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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177966/air-pollution-prevention-and-control-policy-in-china
#1
Cunrui Huang, Qiong Wang, Suhan Wang, Meng Ren, Rui Ma, Yiling He
With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175006/predicted-cumulative-dose-to-firefighters-and-the-offsite-public-from-natural-and-anthropogenic-radionuclides-in-smoke-from-wildland-fires-at-the-savannah-river-site-south-carolina-usa
#2
Brian J Viner, Tim Jannik, Allan Hepworth, Olorunfemi Adetona, Luke Naeher, Teresa Eddy, Eric Doman, John Blake
The contaminated ground surface at Savannah River Site (SRS) is a result of the decades of work that has been performed maintaining the country's nuclear stockpile and performing research and development on nuclear materials. The volatilization of radionuclides during wildfire results in airborne particles that are dispersed within the smoke plume and may result in doses to downwind firefighters and the public. To better understand the risk that these smoke plumes present, we have characterized four regions at SRS in terms of their fuel characteristics and radiological contamination on the ground...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156258/developing-an-online-tool-for-identifying-at-risk-populations-to-wildfire-smoke-hazards
#3
Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Fuyuen Yip, Paul Garbe
Wildfire episodes pose a significant public health threat in the United States. Adverse health impacts associated with wildfires occur near the burn area as well as in places far downwind due to wildfire smoke exposures. Health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter arising from wildfires can range from mild eye and respiratory tract irritation to more serious outcomes such as asthma exacerbation, bronchitis, and decreased lung function. Real-time operational forecasts of wildfire smoke concentrations are available but they are not readily integrated with information on vulnerable populations necessary to identify at-risk communities during wildfire smoke episodes...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065684/quantifying-o3-impacts-in-urban-areas-due-to-wildfires-using-a-generalized-additive-model
#4
Xi Gong, Aaron Kaulfus, Udaysankar Nair, Daniel A Jaffe
Wildfires emit O3 precursors but there are large variations in emissions, plume heights, and photochemical processing. These factors make it challenging to model O3 production from wildfires using Eulerian models. Here we describe a statistical approach to characterize the maximum daily 8-h average O3 (MDA8) for 8 cities in the U.S. for typical, nonfire, conditions. The statistical model represents between 35% and 81% of the variance in MDA8 for each city. We then examine the residual from the model under conditions with elevated particulate matter (PM) and satellite observed smoke ("smoke days")...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905098/application-of-an-original-wildfire-smoke-health-cost-benefits-transfer-protocol-to-the-western-us-2005-2015
#5
Benjamin A Jones, Robert P Berrens
Recent growth in the frequency and severity of US wildfires has led to more wildfire smoke and increased public exposure to harmful air pollutants. Populations exposed to wildfire smoke experience a variety of negative health impacts, imposing economic costs on society. However, few estimates of smoke health costs exist and none for the entire Western US, in particular, which experiences some of the largest and most intense wildfires in the US. The lack of cost estimates is troublesome because smoke health impacts are an important consideration of the overall costs of wildfire...
November 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892756/wildfire-smoke-exposure-and-human-health-significant-gaps-in-research-for-a-growing-public-health-issue
#6
REVIEW
Carolyn Black, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Jed A Bassein, Lisa A Miller
Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers...
October 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868515/comparison-of-wildfire-smoke-estimation-methods-and-associations-with-cardiopulmonary-related-hospital-admissions
#7
Ryan W Gan, Bonne Ford, William Lassman, Gabriele Pfister, Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Emily Fischer, John Volckens, Jeffrey R Pierce, Sheryl Magzamen
Climate forecasts predict an increase in frequency and intensity of wildfires. Associations between health outcomes and population exposure to smoke from Washington 2012 wildfires were compared using surface monitors, chemical-weather models, and a novel method blending three exposure information sources. The association between smoke particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions occurring in Washington from 1 July to 31 October 2012 was evaluated using a time-stratified case-crossover design...
