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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669405/projecting-age-stratified-risk-of-exposure-to-inland-flooding-and-wildfire-smoke-in-the-united-states-under-two-climate-scenarios
#1
David Mills, Russell Jones, Cameron Wobus, Julia Ekstrom, Lesley Jantarasami, Alexis St Juliana, Allison Crimmins
BACKGROUND: The public health community readily recognizes flooding and wildfires as climate-related health hazards, but few studies quantify changes in risk of exposure, particularly for vulnerable children and older adults. OBJECTIVES: This study quantifies future populations potentially exposed to inland flooding and wildfire smoke under two climate scenarios, highlighting the populations in particularly vulnerable age groups (≤4 y old and ≥65 y old)...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656633/flavors-of-fire-assessing-the-relative-toxicity-of-smoke-from-different-types-of-wildfires
#2
Nate Seltenrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643111/cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-emergency-department-visits-associated-with-wildfire-smoke-exposure-in-california-in-2015
#3
Zachary S Wettstein, Sumi Hoshiko, Jahan Fahimi, Robert J Harrison, Wayne E Cascio, Ana G Rappold
BACKGROUND: Wildfire smoke is known to exacerbate respiratory conditions; however, evidence for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been inconsistent, despite biological plausibility. METHODS AND RESULTS: A population-based epidemiologic analysis was conducted for daily cardiovascular and cerebrovascular emergency department (ED) visits and wildfire smoke exposure in 2015 among adults in 8 California air basins. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used for zip code-level counts of ED visits, adjusting for heat index, day of week, seasonality, and population...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554768/local-and-transboundary-factors-impacts-on-trace-gases-and-aerosol-during-haze-episode-in-2015-el-ni%C3%A3-o-in-malaysia
#4
Nur Adilla Che Samsuddin, Md Firoz Khan, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Ahmad Hazuwan Hamid, Fahia Tarannum Munna, Muhammad Aizat Ab Rahim, Mohd Talib Latif, Md Akhtaruzzaman
Southeast Asian haze is a semi-natural phenomenon that chokes the region each year during the dry monsoon season. Smoke-haze episodes caused by the vegetation and peat fires in Indonesia severely affected large parts of Malaysia during the 2015 El Niño phenomenon. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that influenced the concentrations of aerosol and trace gases during the 2015 haze and non-haze period on a semi-urban site in the southern part of Malaysian peninsula that facing Sumatra (Muar, Site A), and on an urban site near to Kuala Lumpur, influenced by the city centre (Cheras, Site B)...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495504/saliency-detection-and-deep-learning-based-wildfire-identification-in-uav-imagery
#5
Yi Zhao, Jiale Ma, Xiaohui Li, Jie Zhang
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) can provide direct georeferenced imagery, mapping an area with high resolution. So far, the major difficulty in wildfire image classification is the lack of unified identification marks, the fire features of color, shape, texture (smoke, flame, or both) and background can vary significantly from one scene to another. Deep learning (e.g., DCNN for Deep Convolutional Neural Network) is very effective in high-level feature learning, however, a substantial amount of training images dataset is obligatory in optimizing its weights value and coefficients...
February 27, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384719/where-there-s-wildfire-there-s-smoke
#6
John R Balmes
With the undeniable march of climate change, the danger of catastrophic wildfires is increasing around the globe, with such fires occurring in Australia, Canada, Chile, Indonesia, Portugal, and Russia, as well as the United States, over the past decade. Large forest fires in the western United..
