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Microbiome and gut stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789585/hypoxia-induces-senescence-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-altered-gut-microbiota
#1
Junyue Xing, Yongquan Ying, Chenxi Mao, Yiwei Liu, Tingting Wang, Qian Zhao, Xiaoling Zhang, Fuxia Yan, Hao Zhang
Systemic chronic hypoxia is a feature of many diseases and may influence the communication between bone marrow (BM) and gut microbiota. Here we analyse patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) who are experiencing chronic hypoxia and characterize the association between bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and gut microbiome under systemic hypoxia. We observe premature senescence of BMSCs and abnormal D-galactose accumulation in patients with CCHD. The hypoxia that these patients experience results in an altered diversity of gut microbial communities, with a remarkable decrease in the number of Lactobacilli and a noticeable reduction in the amount of enzyme-degraded D-galactose...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#2
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556546/unraveling-interactions-between-the-microbiome-and-the-host-immune-system-to-decipher-mechanisms-of-disease
#3
Catherine A Lozupone
In recent years, there has been a deluge of papers linking altered microbiome compositions to a myriad of diseases. Mechanistic insight into microbial drivers of disease phenotypes is essential for translation to novel therapies. A key mechanism by which microbes influence health is immune modulation by components of their capsule and cell envelope and their metabolites. A major research focus of my laboratory is to gain mechanistic insight into which microbes modulate host immunity generally and in the context of disease...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499056/nubbin-isoform-antagonism-governs-drosophila-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#4
Bo G Lindberg, Xiongzhuo Tang, Widad Dantoft, Priya Gohel, Shiva Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Jessica M Lindvall, Ylva Engström
Gut immunity is regulated by intricate and dynamic mechanisms to ensure homeostasis despite a constantly changing microbial environment. Several regulatory factors have been described to participate in feedback responses to prevent aberrant immune activity. Little is, however, known about how transcriptional programs are directly tuned to efficiently adapt host gut tissues to the current microbiome. Here we show that the POU/Oct gene nubbin (nub) encodes two transcription factor isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, which antagonistically regulate immune gene expression in Drosophila...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374371/rethinking-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-the-transplant-patient-in-the-world-of-emerging-resistant-organisms-where-are-we-today
#5
REVIEW
Lucy E Horton, Nina M Haste, Randy A Taplitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of prophylactic antibiotics during the neutropenic period in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the standard of care at most institutions for the past 20 years. We sought to review the benefits and risks of this practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data has highlighted the potential costs of antibacterial prophylaxis, from selecting for antibiotic resistance to perturbing the microbiome and contributing to increase risk for Clostridium difficile and perhaps graft-versus-host-disease, conditions which may lead to poorer outcomes...
February 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932814/the-gut-commensal-microbiome-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-modified-by-the-endosymbiont-wolbachia
#6
Rama K Simhadri, Eva M Fast, Rong Guo, Michaela J Schultz, Natalie Vaisman, Luis Ortiz, Joanna Bybee, Barton E Slatko, Horacio M Frydman
Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria and the gut microbiome have independently been shown to affect several aspects of insect biology, including reproduction, development, life span, stem cell activity, and resistance to human pathogens, in insect vectors. This work shows that Wolbachia bacteria, which reside mainly in the fly germline, affect the microbial species present in the fly gut in a lab-reared strain. Drosophila melanogaster hosts two main genera of commensal bacteria-Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Wolbachia-infected flies have significantly reduced titers of Acetobacter...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904137/seasonal-variation-in-nutrient-utilization-shapes-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-wild-giant-pandas
#7
Qi Wu, Xiao Wang, Yun Ding, Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Wei Wei, Shuai Ma, Li Yan, Lifeng Zhu, Fuwen Wei
Wild giant pandas use different parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and stems) and different bamboo species at different times of the year. Their usage of bamboo can be classified temporally into a distinct leaf stage, shoot stage and transition stage. An association between this usage pattern and variation in the giant panda gut microbiome remains unknown. Here, we found associations using a gut metagenomic approach and nutritional analyses whereby diversity of the gut microbial community in the leaf and shoot stages was significantly different...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889220/rapamycin-treatment-attenuates-age-associated-periodontitis-in-mice
#8
Jonathan Y An, Ellen K Quarles, Surapat Mekvanich, Alex Kang, Anthony Liu, Danielle Santos, Richard A Miller, Peter S Rabinovitch, Timothy C Cox, Matt Kaeberlein
Interventions that target biological mechanisms of aging have great potential to enhance quality of life by delaying morbidity and mortality. The FDA-approved drug rapamycin is a compelling candidate for such an intervention. In a previous study, it was reported that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy and remodel the gut microbiome in aged mice. Transient treatment with rapamycin or a rapamycin derivative has also been shown to delay immune stem cell senescence and rejuvenate immune function in aged mice and elderly people...
September 9, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759053/the-eukaryotic-gut-virome-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-new-clues-in-enteric-graft-versus-host-disease
#9
Jérôme Legoff, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Jerome Bouquet, Marie Robin, Samia N Naccache, Séverine Mercier-Delarue, Scot Federman, Erik Samayoa, Clotilde Rousseau, Prescillia Piron, Nathalie Kapel, François Simon, Gérard Socié, Charles Y Chiu
Much attention has been focused on the role of the bacterial microbiome in human health, but the virome is understudied. Although previously investigated in individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases or solid-organ transplants, virome dynamics in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enteric graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain unexplored. Here we characterize the longitudinal gut virome in 44 recipients of HSCT using metagenomics. A viral 'bloom' was identified, and significant increases were demonstrated in the overall proportion of vertebrate viral sequences following transplantation (P = 0...
