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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432933/-non-symbolic-magnitude-processing-in-children-with-mathematical-difficulties-a-meta-analysis
#1
Christin Schwenk, Delphine Sasanguie, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Sophia Kempe, Philipp Doebler, Heinz Holling
Symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude representations, measured by digit or dot comparison tasks, are assumed to underlie the development of arithmetic skills. The comparison distance effect (CDE) has been suggested as a hallmark of the preciseness of mental magnitude representations. It implies that two magnitudes are harder to discriminate when the numerical distance between them is small, and may therefore differ in children with mathematical difficulties (MD), i.e., low mathematical achievement or dyscalculia...
April 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432781/cognitive-functioning-and-emotion-processing-in-breast-cancer-survivors-and-controls-an-erp-pilot-study
#2
Janine Wirkner, Mathias Weymar, Andreas Löw, Carmen Hamm, Anne-Marie Struck, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alfons O Hamm
Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is a very emotionally aversive and stressful life event, which can lead to impaired cognitive functioning and mental health. Breast cancer survivors responding with repressive emotion regulation strategies often show less adaptive coping and adverse outcomes. We investigated cognitive functioning and neural correlates of emotion processing using ERPs. Self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as hair cortisol as an index of chronic stress, were assessed...
April 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#3
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432638/community-gardens-as-environmental-health-interventions-benefits-versus-potential-risks
#4
REVIEW
W K Al-Delaimy, M Webb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. RECENT FINDINGS: Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432384/the-probability-of-object-scene-co-occurrence-influences-object-identification-processes
#5
Geneviève Sauvé, Mariane Harmand, Léa Vanni, Mathieu B Brodeur
Contextual information allows the human brain to make predictions about the identity of objects that might be seen and irregularities between an object and its background slow down perception and identification processes. Bar and colleagues modeled the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect suggesting that the brain stocks information about the statistical regularities of object and scene co-occurrence. Their model suggests that these recurring regularities could be conceptualized along a continuum in which the probability of seeing an object within a given scene can be high (probable condition), moderate (improbable condition) or null (impossible condition)...
April 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432297/high-probability-of-comorbidities-in-bronchial-asthma-in-germany
#6
S Heck, S Al-Shobash, D Rapp, D D Le, A Omlor, A Bekhit, M Flaig, B Al-Kadah, W Herian, R Bals, S Wagenpfeil, Q T Dinh
Clinical experience has shown that allergic and non-allergic respiratory, metabolic, mental, and cardiovascular disorders sometimes coexist with bronchial asthma. However, no study has been carried out that calculates the chance of manifestation of these disorders with bronchial asthma in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Using ICD10 diagnoses from health care institutions, the present study systematically analyzed the co-prevalence and odds ratios of comorbidities in the asthma population in Germany...
April 21, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431987/patterns-of-brain-and-cardiovascular-activation-while-solving-rule-discovery-and-rule-application-numeric-tasks
#7
Tytus Sosnowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Małgorzata Wordecha, Anna Kępkowicz, Adrianna Majewska, Aleksandra Pstrągowska, Tomasz Oleksy, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka
It is known that solving mental tasks leads to tonic increase in cardiovascular activity. Our previous research showed that tasks involving rule application (RA) caused greater tonic increase in cardiovascular activity than tasks requiring rule discovery (RD). However, it is not clear what brain mechanisms are responsible for this difference. The aim of two experimental studies was to compare the patterns of brain and cardiovascular activity while both RD and the RA numeric tasks were being solved. The fMRI study revealed greater brain activation while solving RD tasks than while solving RA tasks...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431923/sources-of-racial-disparities-in-hiv-prevalence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-atlanta-ga-usa-a-modelling-study
#8
Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Samuel M Jenness, Nicole Luisi, Sarah E Stansfield, Gregorio A Millett, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: In the USA, men who have sex men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV, and black MSM have a substantially higher prevalence of infection than white MSM. We created a simulation model to assess the strength of existing hypotheses and data that account for these disparities. METHODS: We built a dynamic, stochastic, agent-based network model of black and white MSM aged 18-39 years in Atlanta, GA, USA, that incorporated race-specific individual and dyadic-level prevention and risk behaviours, network attributes, and care patterns...
April 18, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431912/osteosarcopenic-obesity-prevalence-and-relation-with-frailty-and-physical-performance-in-middle-aged-and-older-women
#9
Claudia Szlejf, Lorena Parra-Rodríguez, Oscar Rosas-Carrasco
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and to investigate its association with frailty and physical performance in Mexican community-dwelling middle-aged and older women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. SETTING: The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 434 women aged 50 years or older, living in the designated area in Mexico City...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431841/cognitive-profile-and-disorders-affecting-higher-brain-functions-in-paediatric-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#10
E Vaucheret Paz, A López Ballent, C Puga, M J García Basalo, F Baliarda, C Ekonen, R Ilari, G Agosta
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients...
