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Hui-Yeng Y Yap, Nget-Hong Tan, Szu-Ting Ng, Chon-Seng Tan, Shin-Yee Fung
Naturally occurring anti-glycation compounds have drawn much interest in recent years as they show potential in reducing or preventing the risk of chronic complications for diabetic patients. In this study, annotation of the genome-transcriptome data from tiger milk mushroom ( Lignosus rhinocerus , syn. Lignosus rhinocerotis ) to PlantCyc enzymes database identified transcripts that are related to anti-diabetic properties, and these include genes that are involved in carotenoid and abscisic acid biosynthesis as well as genes that code for glyoxalase I, catalase-peroxidases, and superoxide dismutases...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil, Noraswati Mohd Nor Rashid, Mohamad Hasril Abd Hamid, Norasfaliza Rahmad, Jameel R Al-Obaidi
Tiger's milk mushroom is known for its valuable medicinal properties, especially the tuber part. However, wild tuber is very hard to obtain as it grows underground. This study first aimed to cultivate tiger's milk mushroom tuber through a cultivation technique, and second to compare nutritional and mycochemical contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and compound screening of the cultivated tuber with the wild tuber. Results showed an increase in carbohydrate content by 45.81% and protein content by 123...
December 4, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Natasha Avila Bertocchi, Fabiano Pimentel Torres, Analía Del Valle Garnero, Ricardo José Gunski, Gabriel Luz Wallau
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant genomic parasites in eukaryote genomes. Although several genomes have been screened for TEs, so far very limited information is available regarding avian TEs and their evolutionary histories. Taking advantage of the rich genomic data available for birds, we characterized the evolutionary history of the galluhop element, originally described in Gallus gallus, through the use of several bioinformatic analyses. RESULTS: galluhop homologous sequences were found in 6 of 72 genomes analyzed: 5 species of Galliformes (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Coturnix japonica, Colinus virginianus, Lyrurus tetrix) and one Buceritiformes (Buceros rhinoceros)...
2017: Mobile DNA
M Johnathan, S H Gan, M F Wan Ezumi, A H Faezahtul, A A Nurul
BACKGROUND: Lignosus rhinocerus (L. rhinocerus), which is known locally as Tiger Milk mushroom, is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma by indigenous communities in Malaysia. However, to date, its efficacy on asthma has not been confirmed by scientific studies and there is also sparse information available on its active constituents. In this study, the volatile constituent of L. rhinocerus hot water extract was investigated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The potential effects of L...
June 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Chaoran Liu, Jialun Chen, Lei Chen, Xuesong Huang, Peter C K Cheung
A novel water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complex (PRW1) isolated from the sclerotia of an edible mushroom Polyporus rhinocerus which was purified by membrane ultrafiltration could significantly activate murine macrophages RAW264.7 in vitro. PRW1 had a molecular weight of less than 50 kDa and was found to be a highly branched heteropolysaccharide-protein complex composed of 45.7 ± 0.97% polysaccharide and 44.2 ± 0.41% protein. Based on the results of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the carbohydrate moiety of PRW1 was found to be a β-d-mannoglucan with its backbone containing →1)-d-Glcp-(4→, →1)-d-Glcp-(6→, and →1)-d-Manp-(2→ residues (molar ratio of 5:4:6) and having terminal d-Glcp as side chain (degree of branching of 0...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Beng Fye Lau, Noorlidah Abdullah, Norhaniza Aminudin, Hong Boon Lee, Pei Jean Tan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several members of the genus Lignosus, which are collectively known as cendawan susu rimau (in Malay) or tiger׳s milk mushrooms (TMM), are regarded as important local medicine particularly by the indigenous communities in Malaysia. The mushroom sclerotia are purportedly effective in treating cancer, coughs, asthma, fever, and other ailments. The most commonly encountered Lignosus spp. in Malaysia was authenticated as Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (synonym: Polyporus rhinocerus), which is also known as hurulingzhi in China and has been used by Chinese physicians to treat liver cancer, gastric ulcers, and chronic hepatitis...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hualian Wu, Huili Zhu, Xiaoling Li, Zumei Liu, Wenjie Zheng, Tianfeng Chen, Bo Yu, Ka-Hing Wong
Surface-capping agents play key roles in cellular uptake and biological activity of functional nanomaterials. In the present study, functionalized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been successfully synthesized using Polyporus rhinocerus water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complexes (PRW) as the capping agent during the reduction of selenium salts. The acquired monodisperse, spherical PRW-SeNPs presented desirable size distribution and stability in the solution. Moreover, PRW surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SeNPs via endocytosis...