March 2017: GeoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810209/benefits-of-the-fire-mitigation-ecosystem-service-in-the-great-dismal-swamp-national-wildlife-refuge-virginia-usa
#8
Bryan Parthum, Emily Pindilli, Dianna Hogan
The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642628/particulate-air-pollution-from-wildfires-in-the-western-us-under-climate-change
#9
Jia Coco Liu, Loretta J Mickley, Melissa P Sulprizio, Francesca Dominici, Xu Yue, Keita Ebisu, Georgiana Brooke Anderson, Rafi F A Khan, Mercedes A Bravo, Michelle L Bell
Wildfire can impose a direct impact on human health under climate change. While the potential impacts of climate change on wildfires and resulting air pollution have been studied, it is not known who will be most affected by the growing threat of wildfires. Identifying communities that will be most affected will inform development of fire management strategies and disaster preparedness programs. We estimate levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) directly attributable to wildfires in 561 western US counties during fire seasons for the present-day (2004-2009) and future (2046-2051), using a fire prediction model and GEOS-Chem, a 3-D global chemical transport model...
October 2016: Climatic Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575928/impact-of-dust-and-smoke-mixing-on-column-integrated-aerosol-properties-from-observations-during-a-severe-wildfire-episode-over-valencia-spain
#10
J L Gómez-Amo, V Estellés, C Marcos, S Segura, A R Esteve, R Pedrós, M P Utrillas, J A Martínez-Lozano
The most destructive wildfire experienced in Spain since 2004 occurred close to Valencia in summer 2012. A total of 48.500ha were affected by two wildfires, which were mostly active during 29-30 June. The fresh smoke plume was detected at the Burjassot measurement station simultaneously to a severe dust episode. We propose an empirical method to evaluate the dust and smoke mixing and its impact on the microphysical and optical properties. For this, we combine direct-sun measurements with a Cimel CE-318 sun-photometer with an inversion methodology, and the Mie theory to derive the column-integrated size distribution, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525551/who-among-the-elderly-is-most-vulnerable-to-exposure-to-and-health-risks-of-fine-particulate-matter-from-wildfire-smoke
#11
Jia Coco Liu, Ander Wilson, Loretta J Mickley, Keita Ebisu, Melissa P Sulprizio, Yun Wang, Roger D Peng, Xu Yue, Francesca Dominici, Michelle L Bell
Wildfires burn more than 7 million acres in the United States annually, according to the US Forest Service. Little is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to health risks from wildfire smoke, including those associated with fine particulate matter. We estimated exposure to fine particles specifically from wildfires, as well as the associations between the presence of wildfire-specific fine particles and the amount of hospital admissions for respiratory causes among subpopulations older than 65 years of age in the western United States (2004-2009)...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498778/seasonal-ambient-particulate-matter-and-population-health-outcomes-among-communities-impacted-by-road-dust-in-british-columbia-canada
#12
Kris Y Hong, Gavin H King, Arvind Saraswat, Sarah B Henderson
In recent years, many air quality monitoring programs have favored measurement of particles less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) over particles less than 10 µm (PM10) in light of evidence that health impacts are mostly from the fine fraction. However, the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) may have independent health impacts that support continued measurement of PM10 in some areas, such as those affected by road dust. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between different measures of daily PM exposure and two daily indicators of population health in seven communities in British Columbia, Canada, where road dust is an ongoing concern...
