous, Takayoshi Koike
A series of laboratory no-choice assays were performed to test changes in the feeding, growth, and nutrition of leaf beetle (Agelastica coerulea) larval instars on O3 -treated leaves of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica). Larvae fed with O3 -treated leaves grew and developed significantly faster throughout their developmental cycle than the corresponding controls. The growth rate (GR) and consumption index (CI) were mostly decreased with age for both control and O3 -treated leaves. Efficiency of conversion of both ingested and digested food (ECI, ECD) showed an increase from the 2nd to the 4th instar, after which they decreased significantly and reached the lowest value in the last larval instars (7th)...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sang Il Kim, Bruno A S De Medeiros, Bong-Kyu Byun, Seunghwan Lee, Jung-Hoon Kang, Bongwoo Lee, Brian D Farrell
The longhorn beetle genus Callipogon Audinet-Serville represents a small group of large wood-boring beetles whose distribution pattern exhibits a unique trans-Pacific disjunction between the East Asian temperate rainforest and the tropical rainforest of the Neotropics. To understand the biogeographic history underlying this circum-Pacific disjunct distribution, we reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Prioninae with extensive sampling of Callipogon using multilocus sequence data of 99 prionine and four parandrine samples (ingroups), together with two distant outgroup species...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Crislaine Xavier, Rógean Vinícius Santos Soares, Igor Costa Amorim, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Rita de Cássia de Moura
Euchroma Dejean, 1833 (Buprestidae: Coleoptera) is a monotypic genus comprising the species Euchroma gigantea, with populations presenting a degree of karyotypic variation/polymorphism rarely found within a single taxonomic (specific) unit, as well as drastically incompatible meiotic configurations in populations from extremes of the species range. To better understand the complex karyotypic evolution of E. gigantea, the karyotypes of specimens from five populations in Brazil were investigated using molecular cytogenetics and phylogenetic approaches...
March 9, 2018: Chromosome Research
Birthe Thormann, Dirk Ahrens, Carlos Iván Espinosa, Diego Marín Armijos, Thomas Wagner, Johann W Wägele, Marcell K Peters
Elevational diversity gradients are typically studied without considering the complex small-scale topography of large mountains, which generates habitats of strongly different environmental conditions within the same elevational zones. Here we analyzed the importance of small-scale topography for elevational diversity patterns of hyperdiverse tropical leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We compared patterns of elevational diversity and species composition of beetles in two types of forests (on mountain ridges and in valleys) and analyzed whether differences in the rate of species turnover among forest habitats lead to shifts in patterns of elevational diversity when scaling up from the local study site to the elevational belt level...
March 9, 2018: Oecologia
József Vuts, Christine M Woodcock, John C Caulfield, Stephen J Powers, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett
BACKGROUND: The response of virgin females of the legume pest Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to headspace extracts of volatiles collected from flowers of a nectar plant, Daucus carota, was investigated using behaviour (four-arm olfactometry) and coupled gas chromatography-electrophysiology (GC-EAG). RESULTS: Odours from inflorescences were significantly more attractive to virgin female beetles than clean air. Similarly, a sample of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected by air entrainment (dynamic headspace collection) was more attractive to beetles than a solvent control...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gabor Pozsgai, John Baird, Nick A Littlewood, Robin J Pakeman, Mark R Young
Despite the important roles ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) play in ecosystems, the highly valued ecosystem services they provide, and ample descriptive documentation of their phenology, the relative impact of various environmental factors on carabid phenology is not well studied. Using the long-term pitfall trap capture data from 12 terrestrial Environmental Change Network (ECN) sites from the UK, we examined how changing climate influenced the phenology of common carabids, and the role particular climate components had on phenological parameters...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Zhihong Zhang, Xiaoyang Wang, Jin Tong, Carr Stephen
A highly efficient soil-burrowing dung beetle possesses an intricate outer contour curve on its foreleg end-tooth. This study was carried out based on evidence that this special outer contour curve has the potential of reducing soil penetration resistance and could enhance soil-burrowing efficiency. A toothed wheel is a typical agricultural implement for soil imprinting, to increase its working efficiency; the approach of the bionic geometrical structure was utilized to optimize the innovative shape of imprinting toothed wheel...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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