January 31, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368547/blocking-cxcl1-dependent-neutrophil-recruitment-prevents-pulmonary-damage-and-reduces-rick-of-bacterial-infection-after-inhalation-injury
#7
Julia L Dunn, Laurel B Kartchner, Wesley H Stepp, Lindsey I Glenn, Madison M Malfitano, Samuel Jones, Claire M Doerschuk, Robert Maile, Bruce A Cairns
Smoke inhalation associated with structural fires, wildfires, or explosions leads to lung injury, for which innovative and clinically relevant animal models are needed to develop effective therapeutics. We have previously reported that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and anti-inflammatory cytokines correlate with infectious complications in patients diagnosed with inhalational injury. In this study, we describe a novel and translational murine model of acute inhalational injury characterized by an accumulation of protein and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space, as well as histological evidence of tissue damage...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300863/changes-in-orchid-populations-and-endophytic-fungi-with-rainfall-and-prescribed-burning-in-pterostylis-revoluta-in-victoria-australia
#8
N U Jasinge, T Huynh, A C Lawrie
Background and Aims: Wildfires are common in seasonally dry parts of the world with a Mediterranean climate. Prescribed burning is used to reduce fuel load and fire risk, but often without reliable information on its effects. This study investigated the effects of prescribed burns in different seasons on Pterostylis revoluta, an autumn-flowering Australian terrestrial orchid, and its orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMFs) to find the least damaging season for a prescribed burn. Methods: Burns were conducted mid-season in spring and summer 2011 and autumn and winter 2012...
February 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177966/air-pollution-prevention-and-control-policy-in-china
#9
Cunrui Huang, Qiong Wang, Suhan Wang, Meng Ren, Rui Ma, Yiling He
With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175006/predicted-cumulative-dose-to-firefighters-and-the-offsite-public-from-natural-and-anthropogenic-radionuclides-in-smoke-from-wildland-fires-at-the-savannah-river-site-south-carolina-usa
#10
Brian J Viner, Tim Jannik, Allan Hepworth, Olorunfemi Adetona, Luke Naeher, Teresa Eddy, Eric Doman, John Blake
The contaminated ground surface at Savannah River Site (SRS) is a result of the decades of work that has been performed maintaining the country's nuclear stockpile and performing research and development on nuclear materials. The volatilization of radionuclides during wildfire results in airborne particles that are dispersed within the smoke plume and may result in doses to downwind firefighters and the public. To better understand the risk that these smoke plumes present, we have characterized four regions at SRS in terms of their fuel characteristics and radiological contamination on the ground...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156258/developing-an-online-tool-for-identifying-at-risk-populations-to-wildfire-smoke-hazards
#11
Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Fuyuen Yip, Paul Garbe
Wildfire episodes pose a significant public health threat in the United States. Adverse health impacts associated with wildfires occur near the burn area as well as in places far downwind due to wildfire smoke exposures. Health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter arising from wildfires can range from mild eye and respiratory tract irritation to more serious outcomes such as asthma exacerbation, bronchitis, and decreased lung function. Real-time operational forecasts of wildfire smoke concentrations are available but they are not readily integrated with information on vulnerable populations necessary to identify at-risk communities during wildfire smoke episodes...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065684/quantifying-o3-impacts-in-urban-areas-due-to-wildfires-using-a-generalized-additive-model
#12
Xi Gong, Aaron Kaulfus, Udaysankar Nair, Daniel A Jaffe
Wildfires emit O3 precursors but there are large variations in emissions, plume heights, and photochemical processing. These factors make it challenging to model O3 production from wildfires using Eulerian models. Here we describe a statistical approach to characterize the maximum daily 8-h average O3 (MDA8) for 8 cities in the U.S. for typical, nonfire, conditions. The statistical model represents between 35% and 81% of the variance in MDA8 for each city. We then examine the residual from the model under conditions with elevated particulate matter (PM) and satellite observed smoke ("smoke days")...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905098/application-of-an-original-wildfire-smoke-health-cost-benefits-transfer-protocol-to-the-western-us-2005-2015
#13
Benjamin A Jones, Robert P Berrens
Recent growth in the frequency and severity of US wildfires has led to more wildfire smoke and increased public exposure to harmful air pollutants. Populations exposed to wildfire smoke experience a variety of negative health impacts, imposing economic costs on society. However, few estimates of smoke health costs exist and none for the entire Western US, in particular, which experiences some of the largest and most intense wildfires in the US. The lack of cost estimates is troublesome because smoke health impacts are an important consideration of the overall costs of wildfire...
November 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892756/wildfire-smoke-exposure-and-human-health-significant-gaps-in-research-for-a-growing-public-health-issue
#14
REVIEW
Carolyn Black, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Jed A Bassein, Lisa A Miller
Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers...