April 18, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431745/mental-health-care-in-athens-are-compulsory-admissions-in-greece-a-one-way-road
#11
Stelios Stylianidis, Lily Evangelia Peppou, Nektarios Drakonakis, Athanasios Douzenis, Aimilia Panagou, Kyriaki Tsikou, Amalia Pantazi, Yannis Rizavas, Benedetto Saraceno
Involuntary hospitalization has long been a contentious issue worldwide. In Greece, the frequency of compulsory admissions is assumed to be alarmingly high; however, no study has systematically investigated this issue. In line with this, the present study aims to estimate the frequency of compulsory admissions in a psychiatric hospital and to explore its underpinnings. All individuals who were admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of Attica during June-October 2011 were included into the study. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics as well as their previous contact with mental health services was obtained from interviewing the patient and his/her physician...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431526/recognition-of-depression-by-primary-care-clinicians-in-rural-ethiopia
#12
Abebaw Fekadu, Girmay Medhin, Medhin Selamu, Tedla W Giorgis, Crick Lund, Atalay Alem, Martin Prince, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common health condition affecting up to a third of patients attending primary care, where most of the care for people with depression is provided. Adequate recognition of depression is the critical step in the path to effective care, particularly in low income countries. As part of the Programme for Improving Mental healthcare (PRIME), a project supporting the implementation of integrated mental healthcare in primary care, we evaluated the level of recognition of depression by clinicians working in primary care in rural Ethiopia prior to in service training...
April 21, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431506/emotional-and-behavioural-problems-in-swedish-preschool-children-rated-by-preschool-teachers-with-the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq
#13
Berit M Gustafsson, Marie Proczkowska-Björklund, Per A Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: There is a high risk that young children who show early signs of mental health problems develop symptoms in the same or overlapping areas some years later. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used to screen externalizing and internalizing problems early in life. In Sweden 80-90% of all children aged 1-5 years go to preschool and preschool is thus an appropriate context for finding early signs of mental health problems among children. METHODS: This study is part of a longitudinal project too investigate the frequency of emotional and behavioural problems for children between 1 and 5 years of age in Sweden...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431505/using-evaluability-assessment-to-assess-local-community-development-health-programmes-a-scottish-case-study
#14
Melissa Belford, Tony Robertson, Ruth Jepson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme's objectives (health or otherwise) is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback) can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations...
April 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431382/childhood-maltreatment-preceding-depressive-disorder-at-age-18-years-a-prospective-brazilian-birth-cohort-study
#15
Erika Alejandra Giraldo Gallo, Christian Loret De Mola, Fernando Wehrmeister, Helen Gonçalves, Christian Kieling, Joseph Murray
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is linked with increased risk for mental illness in adolescence and adulthood. However, little evidence is available on whether different forms of maltreatment have specific effects, and no prospective studies in low- or middle-income countries have addressed this issue. METHODS: Participants in a population-based, birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (N=3715) self-reported exposure to maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence) in confidential questionnaires at age 15 years, and were assessed for major depression in interviews at age 18 years, using the MINI...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431368/correlates-of-perceived-stigma-for-people-living-with-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Ying Shi, Shouqi Wang, Jie Ying, Meiling Zhang, Pengcheng Liu, Huanhuan Zhang, Jiao Sun
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy, one of the most common, serious chronic neurological diseases, is accompanied by different levels of perceived stigma that affects people in almost all age groups. This stigma can negatively impact the physical and mental health of people living with epilepsy (PLWE). Good knowledge of perceived stigma for PLWE is important. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the correlates of perceived stigma for PLWE. METHODS: Studies on factors associated with perceived stigma for PLWE, including sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related variables, were searched in PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science...
April 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431365/attitudes-towards-people-with-epilepsy-in-moscow
#17
Alla Guekht, Anna Gersamiya, Igor Kaimovskiy, Maria Mizinova, Alexander Yakovlev, Alexander Shpak
PURPOSE: To assess the knowledge and attitudes in Moscow towards people with epilepsy (PWE). METHODS: Data were collected from 1167 adults, permanent residents of Moscow, who were interviewed. A 10-item questionnaire was used addressing three major domains: familiarity with epilepsy (2 questions), understanding of epilepsy (5 questions), and attitude towards the PWE (3 questions). Results were standardized to the Moscow population. RESULTS: The study population was generally well informed about epilepsy...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431294/exploring-the-experience-of-episodic-past-future-and-counterfactual-thinking-in-younger-and-older-adults-a-study-of-a-colombian-sample
#18
Felipe De Brigard, Diana Carolina Rodriguez, Patricia Montañés
Although extant evidence suggests that many neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking overlap, recent results have uncovered differences among these three processes. However, the extent to which there may be age-related differences in the phenomenological characteristics associated with episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking remains unclear. This study used adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview in younger and older adults to investigate the subjective experience of episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking...
April 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431256/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-neonates-undergoing-surgery-under-general-anesthesia-for-malrotation-of-intestines
#19
Suresh Birajdar, Shripada Rao, Judy McMichael
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to differentiate between the potential adverse effects of general anesthesia (GA) on the developing brain and the role of associated co-morbidities and syndromes that can adversely affect neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates undergoing GA. Neonates with malrotation of the intestines without volvulus usually do not have co-morbidities or syndromes. In addition, majority of them recover very well after surgery and are discharged home within a few days. Neonates with malrotation are a clean cohort of babies to study the role of a single episode of GA on the developing brain...
April 18, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431101/mediating-effect-of-social-participation-on-the-relationship-between-incontinence-and-depressive-symptoms-in-older-chinese-women
#20
Daniel W L Lai, Xue Bai, Aimei Guo
Urinary and fecal incontinence affect older women's social participation and mental health. This study examined the relationship between incontinence severity and depressive symptoms, focusing on the mediating effect of social participation, based on secondary analysis of structured interview data collected in December 2010 from 467 women age 60 and over in mainland China. Incontinence was significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms but negatively associated with social participation. Social participation was significantly and negatively associated with depressive symptoms and fully mediated the relationship between incontinence and depressive symptoms...
May 1, 2017: Health & Social Work
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