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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231417/genetic-and-genomic-evidence-of-niche-partitioning-and-adaptive-radiation-in-mountain-pine-beetle-fungal-symbionts
#1
Dario I Ojeda Alayon, Clement K M Tsui, Nicolas Feau, Arnaud Capron, Braham Dhillon, Yiyuan Zhang, Sepideh Massoumi Alamouti, Celia K Boone, Allan L Carroll, Janice E K Cooke, Amanda D Roe, Felix A H Sperling, Richard C Hamelin
Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defenses and modifying host tissues to favor brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229336/relevant-principal-factors-affecting-the-reproducibility-of-insect-primary-culture
#2
Norichika Ogata, Kikuo Iwabuchi
The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins...
February 22, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226258/a-new-hypervolume-approach-for-assessing-environmental-risks
#3
Denys Yemshanov, Frank H Koch, Bo Lu, Ronald Fournier, Gericke Cook, Jean J Turgeon
Assessing risks of uncertain but potentially damaging events, such as environmental disturbances, disease outbreaks and pest invasions, is a key analytical step that informs subsequent decisions about how to respond to these events. We present a continuous risk measure that can be used to assess and prioritize environmental risks from uncertain data in a geographical domain. The metric is influenced by both the expected magnitude of risk and its uncertainty. We demonstrate the approach by assessing risks of human-mediated spread of Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis) in Greater Toronto (Ontario, Canada)...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224792/patterned-polymer-coatings-increase-the-efficiency-of-dew-harvesting
#4
Omar Al-Khayat, Jun Ki Hong, David M Beck, Andrew I Minett, Chiara Neto
Micro-patterned polymer surfaces, possessing both topographical and chemical characteristics, were used to capture atmospheric water. The micro-patterns mimic the structure on the back of a desert beetle that condenses water from air in a very dry environment. The patterned coatings were prepared by the dewetting of thin films of poly-4-vinylpyridine (P4VP) on top of polystyrene films (PS) films, upon solvent annealing, and consist of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. The size and density distribution of the hydrophilic bumps could be tuned widely by tuning the initial thickness of the P4VP films: the diameter of the produced bumps and their height could be varied by almost two order of magnitude (1 µm - 80 µm, and 40 nm - 9000 nm, respectively), and their distribution density could be varied by 5 orders of magnitude...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215351/a-genomic-comparison-of-putative-pathogenicity-related-gene-families-in-five-members-of-the-ophiostomatales-with-different-lifestyles
#5
Ljerka Lah, Ulrike Löber, Tom Hsiang, Stefanie Hartmann
Ophiostomatoid fungi are vectored by their bark-beetle associates and colonize different host tree species. To survive and proliferate in the host, they have evolved mechanisms for detoxification and elimination of host defence compounds, efficient nutrient sequestration, and, in pathogenic species, virulence towards plants. Here, we assembled a draft genome of the spruce pathogen Ophiostoma bicolor. For our comparative and phylogenetic analyses, we mined the genomes of closely related species (Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and Grosmannia clavigera)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213538/colonization-and-transmission-of-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-through-development
#6
Yin Wang, Daniel E Rozen
Carrion beetles in the genus Nicrophorus rear their offspring on decomposing carcasses where larvae are exposed to a diverse community of decomposer bacteria. Parents coat the carcass with antimicrobial secretions prior to egg hatch (defined as Pre-Hatch care) and also feed regurgitated food, and potentially bacteria, to larvae throughout development (defined as Full care). Here we partition the roles of pre- and post-hatch parental care in the transmission and persistence of culturable symbiotic bacteria to larvae...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211500/video-monitoring-of-brown-planthopper-predation-in-rice-shows-flaws-of-sentinel-methods
#7
Yi Zou, Joop de Kraker, Felix J J A Bianchi, Mario D van Telgen, Haijun Xiao, Wopke van der Werf
