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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158954/the-relationship-between-segmental-rolling-ability-and-lumbar-multifidus-activation-time
#1
Nicole Clark, Michael L Voight, Ashley M Campbell, Sherry Pierce, Pat Sells, Ryan Cook, Clint Henley, Lindsey Schiller
Background: Segmental rolling has been utilized as an assessment and intervention tool to identify and affect dysfunction of the upper quarter, core, and lower quarter. One theory to explain dysfunctional segmental rolling is a lack of segmental spinal control / stabilization. Faulty muscle firing sequencing has been related to poor spinal stability, however to date, no assessment tool exists to evaluate a patient's motor coordination of local and global musculature. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal sequence of lumbar multifidus activation associated with anterior deltoid activation, and to determine if faulty sequencing was associated with the inability to segmentally roll in subjects without mobility restrictions...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156294/phospholipase-a1-based-cross-reactivity-among-venoms-of-clinically-relevant-hymenoptera-from-neotropical-and-temperate-regions
#2
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Luís Gustavo Romani Fernandes, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Débora Moitinho Abram, Gabriel Hideki Izuka Moraes, Frederic Jabs, Michaela Miehe, Henning Seismman, Mario Sergio Palma, Ricardo de Lima Zollner, Edzard Spillner, Márcia Regina Brochetto-Braga
Molecular cross-reactivity caused by allergen homology or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) is a major challenge for diagnosis and immunotherapy of insect venom allergy. Venom phospholipases A1 (PLA1s) are classical, mostly non-glycosylated wasp and ant allergens that provide diagnostic benefit for differentiation of genuine sensitizations from cross-reactivity. As CCD-free molecules, venom PLA1s are not causative for CCD-based cross-reactivity. Little is known however about the protein-based cross-reactivity of PLA1 within vespid species...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136106/cell-type-specific-burst-firing-interacts-with-theta-and-beta-activity-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-attention-states
#3
B Voloh, T Womelsdorf
Population-level theta and beta band activity in anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (ACC/PFC) are prominent signatures of self-controlled, adaptive behaviors. But how these rhythmic activities are linked to cell-type specific activity has remained unclear. Here, we suggest such a cell-to-systems level linkage. We found that the rate of burst spiking events is enhanced particularly during attention states and that attention-specific burst spikes have a unique temporal relationship to local theta and beta band population-level activities...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122298/evoked-potential-and-eeg-study-of-the-neurotoxicity-of-hydramethylnon-in-rats
#4
George M Strain
The objective of the study was to assess the neurotoxicity, using electrodiagnostic tests, of hydramethylnon (Amdro, AC 217,300), an insecticide marketed for the treatment of red imported fire ants, cockroaches, and other insects. Animals were male Fisher 344 albino rats and Long-Evans hooded rats. Brainstem auditory, visual, and somatosensory evoked potentials (BAER, VEP, SEP) and electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded from implanted screw electrodes before and at multiple time points through day 10 after a single oral dose of hydramethylnon (at 50% or 75% of the LD50) plus vehicle, or vehicle alone...
October 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101846/single-unit-activity-of-the-anterior-globus-pallidus-internus-in-tourette-patients-and-posterior-globus-pallidus-internus-in-dystonic-patients
#5
Andrea Giorni, François Windels, Peter G Stratton, Raymond Cook, Paul Silberstein, Terrence Coyne, Peter A Silburn, Pankaj Sah
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to provide a detailed analysis of neurons' electrophysiological activity recorded in sub-territories of Globus pallidus internus (GPi) used as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) targets for these clinical conditions to potentially assist electrode targeting. METHODS: We used intra-operative microelectrode recording during stereotactic neurosurgery to guide implantation of DBS lead. RESULTS: Units in the medial anterior part of GPi of 7 Tourette's syndrome patients under general anesthesia were firing at mean and median rate of 32...
December 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099512/hip-pain-%C3%A2-difficulty-walking-%C3%A2-tenderness-along-the-anteromedial-thigh-and-groin-%C3%A2-dx
#6
Laura E Fink, Gerald W Morris, Linda A Mansfield
A 14-year-old Caucasian boy presented to our clinic with a complaint of left anterior hip pain. The patient had been running during a flag football match when he suddenly developed a sharp, stabbing pain in his left hip. He said he felt a "pop" in his left groin while his left foot was planted and he was cutting to the right. The patient said this was followed by worsening pain with ambulation and hip flexion. The patient had considerable difficulty walking into the exam room. On physical examination, he had significant tenderness to palpation along the anteromedial thigh and groin...
