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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864755/assaying-germination-and-seedling-responses-of-arabidopsis-to-karrikins
#1
Mark T Waters, Gavin R Flematti, Steven M Smith
Karrikins are a small family of naturally occurring plant growth regulators present in the smoke and char produced from burning plant material in wildfires. They can stimulate germination of dormant seed and can influence seedling morphogenesis. Although Arabidopsis thaliana is not considered to be a smoke-responsive species, karrikins will stimulate seed germination under the appropriate circumstances and will cause repression of hypocotyl elongation in low light. This chapter describes how to conduct assays of the activity of karrikins on Arabidopsis seeds and seedlings...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848989/population-exposure-to-hazardous-air-quality-due-to-the-2015-fires-in-equatorial-asia
#2
P Crippa, S Castruccio, S Archer-Nicholls, G B Lebron, M Kuwata, A Thota, S Sumin, E Butt, C Wiedinmyer, D V Spracklen
Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648592/wildfire-specific-fine-particulate-matter-and-risk-of-hospital-admissions-in-urban-and-rural-counties
#3
Jia Coco Liu, Ander Wilson, Loretta J Mickley, Francesca Dominici, Keita Ebisu, Yun Wang, Melissa P Sulprizio, Roger D Peng, Xu Yue, Ji-Young Son, G Brooke Anderson, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: The health impacts of wildfire smoke, including fine particles (PM2.5), are not well understood and may differ from those of PM2.5 from other sources due to differences in concentrations and chemical composition. METHODS: First, for the entire Western United States (561 counties) for 2004-2009, we estimated daily PM2.5 concentrations directly attributable to wildfires (wildfires-specific PM2.5), using a global chemical transport model. Second, we defined smoke wave as ≥2 consecutive days with daily wildfire-specific PM2...
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581430/smoke-signals-teasing-out-adverse-health-effects-of-wildfire-emissions
#4
Nancy Averett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557152/germination-ecology-and-seed-dispersal-of-a-critically-endangered-plant-a-case-study-of-pomaderris-vacciniifolia-round-leaf-pomaderris
#5
John Patykowski, Matthew Dell, Maria Gibson
Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia-a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub-were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550313/can-hibernators-sense-and-evade-fires-olfactory-acuity-and-locomotor-performance-during-deep-torpor
#6
Julia Nowack, Marine Delesalle, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Increased habitat fragmentation, global warming and other human activities have caused a rise in the frequency of wildfires worldwide. To reduce the risks of uncontrollable fires, prescribed burns are generally conducted during the colder months of the year, a time when in many mammals torpor is expressed regularly. Torpor is crucial for energy conservation, but the low body temperatures (T b) are associated with a decreased responsiveness and torpid animals might therefore face an increased mortality risk during fires...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462728/signatures-of-biomass-burning-aerosols-in-the-plume-of-a-saltmarsh-wildfire-in-south-texas
#7
Allison N Myers-Pigg, Robert J Griffin, Patrick Louchouarn, Matthew J Norwood, Amanda Sterne, Basak Karakurt Cevik
The most conventional and abundant tracers of biomass combustion in aerosol particles include potassium and biomarkers derived from thermally altered cellulose/hemicellulose (anhydrosugars) and lignin (methoxyphenols). However, little is known of the role biomass combustion plays as a particulate source of major plant polymers to the atmosphere. Here, concentrations of solvent-extractable anhydrosugars and methoxyphenols are compared to the yields of polymeric lignin oxidation products (LOPs) during a smoke plume event in Houston, Texas...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346604/mitigating-wildfire-carbon-loss-in-managed-northern-peatlands-through-restoration
#8
Gustaf Granath, Paul A Moore, Maxwell C Lukenbach, James M Waddington
Northern peatlands can emit large amounts of carbon and harmful smoke pollution during a wildfire. Of particular concern are drained and mined peatlands, where management practices destabilize an array of ecohydrological feedbacks, moss traits and peat properties that moderate water and carbon losses in natural peatlands. Our results demonstrate that drained and mined peatlands in Canada and northern Europe can experience catastrophic deep burns (>200 t C ha(-1) emitted) under current weather conditions...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318255/differential-respiratory-health-effects-from-the-2008-northern-california-wildfires-a-spatiotemporal-approach
#9
Colleen E Reid, Michael Jerrett, Ira B Tager, Maya L Petersen, Jennifer K Mann, John R Balmes
We investigated health effects associated with fine particulate matter during a long-lived, large wildfire complex in northern California in the summer of 2008. We estimated exposure to PM2.5 for each day using an exposure prediction model created through data-adaptive machine learning methods from a large set of spatiotemporal data sets. We then used Poisson generalized estimating equations to calculate the effect of exposure to 24-hour average PM2.5 on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations and ED visits...
October 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259511/the-association-of-wildfire-smoke-with-respiratory-and-cardiovascular-emergency-department-visits-in-colorado-in-2012-a-case-crossover-study
#10
Breanna L Alman, Gabriele Pfister, Hua Hao, Jennifer Stowell, Xuefei Hu, Yang Liu, Matthew J Strickland
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Colorado experienced one of its worst wildfire seasons of the past decade. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of local PM2.5 levels, modeled using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, with emergency department visits and acute hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes during the 2012 Colorado wildfires. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between both continuous and categorical PM2...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216517/living-on-a-flammable-planet-interdisciplinary-cross-scalar-and-varied-cultural-lessons-prospects-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Christopher I Roos, Andrew C Scott, Claire M Belcher, William G Chaloner, Jonathan Aylen, Rebecca Bliege Bird, Michael R Coughlan, Bart R Johnson, Fay H Johnston, Julia McMorrow, Toddi Steelman
Living with fire is a challenge for human communities because they are influenced by socio-economic, political, ecological and climatic processes at various spatial and temporal scales. Over the course of 2 days, the authors discussed how communities could live with fire challenges at local, national and transnational scales. Exploiting our diverse, international and interdisciplinary expertise, we outline generalizable properties of fire-adaptive communities in varied settings where cultural knowledge of fire is rich and diverse...