October 16, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yeannie H Y Yap, NgetHong Tan, ShinYee Fung, Azlina A Aziz, ChonSeng Tan, SzuTing Ng
BACKGROUND: Lignosus rhinocerus (tiger milk mushroom) is an important medicinal mushroom used in Southeast Asia and China, and its sclerotium can be developed into functional food/nutraceuticals. The nutrient composition, antioxidant properties, and anti-proliferative activity of wild type and a cultivated strain of L. rhinocerus sclerotia were investigated. RESULTS: The sclerotial powder has high carbohydrate but low fat content. Interestingly, the cultivated strain contains higher amounts of protein and water-soluble substances than the wild type...
September 2013: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sook Shien Lee, Francis Kanyan Enchang, Nget Hong Tan, Shin Yee Fung, Jayalakshmi Pailoor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lignosus rhinocerus (Tiger Milk mushroom) is distributed in South China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. In Malaysia, it is the most popular medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities to relieve fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. In China, this mushroom is an expensive traditional medicine used to treat liver cancer, chronic hepatitis and gastric ulcers. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value...
May 2, 2013: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
W H Lai, M J Siti Murni, D Fauzi, O Abas Mazni, N M Saleh
Lignosus rhinocerus is a macrofungus that belongs to Polyporaceae and is native to tropical regions. This highly priced mushroom has been used as folk medicine to treat diseases by indigenous people. As a preliminary study to develop a culture method for edible mushrooms, the cultural characteristics of L. rhinocerus were investigated in a range of culture media under different environmental conditions. Mycelial growth of this mushroom was compared on culture media composed of various carbon and nitrogen sources in addition to C/N ratios...
June 2011: Mycobiology
M L Lee, N H Tan, S Y Fung, C S Tan, S T Ng
Lignosus rhinocerus, the tiger milk mushroom, is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms used by the indigenous people of Southeast Asia and China. It has been used to treat breast cancer. A cold water extract (LR-CW) prepared from the sclerotia of L. rhinocerus cultivar was found to exhibit antiproliferative activity against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and human lung carcinoma (A549), with IC(50) of 96.7 μg/mL and 466.7 μg/mL, respectively. In comparison, LR-CW did not show significant cytotoxicity against the two corresponding human normal cells, 184B5 (human breast cell) and NL 20 (human lung cell)...
2012: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lee-Fang Eik, Murali Naidu, Pamela David, Kah-Hui Wong, Yee-Shin Tan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
A national treasure mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerus, has been used to treat variety of ailments by local and indigenous communities in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the most valuable part of L. rhinocerus, the sclerotium, on neurite outgrowth activity by using PC-12Adh cell line. Differentiated cells with one thin extension at least double the length of the cell diameter were scored positive. Our results showed that aqueous sclerotium L. rhinocerus extract induced neurite outgrowths of 24...
2012: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Cuixia Guo, Ka-Hing Wong, Peter C K Cheung
Treatment of hot water extract of the sclerotium of Polyporus rhinocerus (PRW) with murine macrophages including RAW 264.7 cell line and primary macrophages (PMs) could enhance their functional activities. These include a significant up-regulation of pinocytosis; an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO); an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in both RAW 264.7 cells and PMs. Cell surface receptors for yeast-derived beta-glucan, including Dectin-1, CR3, and TLR2, were determined by flow cytometry, and the expression of Dectin-1+ cells on the cell surface decreased in the responses of PMs to PRW...
