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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#1
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879260/antibiotics-impair-murine-hematopoiesis-by-depleting-intestinal-microbiota
#2
Kamilla S Josefsdottir, Megan T Baldridge, Claudine S Kadmon, Katherine Y King
Bone marrow suppression is an adverse effect associated with many antibiotics, especially when administered for prolonged treatment courses. Recent advances in our understanding of steady-state hematopoiesis have allowed us to explore the effects of antibiotics on hematopoietic progenitors in detail using a murine model. Antibiotic-treated mice exhibited anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukopenia, with pronounced pan-lymphopenia as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood. Bone marrow progenitor analysis revealed depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors across all subtypes...
November 22, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827319/the-salivary-microbiome-and-oral-cancer-risk-a-pilot-study-in-fanconi-anemia
#3
C P Furquim, G M S Soares, L L Ribeiro, M A Azcarate-Peril, N Butz, J Roach, K Moss, C Bonfim, C C Torres-Pereira, F R F Teles
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosomal instability and impaired DNA damage repair. FA patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) earlier and more frequently than the general population, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although evidence of an etiological role of the local microbiome and carcinogenesis has been mounting, no information exists regarding the oral microbiome of FA patients. The aim of this study was to explore the salivary microbiome of 61 FA patients regarding their oral health status and OSCC risk factors...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805463/intestinal-microbiome-changes-and-stem-cell-transplantation-lessons-learned
#4
Ying Taur
Studies of the microbiome in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have shown evidence that intestinal microbes appear to play a particularly important role in determining the outcome of treatment, impacting complications such as infection or graft-versus-host disease. Past studies may vary in terms of the level at which the microbiome is examined, leading to different but overlapping systems of taxonomy or nomenclature, which may be difficult for non-specialists to understand. This article will review the current body of work examining the clinical impact of the microbiome on SCT, and will provide a basic framework for the bacterial phylogenetic structure upon which the results of these studies rest...
November 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751936/national-institutes-of-health-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-late-effects-initiative-the-immune-dysregulation-and-pathobiology-working-group-report
#5
REVIEW
Juan Gea-Banacloche, Krishna Komanduri, Paul Carpenter, Sophie Paczesny, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Jo-Anne Young, Nahed El Kassar, Robert Q Le, Kirk Schultz, Linda M Griffith, Bipin Savani, John R Wingard
Immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) beyond 1 year is not completely understood. Many transplant recipients who are free of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and not receiving any immunosuppression more than 1 year after transplantation seem to be able to mount appropriate immune responses to common pathogens and respond adequately to immunizations. However, 2 large registry studies over the last 2 decades seem to indicate that infection is a significant cause of late mortality in some patients, even in the absence of concomitant GVHD...
October 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746235/skin-microbiome-promotes-mast-cell-maturation-by-triggering-stem-cell-factor-production-in-keratinocytes
#6
Zhenping Wang, Nicholas Mascarenhas, Lars Eckmannm, Yukiko Miyamoto, Xiaojun Sun, Toshiaki Kawakami, Anna Di Nardo
BACKGROUND: Mast cell (MC) progenitors leave the bone marrow, enter the circulation, and settle in the skin and other tissues. Their maturation in tissues is influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that environmental factors play a role in MC maturation in the skin. METHODS: MCs were numerically, phenotypically, and functionally compared between germ-free (GF), specific pathogen-free, and GF mice reconstituted with microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679684/racial-disparity-in-colorectal-cancer-gut-microbiome-and-cancer-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Sachin Goyal, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Lulu Farhana, Yingjie Yu, Adhip Pn Majumdar
Over the past two decades there has been remarkable progress in cancer diagnosis, treatment and screening. The basic mechanisms leading to pathogenesis of various types of cancers are also understood better and some patients, if diagnosed at a particular stage go on to lead a normal pre-diagnosis life. Despite these achievements, racial disparity in some cancers remains a mystery. The higher incidence, aggressiveness and mortality of breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (CRCs) in African-Americans as compared to Caucasian-Americans are now well documented...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546848/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Lydia E Wroblewski, Richard M Peek, Lori A Coburn
Humans are host to complex microbial communities previously termed normal flora and largely overlooked. However, resident microbes contribute to both health and disease. Investigators are beginning to define microbes that contribute to the development of gastrointestinal malignancies and the mechanisms by which this occurs. Resident microbes can induce inflammation, leading to cell proliferation and altered stem cell dynamics, which can lead to alterations in DNA integrity and immune regulation and promote carcinogenesis...