September 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
November 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625828/precision-monitoring-of-immunotherapies-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Rose DiLoreto, Kiran Khush, Iwijn De Vlaminck
Pharmacological immunotherapies are a key component of post-transplant therapy in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In current clinical practice, immunotherapies largely follow a one-size fits all approach, leaving a large portion of transplant recipients either over- or under-immunosuppressed, and consequently at risk of infections or immune-mediated complications. Our goal here is to review recent and rapid advances in precision and genomic medicine approaches to monitoring of post-transplant immunotherapies...
May 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618973/from-clinical-uncertainties-to-precision-medicine-the-emerging-role-of-the-gut-barrier-and-microbiome-in-small-bowel-functional-diseases
#12
Wojciech Marlicz, Diana E Yung, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Igor Loniewski, Saskia van Hemert, Beata Loniewska, Anastasios Koulaouzidis
Over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of disease pathophysiology. Many new theories expound on the importance of emerging factors such as microbiome influences, genomics/omics, stem cells, innate intestinal immunity or mucosal barrier complexities. This has introduced a further dimension of uncertainty into clinical decision-making, but equally, may shed some light on less well-understood and difficult to manage conditions. Areas covered: Comprehensive review of the literature on gut barrier and microbiome relevant to small bowel pathology...
October 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611768/innate-immunity-and-breast-milk
#13
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Robert M Lawrence
Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438184/microbiota-activated-cd103-dcs-stemming-from-microbiota-adaptation-specifically-drive-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t17-proliferation-and-activation
#14
Chris Fleming, Yihua Cai, Xuan Sun, Venkatakrishna R Jala, Feng Xue, Samantha Morrissey, Yu-Ling Wei, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Huang-Ge Zhang, Bodduluri Haribabu, Jian Huang, Jun Yan
BACKGROUND: IL-17-producing γδT cells (γδT17) promote autoinflammatory diseases and cancers. Yet, γδT17 peripheral regulation has not been thoroughly explored especially in the context of microbiota-host interaction. The potent antigen-presenting CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) is a key immune player in close contact with both γδT17 cells and microbiota. This study presents a novel cellular network among microbiota, CD103+ DCs, and γδT17 cells. METHODS: Immunophenotyping of IL-17r-/- mice and IL-17r-/- IRF8-/- mice were performed by ex vivo immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis...
April 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256022/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-probiotic-enteric-regimen-does-not-appreciably-alter-the-gut-microbiome-or-provide-protection-against-gvhd-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Elan Gorshein, Catherine Wei, Susan Ambrosy, Shanna Budney, Juliana Vivas, Angelika Shenkerman, Jacqueline Manago, Mary Kate McGrath, Anne Tyno, Yong Lin, Vimal Patel, Mecide Gharibo, Dale Schaar, Robert R Jenq, Hossein Khiabanian, Roger Strair
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major adverse effect associated with allogeneic stem cell transplant. Previous studies in mice indicated that administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can reduce the incidence of GVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Here we report results from the first randomized probiotic enteric regimen trial in which allogenic hematopoietic stem cell patients were supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Gut microbiome analysis confirmed a previously reported gut microbiome association with GVHD...
May 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137828/acute-graft-versus-host-disease-is-regulated-by-an-il-17-sensitive-microbiome
#16
Antiopi Varelias, Kate L Ormerod, Mark D Bunting, Motoko Koyama, Kate H Gartlan, Rachel D Kuns, Nancy Lachner, Kelly R Locke, Chun Y Lim, Andrea S Henden, Ping Zhang, Andrew D Clouston, Sumaira Z Hasnain, Michael A McGuckin, Bruce R Blazar, Kelli P A MacDonald, Philip Hugenholtz, Geoffrey R Hill
Donor T-cell-derived interleukin-17A (IL-17A) can mediate late immunopathology in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), however protective roles remain unclear. Using multiple cytokine and cytokine receptor subunit knockout mice, we demonstrate that stem cell transplant recipients lacking the ability to generate or signal IL-17 develop intestinal hyper-acute GVHD. This protective effect is restricted to the molecular interaction of IL-17A and/or IL-17F with the IL-17 receptor A/C (IL-17RA/C). The protection from GVHD afforded by IL-17A required secretion from, and signaling in, both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic host tissue...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910783/recent-advances-and-challenges-in-studies-of-control-of-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-gut-microbiome-by-the-trametes-derived-polysaccharopeptide-psp-review
#18
REVIEW
Joseph M Wu, Barbara B Doonan, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Qingyao Yang, Xiao-Tong Yang, Ming-Tat Ling
The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor has been well recognized for its activity in maintaining the general health of the population and in managing and treating human diseases in various cultures. Its use has been recently gaining acceptance and popularity in Western countries. The reported health benefits of T. versicolor led to a search for the identity of its bioactive ingredients. These efforts have resulted in the isolation of the polysaccharopeptide PSP from cultured mycelia of strain Cov-1, which expresses large amounts of PSP...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#19
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751936/national-institutes-of-health-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-late-effects-initiative-the-immune-dysregulation-and-pathobiology-working-group-report
#20
REVIEW
Juan Gea-Banacloche, Krishna V Komanduri, Paul Carpenter, Sophie Paczesny, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Jo-Anne Young, Nahed El Kassar, Robert Q Le, Kirk R Schultz, Linda M Griffith, Bipin N Savani, John R Wingard
Immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) beyond 1 year is not completely understood. Many transplant recipients who are free of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and not receiving any immunosuppression more than 1 year after transplantation seem to be able to mount appropriate immune responses to common pathogens and respond adequately to immunizations. However, 2 large registry studies over the last 2 decades seem to indicate that infection is a significant cause of late mortality in some patients, even in the absence of concomitant GVHD...
June 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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