November 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066556/seizures-and-sleep-in-the-thalamus-focal-limbic-seizures-show-divergent-activity-patterns-in-different-thalamic-nuclei
#7
Li Feng, Joshua E Motelow, Chanthia Ma, William Biche, Cian McCafferty, Nicholas Smith, Mengran Liu, Qiong Zhan, Ruonan Jia, Bo Xiao, Alvaro Duque, Hal Blumenfeld
The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT) and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042811/optical-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-modulate-descending-pain-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain-created-via-chronic-constriction-injury-of-the-infraorbital-nerve
#8
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Won Ik Heo, Yon Ji Kim, Daae Lee, So Yoon Won, Hong Rae Kim, Seung Man Ha, Youn Joo Lee, Young Seok Park
PURPOSE: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a critical role in the initiation, development, and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Recently, the effects of optical stimulation on pain have been investigated, but the therapeutic effects of optical stimulation on trigeminal neuralgia (TN) have not been clearly shown. Here, we investigated the effects of optical inhibition of the ACC on TN lesions to determine whether the alleviation of pain affects behavior performance and thalamic neuron signaling...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023124/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-fire-ant-venom-alkaloid-based-2-methyl-6-alkyl-%C3%AE-1-6-piperideines
#9
Yujie Yan, Yu An, Xiaozhong Wang, Yingqi Chen, Melissa R Jacob, Babu L Tekwani, Liyan Dai, Xing-Cong Li
The first synthesis of 2-methyl-6-pentadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (1), a major alkaloid of the piperideine chemotype in fire ant venoms, and its analogues, 2-methyl-6-tetradecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (2) and 2-methyl-6-hexadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (3), was achieved by a facile synthetic method starting with glutaric acid (4) and urea (5). Compound 1 showed in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans with IC50 values of 6.6 and 12.4 μg/mL, respectively, and antibacterial activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with an IC50 value of 19...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970569/serotonin-1a-receptor-c-1019g-polymorphism-affects-brain-functional-networks
#10
Haixia Zheng, Keiichi Onoda, Yasuko Wada, Shingo Mitaki, Toru Nabika, Shuhei Yamaguchi
The serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor is strongly implicated in major depression and other affective disorders due to its negative regulation of serotonin neurone firing rates. Behavioural and clinical studies have repeatedly reported that the -1019G allele carries a high susceptibility for affective disorders. However, the underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. Here, we employed a genetic neuroimaging strategy in 99 healthy human subjects to explore the effect of serotonin-1A receptor polymorphism on brain resting-state functional connectivity (FC)...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969413/the-eternal-enigma-in-prostatic-biopsy-access-route
#11
Andrea Fabiani, Emanuele Principi, Alessandra Filosa, Lucilla Servi
Dear Editors,We read with interest the article by Di Franco and co-workers (1). The introduction of prostatic magnetic resonance and the relative fusion-biopsy have not yet allowed the expected improvements in prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, there are no works that demonstrate the superiority of fusion techniques on the remaining ultrasound guided prostate biopsies that are still the widely used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Furthemore, these technologies are expensive exams and they are not yet available in all centers, especially in those minors...
October 3, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967211/novel-use-of-aliphatic-n-methyl-ketones-as-a-fumigant-and-alternative-to-methyl-bromide-for-insect-control
#12
Jiwei Zhu, Anirudh Dhammi, Jaap B van Kretschmar, Edward L Vargo, Charles S Apperson, R Michael Roe
BACKGROUND: Fumigants like phosphine, methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride are highly effective for the control of structural, storage and agricultural arthropod pests. Unfortunately, many of these synthetic compounds are highly toxic to people, many pests have developed resistance to these compounds, and methyl bromide, the "gold standard" for fumigants, was de-registered because of its depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Alternative fumigant chemistry is needed. RESULTS: Several plant species produce n-aliphatic methyl ketones to prevent plant herbivory...