September 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526283/antibiotic-mediated-modification-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
J Whangbo, J Ritz, A Bhatt
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many patients with severe benign and malignant hematologic disorders. The success of allogeneic HSCT is limited by the development of transplant-related complications such as acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Early pre-clinical studies suggested that intestinal microflora contribute to the pathogenesis of acute GvHD, and that growth suppression or eradication of intestinal bacteria prevented the development of acute GvHD even in MHC-mismatched transplants...
August 15, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498050/a-co-drug-of-butyric-acid-derived-from-fermentation-metabolites-of-the-human-skin-microbiome-stimulates-adipogenic-differentiation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-implications-in-tissue-augmentation
#10
Yanhan Wang, Lingjuan Zhang, Jinghua Yu, Stephen Huang, Zhenping Wang, Kimberly Ann Chun, Tammy Ling Lee, Ying-Tung Chen, Richard L Gallo, Chun-Ming Huang
Here we demonstrate that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by glycerol fermentation that can induce adipogenesis. Although the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of SCFAs have been previously well characterized, little is known about the contribution of SCFAs to the adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We show that ADSCs differentiated into adipocytes and accumulated lipids in the cytoplasm when cultured with butyric acid, a principal SCFA in the fermentation metabolites of S...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477002/pharmacotherapy-for-the-management-of-cancer-regimen-related-oral-mucositis
#11
Alessandro Villa, Stephen T Sonis
INTRODUCTION: Oral mucositis is a frequent and devastating toxicity secondary to cancer treatment, which may affect 20-40% of patients receiving conventional chemotherapy and 60-85% of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The pathobiology of mucositis includes a complex cascade of biologic events in which pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS, second messengers, and the oral microbiome contribute to tissue damage of the oral mucosa. Management strategies to oral mucositis secondary to chemotherapy include preventative measures and therapeutic approaches...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426971/emerging-technologies-for-gut-microbiome-research
#12
Jason W Arnold, Jeffrey Roach, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril
Understanding the importance of the gut microbiome on modulation of host health has become a subject of great interest for researchers across disciplines. As an intrinsically multidisciplinary field, microbiome research has been able to reap the benefits of technological advancements in systems and synthetic biology, biomaterials engineering, and traditional microbiology. Gut microbiome research has been revolutionized by high-throughput sequencing technology, permitting compositional and functional analyses that were previously an unrealistic undertaking...
November 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329048/adjusting-microbiome-profiles-for-differences-in-microbial-load-by-spike-in-bacteria
#13
Frank Stämmler, Joachim Gläsner, Andreas Hiergeist, Ernst Holler, Daniela Weber, Peter J Oefner, André Gessner, Rainer Spang
BACKGROUND: Next-generation 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing is widely used to determine the relative composition of the mammalian gut microbiomes. However, in the absence of a reference, this does not reveal alterations in absolute abundance of specific operational taxonomic units if microbial loads vary across specimens. RESULTS: Here we suggest the spiking of exogenous bacteria into crude specimens to quantify ratios of absolute bacterial abundances. We use the 16S rDNA read counts of the spike-in bacteria to adjust the read counts of endogenous bacteria for changes in total microbial loads...
2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264604/the-colonic-crypt-protects-stem-cells-from-microbiota-derived-metabolites
#14
Gerard E Kaiko, Stacy H Ryu, Olivia I Koues, Patrick L Collins, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel, Edward J Pearce, Erika L Pearce, Eugene M Oltz, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
In the mammalian intestine, crypts of Leiberkühn house intestinal epithelial stem/progenitor cells at their base. The mammalian intestine also harbors a diverse array of microbial metabolite compounds that potentially modulate stem/progenitor cell activity. Unbiased screening identified butyrate, a prominent bacterial metabolite, as a potent inhibitor of intestinal stem/progenitor proliferation at physiologic concentrations. During homeostasis, differentiated colonocytes metabolized butyrate likely preventing it from reaching proliferating epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the crypt...