September 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493694/community-vulnerability-to-health-impacts-of-wildland-fire-smoke-exposure
#13
Ana G Rappold, Jeanette Reyes, George Pouliot, Wayne E Cascio, David Diaz-Sanchez
Identifying communities vulnerable to adverse health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke may help prepare responses, increase the resilience to smoke and improve public health outcomes during smoke days. We developed a Community Health-Vulnerability Index (CHVI) based on factors known to increase the risks of health effects from air pollution and wildfire smoke exposures. These factors included county prevalence rates for asthma in children and adults, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, percent of population 65 years of age and older, and indicators of socioeconomic status including poverty, education, income and unemployment...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407537/co2-emissions-from-the-2010-russian-wildfires-using-gosat-data
#14
Meng Guo, Jing Li, Jiawei Xu, Xiufeng Wang, Hongshi He, Li Wu
In the summer of 2010, more than 6 hundred wildfires broke out in western Russia because of an unprecedented intense heat wave that resulted from strong atmospheric blocking. The present study evaluated the CO2 emissions using GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) data from July 23 to August 18, 2010 for western Russia. The results demonstrated that the GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) was well-suited for the identification of smoke plumes and that the GOSAT FTS (Fourier-Transform Spectrometer) TIR (Thermal InfraRed) could be used to calculate the height of the plumes at approximately 800 hPa (1...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372736/hydrocarbons-in-particulate-samples-from-wildfire-events-in-central-portugal-in-summer-2010
#15
Ana Vicente, Ana Calvo, Ana P Fernandes, Teresa Nunes, Cristina Monteiro, Casimiro Pio, Célia Alves
In summer 2010, twenty eight (14 PM2.5 samples plus 14 samples PM2.5-10) smoke samples were collected during wildfires that occurred in central Portugal. A portable high-volume sampler was used to perform the sampling, on quartz fibre filters of coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) smoke samples. The carbonaceous content (elemental and organic carbon) of particulate matter was analysed by a thermal-optical technique. Subsequently, the particulate samples were solvent extracted and fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography into three different classes of organic compounds (aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonyl compounds)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226261/effectiveness-of-public-health-messaging-and-communication-channels-during-smoke-events-a-rapid-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer A Fish, Micah D J Peters, Imogen Ramsey, Greg Sharplin, Nadia Corsini, Marion Eckert
Exposure to smoke emitted from wildfire and planned burns (i.e., smoke events) has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms and conditions. This rapid review investigates recent evidence (post-2009) regarding the effectiveness of public health messaging during smoke events. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of various communication channels used and public health messages disseminated during smoke events, for general and at-risk populations. A search of 12 databases and grey literature yielded 1775 unique articles, of which 10 were included in this review...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208028/early-life-wildfire-smoke-exposure-is-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-and-lung-function-decrements-in-adolescence
#17
Carolyn Black, Joan E Gerriets, Justin H Fontaine, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon, Fern Tablin, Edward S Schelegle, Lisa A Miller
The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. The objectives of this study were to determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airway physiology that are detectable with maturity. We studied a mixed-sex cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pulmonary function measures were obtained when animals were approximately 3 years of age...
May 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864755/assaying-germination-and-seedling-responses-of-arabidopsis-to-karrikins
#18
Mark T Waters, Gavin R Flematti, Steven M Smith
Karrikins are a small family of naturally occurring plant growth regulators present in the smoke and char produced from burning plant material in wildfires. They can stimulate germination of dormant seed and can influence seedling morphogenesis. Although Arabidopsis thaliana is not considered to be a smoke-responsive species, karrikins will stimulate seed germination under the appropriate circumstances and will cause repression of hypocotyl elongation in low light. This chapter describes how to conduct assays of the activity of karrikins on Arabidopsis seeds and seedlings...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848989/population-exposure-to-hazardous-air-quality-due-to-the-2015-fires-in-equatorial-asia
#19
P Crippa, S Castruccio, S Archer-Nicholls, G B Lebron, M Kuwata, A Thota, S Sumin, E Butt, C Wiedinmyer, D V Spracklen
Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648592/wildfire-specific-fine-particulate-matter-and-risk-of-hospital-admissions-in-urban-and-rural-counties
#20
Jia Coco Liu, Ander Wilson, Loretta J Mickley, Francesca Dominici, Keita Ebisu, Yun Wang, Melissa P Sulprizio, Roger D Peng, Xu Yue, Ji-Young Son, G Brooke Anderson, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: The health impacts of wildfire smoke, including fine particles (PM2.5), are not well understood and may differ from those of PM2.5 from other sources due to differences in concentrations and chemical composition. METHODS: First, for the entire Western United States (561 counties) for 2004-2009, we estimated daily PM2.5 concentrations directly attributable to wildfires (wildfires-specific PM2.5), using a global chemical transport model. Second, we defined smoke wave as ≥2 consecutive days with daily wildfire-specific PM2...
January 2017: Epidemiology
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