June 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216515/global-trends-in-wildfire-and-its-impacts-perceptions-versus-realities-in-a-changing-world
#12
Stefan H Doerr, Cristina Santín
Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth's surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Yet many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. However, important exceptions aside, the quantitative evidence available does not support these perceived overall trends. Instead, global area burned appears to have overall declined over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is less fire in the global landscape today than centuries ago...
June 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152448/acute-cardiopulmonary-toxicity-of-inhaled-aldehydes-role-of-trpa1
#13
Daniel J Conklin
Inhalation of high-level volatile aldehydes, as present in smoke from wildfires and in tobacco smoke, is associated with both acute and chronic cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) protein forms a cation channel (irritant receptor) that mediates tobacco smoke-induced airway and lung injury, yet the role of TRPA1 in the cardiovascular toxicity of aldehyde exposure is unclear. Physiologically, airway-located TRPA1 activation triggers an irritant response (e...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082891/critical-review-of-health-impacts-of-wildfire-smoke-exposure
#14
Colleen E Reid, Michael Brauer, Fay H Johnston, Michael Jerrett, John R Balmes, Catherine T Elliott
BACKGROUND: Wildfire activity is predicted to increase in many parts of the world due to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns from global climate change. Wildfire smoke contains numerous hazardous air pollutants and many studies have documented population health effects from this exposure. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the evidence of health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke and to identify susceptible populations. METHODS: We reviewed the scientific literature for studies of wildfire smoke exposure on mortality and on respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, and perinatal health...
September 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963934/observations-and-impacts-of-transported-canadian-wildfire-smoke-on-ozone-and-aerosol-air-quality-in-the-maryland-region-on-june-9-12-2015
#15
Joel Dreessen, John Sullivan, Ruben Delgado
UNLABELLED: Canadian wildfire smoke impacted air quality across the northern Mid-Atlantic (MA) of the United States during June 9-12, 2015. A multiday exceedance of the new 2015 70-ppb National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) followed, resulting in Maryland being incompliant with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) revised 2015 O3 NAAQS. Surface in situ, balloon-borne, and remote sensing observations monitored the impact of the wildfire smoke at Maryland air quality monitoring sites...
September 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934496/the-firework-air-quality-forecast-system-with-near-real-time-biomass-burning-emissions-recent-developments-and-evaluation-of-performance-for-the-2015-north-american-wildfire-season
#16
Radenko Pavlovic, Jack Chen, Kerry Anderson, Michael D Moran, Paul-André Beaulieu, Didier Davignon, Sophie Cousineau
UNLABELLED: Environment and Climate Change Canada's FireWork air quality (AQ) forecast system for North America with near-real-time biomass burning emissions has been running experimentally during the Canadian wildfire season since 2013. The system runs twice per day with model initializations at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, and produces numerical AQ forecast guidance with 48-hr lead time. In this work we describe the FireWork system, which incorporates near-real-time biomass burning emissions based on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS) as an input to the operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS)...
September 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902640/karrikins-delay-soybean-seed-germination-by-mediating-abscisic-acid-and-gibberellin-biogenesis-under-shaded-conditions
#17
Yongjie Meng, Feng Chen, Haiwei Shuai, Xiaofeng Luo, Jun Ding, Shengwen Tang, Shuanshuan Xu, Jianwei Liu, Weiguo Liu, Junbo Du, Jiang Liu, Feng Yang, Xin Sun, Taiwen Yong, Xiaochun Wang, Yuqi Feng, Kai Shu, Wenyu Yang
Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843218/health-benefits-and-costs-of-filtration-interventions-that-reduce-indoor-exposure-to-pm2-5-during-wildfires
#18
W J Fisk, W R Chan
Increases in hospital admissions and deaths are associated with increases in outdoor air particles during wildfires. This analysis estimates the health benefits expected if interventions had improved particle filtration in homes in Southern California during a ten-day period of wildfire smoke exposure. Economic benefits and intervention costs are also estimated. The six interventions implemented in all affected houses are projected to prevent 11% to 63% of the hospital admissions and 7% to 39% of the deaths attributable to wildfire particles...
February 4, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818940/repeating-cardiopulmonary-health-effects-in-rural-north-carolina-population-during-a-second-large-peat-wildfire
#19
Melissa A Tinling, J Jason West, Wayne E Cascio, Vasu Kilaru, Ana G Rappold
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure from wildfire smoke are neither definitive nor consistent with PM2.5 from other air pollution sources. Non-comparability among wildfire health studies limits research conclusions. METHODS: We examined cardiovascular and respiratory health outcomes related to peat wildfire smoke exposure in a population where strong associations were previously reported for the 2008 Evans Road peat wildfire...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787523/-current-understanding-of-signaling-transduction-pathway-and-biological-functions-of-karrikins
#20
REVIEW
Xiaofeng Luo, Ying Qi, Yongjie Meng, Haiwei Shuai, Feng Chen, Wenyu Yang, Kai Shu
Karrikins are a class of signaling molecules discovered in wildfire smoke, which can significantly promote seed germination in some species (such as Arabidopsis and Avena fatua). The structures of Karrikins were first elucidated in 2004. At present, six different types of Karrikins have been documented, and their biological activities vary significantly. So far, studies for Karrikins have become a hot spot in the plant molecular biology field. Recent advances demonstrate that Karrikins regulate plant photomorphogenesis and leaf differentiation effectively, in addition to the effect on seed germination...
January 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
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