Immobilized preys are routinely used in agro-ecological exposure studies to quantify predation of pests under field conditions, but this method has not been validated. Our purpose was to determine the validity of using immobilized adults of the major rice pest Nilaparvata lugens, brown plant hopper (BPH), as sentinels. We used direct observation by video recording to determine the causal agents of removal of field exposed BPH sentinels with two experiments: 1) we recorded removal events of dead, immobilized BPH; and 2) we compared removal of (i) dead, immobilized BPH, (ii) live, immobilized BPH, and (iii) live, mobile BPH...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207908/isolation-and-determination-of-ivermectin-in-post-mortem-and-in-vivo-tissues-of-dung-beetles-using-a-continuous-solid-phase-extraction-method-followed-by-lc-esi-ms-ms
#8
Antonio J Ortiz, Vieyle Cortez, Abdelmonaim Azzouz, José R Verdú
A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues) using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+-MS/MS). Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207862/breeding-matters-natal-experience-influences-population-state-dependent-host-acceptance-by-an-eruptive-insect-herbivore
#9
Jordan Lewis Burke, Allan L Carroll
Eruptive forest insects are highly influential agents of change in forest ecosystems, and their effects have increased with recent climate change. State-dependent life histories contribute significantly to the population dynamics of eruptive forest insect herbivores; however, the proximate mechanisms by which these species shift between states is poorly understood. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) to determine the effect of maternal host selection on offspring host preferences, as they apply to population state-dependent behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204501/a-sweet-story-bean-pod-mottle-virus-transmission-dynamics-by-mexican-bean-beetles-epilachna-varivestis
#10
Charlotte M Smith, Cassidy R Gedling, Kiana F Wiebe, Bryan J Cassone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199781/sequencing-historical-specimens-successful-preparation-of-small-specimens-with-low-amounts-of-degraded-dna
#11
John S Sproul, David R Maddison
Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198090/succession-and-dynamics-of-pristionchus-nematodes-and-their-microbiome-during-decomposition-of-oryctes-borbonicus-on-la-r%C3%A3-union-island
#12
Jan M Meyer, Praveen Baskaran, Christian Quast, Vladislav Susoy, Christian Rödelsperger, Frank O Glöckner, Ralf J Sommer
Insects and nematodes represent the most species-rich animal taxa and they occur together in a variety of associations. Necromenic nematodes of the genus Pristionchus are found on scarab beetles with more than 30 species known from worldwide samplings. However, little is known about the dynamics and succession of nematodes and bacteria during the decomposition of beetle carcasses. Here, we study nematode and bacterial succession of the decomposing rhinoceros beetle Oryctes borbonicus on La Réunion Island. We show that Pristionchus pacificus exits the arrested dauer stage seven days after the beetles' deaths...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195419/migratory-flight-behaviour-of-the-pollen-beetle-meligethes-aeneus
#13
Alice L Mauchline, Sam M Cook, Wilf Powell, Jason W Chapman, Juliet L Osborne
BACKGROUND: The field ecology of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus and its damaging effects on oilseed rape crops are well understood. However, the flight behaviour of M. aeneus, in particular the drivers for migratory movements across the landscape, is not well studied. We combined three established methodologies; suction traps, vertical-looking radar and high-altitude aerial netting to demonstrate that M. aeneus fly at a range of altitudes at different points during its active season...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193823/stellar-performance-mechanisms-underlying-milky-way-orientation-in-dung-beetles
#14
James J Foster, Basil El Jundi, Jochen Smolka, Lana Khaldy, Dan-Eric Nilsson, Marcus J Byrne, Marie Dacke
Nocturnal dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) are currently the only animals that have been demonstrated to use the Milky Way for reliable orientation. In this study, we tested the capacity of S. satyrus to orient under a range of artificial celestial cues, and compared the properties of these cues with images of the Milky Way simulated for a beetle's visual system. We find that the mechanism that permits accurate stellar orientation under the Milky Way is based on an intensity comparison between different regions of the Milky Way...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192472/identification-and-evaluation-of-semiochemicals-for-the-biological-control-of-the-beetle-omorgus-suberosus-f-coleoptera-trogidae-a-facultative-predator-of-eggs-of-the-sea-turtle-lepidochelys-olivacea-eschscholtz