October 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868515/comparison-of-wildfire-smoke-estimation-methods-and-associations-with-cardiopulmonary-related-hospital-admissions
#15
Ryan W Gan, Bonne Ford, William Lassman, Gabriele Pfister, Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Emily Fischer, John Volckens, Jeffrey R Pierce, Sheryl Magzamen
Climate forecasts predict an increase in frequency and intensity of wildfires. Associations between health outcomes and population exposure to smoke from Washington 2012 wildfires were compared using surface monitors, chemical-weather models, and a novel method blending three exposure information sources. The association between smoke particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions occurring in Washington from 1 July to 31 October 2012 was evaluated using a time-stratified case-crossover design...
March 2017: GeoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810209/benefits-of-the-fire-mitigation-ecosystem-service-in-the-great-dismal-swamp-national-wildlife-refuge-virginia-usa
#16
Bryan Parthum, Emily Pindilli, Dianna Hogan
The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642628/particulate-air-pollution-from-wildfires-in-the-western-us-under-climate-change
#17
Jia Coco Liu, Loretta J Mickley, Melissa P Sulprizio, Francesca Dominici, Xu Yue, Keita Ebisu, Georgiana Brooke Anderson, Rafi F A Khan, Mercedes A Bravo, Michelle L Bell
Wildfire can impose a direct impact on human health under climate change. While the potential impacts of climate change on wildfires and resulting air pollution have been studied, it is not known who will be most affected by the growing threat of wildfires. Identifying communities that will be most affected will inform development of fire management strategies and disaster preparedness programs. We estimate levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) directly attributable to wildfires in 561 western US counties during fire seasons for the present-day (2004-2009) and future (2046-2051), using a fire prediction model and GEOS-Chem, a 3-D global chemical transport model...
October 2016: Climatic Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575928/impact-of-dust-and-smoke-mixing-on-column-integrated-aerosol-properties-from-observations-during-a-severe-wildfire-episode-over-valencia-spain
#18
J L Gómez-Amo, V Estellés, C Marcos, S Segura, A R Esteve, R Pedrós, M P Utrillas, J A Martínez-Lozano
The most destructive wildfire experienced in Spain since 2004 occurred close to Valencia in summer 2012. A total of 48.500ha were affected by two wildfires, which were mostly active during 29-30 June. The fresh smoke plume was detected at the Burjassot measurement station simultaneously to a severe dust episode. We propose an empirical method to evaluate the dust and smoke mixing and its impact on the microphysical and optical properties. For this, we combine direct-sun measurements with a Cimel CE-318 sun-photometer with an inversion methodology, and the Mie theory to derive the column-integrated size distribution, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525551/who-among-the-elderly-is-most-vulnerable-to-exposure-to-and-health-risks-of-fine-particulate-matter-from-wildfire-smoke
#19
Jia Coco Liu, Ander Wilson, Loretta J Mickley, Keita Ebisu, Melissa P Sulprizio, Yun Wang, Roger D Peng, Xu Yue, Francesca Dominici, Michelle L Bell
Wildfires burn more than 7 million acres in the United States annually, according to the US Forest Service. Little is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to health risks from wildfire smoke, including those associated with fine particulate matter. We estimated exposure to fine particles specifically from wildfires, as well as the associations between the presence of wildfire-specific fine particles and the amount of hospital admissions for respiratory causes among subpopulations older than 65 years of age in the western United States (2004-2009)...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498778/seasonal-ambient-particulate-matter-and-population-health-outcomes-among-communities-impacted-by-road-dust-in-british-columbia-canada
#20
Kris Y Hong, Gavin H King, Arvind Saraswat, Sarah B Henderson
In recent years, many air quality monitoring programs have favored measurement of particles less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) over particles less than 10 µm (PM10 ) in light of evidence that health impacts are mostly from the fine fraction. However, the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5 ) may have independent health impacts that support continued measurement of PM10 in some areas, such as those affected by road dust. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between different measures of daily PM exposure and two daily indicators of population health in seven communities in British Columbia, Canada, where road dust is an ongoing concern...
September 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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