2011: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Sook Shien Lee, Nget Hong Tan, Shin Yee Fung, Jayalakshmi Pailoor, Si Mui Sim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lignosus rhinocerus (known locally as 'Tiger Milk mushroom') is the most important medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities of Malaysia to treat fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. Lignosus rhinocerus was hitherto unexploited commercially because of limited supply. Recently, the mushroom was successfully cultivated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (5 rats/group/sex) were fed orally with 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg TM02, 1,000 mg/kg TM03 as well as 1,000 mg/kg wild type Lignosus rhinocerus sclerotial powder...
October 31, 2011: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Beng Fye Lau, Norhaniza Aminudin, Noorlidah Abdullah
Mushrooms are considered as important source of biologically active compounds which include low-molecular-mass protein/peptides (LMMP). In this study, we attempted to profile the LMMP from Lignosus rhinocerus, a wild medicinal mushroom, grown by static cultures (SC) and in stirred tank reactor (STR). Crude water extract (CWE) and protein fractions were profiled using H50 ProteinChip® arrays and SELDI-TOF-MS. Three protein peaks of 5.8, 6.9 and 9.1 kDa were found to be common to spectra of L. rhinocerus CWE from both culture conditions...
October 2011: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Ka-Hing Wong, Shin-Ichi Katsumata, Ritsuko Masuyama, Mariko Uehara, Kazuharu Suzuki, Peter C K Cheung
The effect of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, on calcium and magnesium absorption was evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed with sclerotial DF based and low Ca (0.3%) diets for 14 days. The animals in the W. cocos DF diet group possessed significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of cecal total short-chain fatty acids (204 mumol/g of cecal content) and had an acidic pH (5.88) in their cecum when compared with those of the cellulose control group...
March 8, 2006: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ka-Hing Wong, King-Yee Wong, Hoi-Shan Kwan, Peter C K Cheung
The in vitro fermentability of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, was investigated and compared with that of the cellulose control. All DF samples (0.5 g each) were fermented in vitro with a human fecal homogenate (10 mL) in a batch system (total volume, 50 mL) under strictly anaerobic conditions (using oxygen reducing enzyme and under argon atmosphere) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. All three novel sclerotial DFs exhibited notably higher dry matter disappearance (P...
November 30, 2005: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ka-Hing Wong, Peter C K Cheung
The in vitro mineral binding capacity of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, to Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human stomach, small intestine, and colon was investigated and compared. Apart from releasing most of their endogenous Ca (ranged from 96.9 to 97.9% removal) and Mg (ranged from 95.9 to 96.7% removal), simulated physiological conditions of the stomach also attenuated the possible adverse binding effect of the three sclerotial DFs to the exogenous minerals by lowering their cation-exchange capacity (ranged from 20...
November 30, 2005: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ka-Hing Wong, Peter C K Cheung
Preparation of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuberregium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, by a scale-up modified AOAC procedure using industrial enzymes was investigated. A remarkably high level of total dietary fiber (TDF) ranging from 81.7 to 96.3% sample dry matter (DM), in which a content of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) ranging from 86.6 to 94.3% sclerotial TDF DM, was obtained from the three sclerotia. All sclerotial DFs were rich in beta-glucan (the glucose residue ranged from 89...
November 30, 2005: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ka-Hing Wong, Peter C K Cheung, Jin-Zhong Wu
The proximate composition of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos, together with the yield, purity, monosaccharide profile, and microstructure of their insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions prepared from AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods were investigated and compared. All three sclerotia were typical carbohydrate rich sclerotia [ranging from 90.5 to 98.1% dry matter (DM)] with an exceptionally low amount of crude lipid content (ranging from 0...
November 19, 2003: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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