October 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965274/pacap-signaling-in-stress-insights-from-the-chromaffin-cell
#13
REVIEW
Lee E Eiden, Andrew C Emery, Limei Zhang, Corey B Smith
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was first identified in hypothalamus, based on its ability to elevate cyclic AMP in the anterior pituitary. PACAP has been identified as the adrenomedullary neurotransmitter in stress through a combination of ex vivo, in vivo, and in cellula experiments over the past two decades. PACAP causes catecholamine secretion, and activation of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, during episodes of stress in mammals. Features of PACAP signaling allowing stress transduction at the splanchnicoadrenomedullary synapse have yielded insights into the contrasting roles of acetylcholine's and PACAP's actions as first messengers at the chromaffin cell, via differential release at low and high rates of splanchnic nerve firing, and differential signaling pathway engagement leading to catecholamine secretion and chromaffin cell gene transcription...
September 30, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957737/interplay-of-upper-and-lower-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Mamede de Carvalho, Artiom Poliakov, Cristiano Tavares, Michael Swash
OBJECTIVE: We studied motor unit recruitment to test a new method to identify motor unit firing rate (FR) variability. METHODS: We studied 68 ALS patients, with and without upper neuron signs (UMN) in lower limbs, 24 patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), 13 patients with spinal cord lesion and 39 normal subjects. All recordings were made from tibialis anterior muscles of normal strength. Subjects performed a very slight contraction in order to activate 2 motor units in each recording...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944096/sensory-motor-and-intrinsic-mechanisms-of-thalamic-activity-related-to-organic-and-psychogenic-dystonia
#15
K Kobayashi, J H Chien, J H Kim, F A Lenz
The thalamus is a critical module in the circuit which has been associated with movement disorders including dystonia. This circuit extends from cortex to striatum to pallidum to the thalamic nucleus Ventral Lateral anterior (VLa) to cortex and can be studied by activity recorded during thalamic stereotactic surgery for the treatment of dystonia. Neuronal recordings in the VLa nucleus show low frequency modulation of firing that is correlated with and leads the low frequency modulation of EMG activity; this EMG activity is characteristic of dystonia...
June 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943091/single-neuron-correlates-of-conscious-perception-in-the-human-medial-temporal-lobe
#16
Thomas P Reber, Jennifer Faber, Johannes Niediek, Jan Boström, Christian E Elger, Florian Mormann
The neuronal mechanisms giving rise to conscious perception remain largely elusive [1]. It is known that the strength of single-neuron activity correlates with conscious perception, especially in anterior regions of the ventral pathway in non-human primates [2-4] and in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) [5, 6]. It is unclear, however, whether single-neuron correlates of conscious perception are characterized solely by the magnitude of neuronal responses, and whether the correlates of perception are equally prominent across different regions of the human MTL...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938082/pseudacteon-phorid-flies-host-specificity-and-impacts-on-solenopsis-fire-ants
#17
Li Chen, Henry Y Fadamiro
Human commerce has resulted in the spread of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis species, worldwide. Six species of parasitic Pseudacteon phorid flies that are highly host specific to the Solenopsis saevissima complex of Solenopsis fire ants have been successfully released in the southern United States. The presence of Pseudacteon phorid flies, in addition to having direct mortality effects on their host ants, modifies foraging behavior and disrupts interspecific competition between host species and other ant species in the community...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930574/food-addiction-a-common-neurobiological-mechanism-with-drug-abuse
#18
Elsa Lindgren, Kyle Gray, Gregg Miller, Ryan Tyler, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Drugs and food both exert a rewarding effect through the firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, resulting in the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens and effects on the mesolimbic pathway. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature to consider the validity of food addiction and the common neurobiological mechanisms that overlap in food and drug addiction. This review paper focuses on findings from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and structural imaging studies, as well as evidence from neuroimaging studies of bariatric surgery and pharmacological interventions on obese individuals...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902438/colony-level-behavioural-variation-correlates-with-differences-in-expression-of-the-foraging-gene-in-red-imported-fire-ants
#19
Alison A Bockoven, Craig J Coates, Micky D Eubanks
Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875172/the-biodiversity-cost-of-carbon-sequestration-in-tropical-savanna
#20
Rodolfo C R Abreu, William A Hoffmann, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Natashi A Pilon, Davi R Rossatto, Giselda Durigan
Tropical savannas have been increasingly viewed as an opportunity for carbon sequestration through fire suppression and afforestation, but insufficient attention has been given to the consequences for biodiversity. To evaluate the biodiversity costs of increasing carbon sequestration, we quantified changes in ecosystem carbon stocks and the associated changes in communities of plants and ants resulting from fire suppression in savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot. Fire suppression resulted in increased carbon stocks of 1...
August 2017: Science Advances
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