June 16, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148490/local-and-long-distance-calling-conversations-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-intra-and-extra-gastrointestinal-tract-infections
#15
REVIEW
Joshua E Denny, Whitney L Powell, Nathan W Schmidt
Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms--physical barriers and specialized immune cells--and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121964/pretreatment-gut-microbiome-predicts-chemotherapy-related-bloodstream-infection
#16
Emmanuel Montassier, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Tonya Ward, Stephane Corvec, Thomas Gastinne, Gilles Potel, Phillipe Moreau, Marie France de la Cochetiere, Eric Batard, Dan Knights
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia, or bloodstream infection (BSI), is a leading cause of death among patients with certain types of cancer. A previous study reported that intestinal domination, defined as occupation of at least 30 % of the microbiota by a single bacterial taxon, is associated with BSI in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. However, the impact of the intestinal microbiome before treatment initiation on the risk of subsequent BSI remains unclear. Our objective was to characterize the fecal microbiome collected before treatment to identify microbes that predict the risk of BSI...
2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113916/biological-causal-links-on-physiological-and-evolutionary-time-scales
#17
Amit Karmon, Yitzhak Pilpel
Correlation does not imply causation. If two variables, say A and B, are correlated, it could be because A causes B, or that B causes A, or because a third factor affects them both. We suggest that in many cases in biology, the causal link might be bi-directional: A causes B through a fast-acting physiological process, while B causes A through a slowly accumulating evolutionary process. Furthermore, many trained biologists tend to consistently focus at first on the fast-acting direction, and overlook the slower process in the opposite direction...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038229/rice-bacterial-endophytes-isolation-of-a-collection-identification-of-beneficial-strains-and-microbiome-analysis
#18
Iris Bertani, Pamela Abbruscato, Pietro Piffanelli, Sujatha Subramoni, Vittorio Venturi
Endophytes are harmless or beneficial microorganisms that live inside plants between cells. The relationship they develop with the plant as well as their potential role in plant health is at large unexplored and it is believed that the opportunity to find new and interesting endophytes among the large variety of plants is great. Here, we present the isolation and analysis of a large collection of endophytes from one cultivar of rice grown in Italy. A total 1318 putative endophytes were isolated from roots, leaves and stems from rice grown in submerged and dry conditions and a working collection of 229 isolates was created...
June 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021847/oxidative-stress-balance-is-dysregulated-and-represents-an-additional-target-for-treating-cholangiocarcinoma
#19
Daisuke Uchida, Akinobu Takaki, Hisashi Ishikawa, Yasuko Tomono, Hironari Kato, Koichiro Tsutsumi, Naofumi Tamaki, Takayuki Maruyama, Takaaki Tomofuji, Ryuichiro Tsuzaki, Tetsuya Yasunaka, Kazuko Koike, Hiroshi Matsushita, Fusao Ikeda, Yasuhiro Miyake, Hidenori Shiraha, Kazuhiro Nouso, Ryuichi Yoshida, Yuzo Umeda, Susumu Shinoura, Takahito Yagi, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Manabu Morita, Masaki Fukushima, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND: Pancreatico-biliary malignancies exhibit similar characteristics, including obesity-related features and poor prognosis, and require new treatment strategies. Oxidative stress is known to induce DNA damage and carcinogenesis, and its reduction is viewed as being favorable. However, it also has anti-infection and anti-cancer functions that need to be maintained. To reveal the effect of oxidative stress on cancer progression, we evaluated oxidative stress and anti-oxidative balance in pancreatic cancer (PC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC) patients, as well as the effect of add-on antioxidant treatment to chemotherapy in a mouse cholangiocarcinoma model...
July 2016: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27013015/metabolic-syndrome-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-at-the-intersection-of-treatment-toxicity-and-immune-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Lucie M Turcotte, Ashley Yingst, Michael R Verneris
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors face a multitude of short- and long-term health complications in the years after treatment. One important health complication that is associated with significant morbidity is metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). This constellation of findings, which includes obesity, glucose and lipid dysmetabolism, and hypertension, places affected individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular complications, and stroke. Previous studies have linked MetSyn in HCT survivors to prior treatment; however, few studies have addressed the potential roles of systemic inflammation and immune system dysfunction after HCT...
July 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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