#15
Vieyle Cortez, José R Verdú, Antonio J Ortiz, Gonzalo Halffter
The beetle Omorgus suberosus (F.) is a facultative predator of eggs of the olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz). Laboratory and field investigations were conducted in order to characterize volatile attractants of O. suberosus and to explore the potential for application of these volatiles in a selective mass trapping method. Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) coupled to thermo-desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) analysis of the volatile constituents from beetles or turtle nests revealed 24 potential compounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187825/characterization-of-acetylcholinesterase-from-elm-left-beetle-xanthogaleruca-luteola-and-qsar-of-temephos-derivatives-against-its-activity
#16
Mahboobeh Sharifi, Mohammad Ghadamyari, Khodayar Gholivand, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi Valmoozi, Reza H Sajedi
Insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the principal target for organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides. In this research, an AChE from third instar larvae of elm left beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola was purified by affinity chromatography. The enzyme was purified 75.29-fold with a total yield of 8.51%. As shown on denaturing SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass of purified AChE was 70kDa. The enzyme demonstrated maximum activity at pH7 and 35°C. Furthermore, a series of temephos (Tem) derivatives with the general structure of P(O)XP(O) (1-44) were prepared, synthesized and characterized by (31)P, (13)C, (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectral techniques...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187680/revision-of-the-flightless-click-beetle-genus-i-dima-i-charpentier-1825-coleoptera-elateridae-dimini-in-the-balkan-peninsula
#17
Josef Mertlik, Tamás Németh, Robin Kundrata
The genus Dima Charpentier, 1825 in the Balkan Peninsula and surrounding areas was revised based on the adult semaphoronts. Altogether 33 species are known from the investigated area, of which nine are new for science: D. bruhai sp. nov. (Greece), D. dusaneki sp. nov. (Macedonia), D. fialai sp. nov. (Macedonia), D. kozufensis sp. nov. (Greece, Macedonia), D. orientalis sp. nov. (Bulgaria), D. pelikani sp. nov. (Albania, Montenegro), D. pelionensis sp. nov. (Greece), D. vonickai sp. nov. (Albania), and D. zbuzeki sp...
January 13, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187655/-i-digitonthophagus-i-i-gazella-i-auctorum-an-unfortunate-case-of-mistaken-identity-for-a-widely-introduced-species-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae-onthophagini
#18
François Génier, Adrian L V Davis
At risk of committing entomological heresy, we question the identity of a dung-burying beetle species that originates from Africa and has been introduced first into Hawaii and subsequently to Australasia, North America, and South America (Fincher 1986; Edwards 2007; Noriega et al. 2010) for pasture improvement and biological control of dung-breeding flies (Waterhouse 1974; Bornemissza 1979).  Under the name Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787), it was the first species selected for introduction into Australia by the CSIRO Dung Beetle Project (Bornemissza 1976; Edwards 2007)...
January 19, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187620/tiger-beetles-coleoptera-carabidae-cicindelinae-pupal-stage-current-state-of-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#19
André S Roza, José R M Mermudes
The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.
January 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187587/hind-wing-morphology-facilitates-discrimination-between-two-sibling-species-i-leiopus-i-i-nebulosus-i-and-i-l-linnei-i-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#20
Robert Rossa, Jakub Goczał, Adam Tofilski
The study focused on two sibling beetle species: Leiopus nebulosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and L. linnei Wallin, Nylander & Kvamme, 2009. These species are very similar morphologically and their identification is difficult and possible only by experienced taxonomists. A supporting method for identification of L. nebulosus and L. linnei based on hind wings measurements was developed. The study was based on 115 specimens of L. linnei and 45 specimens of L. nebulosus. The correctness of identification of L. nebulosus amounted to 95...
February 2, 2017: Zootaxa
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