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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092009/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-determined-by-pine-needles-and-semipermeable-membrane-devices-along-an-altitude-profile-in-taurus-mountains-turkey
#1
Cafer Turgut, Mehmet Ali Mazmanci, Birgül Mazmanci, Melis Yalçın, PerihanBinnur Kurt Karakuş, Levent Atatanir, Menekşe Keski, Bernhard Henkelmann, Gerd Pfister, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077660/muscle-spindles-in-human-tibialis-anterior-encode-muscle-fascicle-length-changes
#2
James Thomas Day, Leah R Bent, Ingvars Birznieks, Vaughan G Macefield, Andrew G Cresswell
Muscle spindles provide exquisitely sensitive proprioceptive information regarding joint position and movement. Through passively driven length changes in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle spindles detect joint rotations because of their in-parallel mechanical linkage to muscle fascicles. In human microneurography studies, muscle fascicles are assumed to follow the MTU and, as such, fascicle length is not measured in such studies. However, under certain mechanical conditions compliant structures can act to decouple the fascicles, and therefore the spindles, from the MTU...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053019/biological-mechanisms-whereby-social-exclusion-may-contribute-to-the-etiology-of-psychosis-a-narrative-review
#3
Jean-Paul Selten, Jan Booij, Bauke Buwalda, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
The purpose of this review is to examine whether a contribution of social exclusion to the pathogenesis of psychosis is compatible with the dopamine hypothesis and/or the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Humans experience social exclusion as defeating. An animal model for defeat is the resident-intruder paradigm. The defeated animal shows evidence of an increased sensitivity to amphetamine, increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and increased firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
January 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052342/from-cryptic-herbivore-to-predator-stable-isotopes-reveal-consistent-variability-in-trophic-levels-in-an-ant-population
#4
Karl A Roeder, Michael Kaspari
Populations may collectively exhibit a broad diet because individuals have large diet breadths and/or because subpopulations of specialists co-occur. In social insect populations, the diet of the genetic individual, the colony, may similarly arise because workers are diet generalists or castes of specialists. We used elemental and isotopic methods to explore how the invasive red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, achieves its status as a trophic generalist. In one 0.5-ha old field, 31 S. invicta colonies ranged from 1°-consumer to 2°-predator (δ(15) N's 0...
November 7, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028926/how-do-groups-of-red-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-feed-on-a-droplet-of-sugar-water
#5
Cai Wang, Xuan Chen, Linda M Hooper-Bùi, Rachel Strecker, Yu-Zhen Wen, Wen-Quan Qin, Tao Ma, Zhao-Hui Sun, Xiao-Yang Chen, Xiu-Jun Wen
Many previous studies have focused on the foraging behaviors and strategies of the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren on solid food or granular bait, little attention has been paid to how liquid sugar is fed upon. In the present study, behavioral responses of S. invicta to 25% sucrose water droplets were observed. Five foraging patterns were identified in S. invicta colonies under laboratory conditions: (1) No feeding, no sucrose water feeding was observed; (2) surround feeding, ants surrounded and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (3) stacked feeding, ants stacked and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (4) droplet-break feeding, ants broke the liquid droplet and sucked sucrose water that spread on surface of the substance or soil particles previously transported by ants, and (5) cover feeding, whole surface of the sucrose droplet was covered by layers of feeding ants...
December 28, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974611/activation-of-glutamatergic-fibers-in-the-anterior-nac-shell-modulates-reward-activity-in-the-anacsh-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-transiently-stops-feeding
#6
Luis Prado, Jorge Luis-Islas, Osvaldo I Sandoval, Liliana Puron, Moreno M Gil, Alvaro Luna, Mario A Arias-García, Elvira Galarraga, Sidney A Simon, Ranier Gutierrez
: Although the release of mesoaccumbal dopamine is certainly involved in rewarding responses, recent studies point to the importance of the interaction between it and glutamate. One important component of this network is the anterior nucleus accumbens shell (aNAcSh), which sends GABAergic projections into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and receives extensive glutamatergic inputs from, among others, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The effects of glutamatergic activation of aNAcSh on the ingestion of rewarding stimuli as well as its effect in the LH and mPFC are not well understood...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942874/side-overlap-esophagogastrostomy-to-prevent-reflux-after-proximal-gastrectomy
#7
Yoshito Yamashita, Atsushi Yamamoto, Yutaka Tamamori, Mami Yoshii, Yukio Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: No optimal method of reconstruction for proximal gastrectomy has been established because of problems associated with postoperative reflux and anastomotic stenosis. It is also important that the reconstruction is easily performed laparoscopically because laparoscopic gastrectomy has become widely accepted in recent years. METHODS: We have developed a new method of esophagogastrostomy, side overlap with fundoplication by Yamashita (SOFY). The remnant stomach is fixated to the diaphragmatic crus on the dorsal side of the esophagus...
December 10, 2016: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940914/alterations-in-the-neuropeptide-galanin-system-in-major-depressive-disorder-involve-levels-of-transcripts-methylation-and-peptide
#8
Swapnali Barde, Joelle Rüegg, Josée Prud'homme, Tomas J Ekström, Miklos Palkovits, Gustavo Turecki, Gyorgy Bagdy, Robert Ihnatko, Elvar Theodorsson, Gabriella Juhasz, Rochellys Diaz-Heijtz, Naguib Mechawar, Tomas G M Hökfelt
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a substantial burden to patients, families, and society, but many patients cannot be treated adequately. Rodent experiments suggest that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) and its three G protein-coupled receptors, GAL1-3, are involved in mood regulation. To explore the translational potential of these results, we assessed the transcript levels (by quantitative PCR), DNA methylation status (by bisulfite pyrosequencing), and GAL peptide by RIA of the GAL system in postmortem brains from depressed persons who had committed suicide and controls...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919831/neural-representation-of-cost-benefit-selections-in-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-self-paced-decision-making
#9
Shuai Wang, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial for decision making which involves the processing of cost-benefit information. Our previous study has shown that ACC is essential for self-paced decision making. However, it is unclear how ACC neurons represent cost-benefit selections during the decision-making process. In the present study, we trained rats on the same "Do More Get More" (DMGM) task as in our previous work. In each trial, the animals stand upright and perform a sustained nosepoke of their own will to earn a water reward, with the amount of reward positively correlated to the duration of the nosepoke (i...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893300/the-use-of-robotic-and-laparoscopic-surgical-stapling-devices-during-minimally-invasive-colon-and-rectal-surgery-a-comparison
#10
Jeremy L Holzmacher, Samuel Luka, Madiha Aziz, Richard L Amdur, Samir Agarwal, Vincent Obias
PURPOSE: To date there exists no published study examining the safety and efficacy of the EndoWrist 45 (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) robotic stapler. We compared outcomes between the robotic and comparable laparoscopic stapler in robotic-assisted colorectal procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 93 patients who underwent robotic-assisted colorectal surgery at our institution from 2012 to 2014. Surgeries included left, sigmoid, subtotal and total colectomies, and low anterior rectal resections...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864050/ancestry-trumps-experience-transgenerational-but-not-early-life-stress-affects-the-adult-physiological-stress-response
#11
Gail L McCormick, Travis R Robbins, Sonia A Cavigelli, Tracy Langkilde
Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood...
January 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819800/high-efficiency-upconversion-nanophosphors-for-high-contrast-bioimaging
#12
Masfer H Alkahtani, Fahad S Alghannam, Carlos Sanchez, Carmen L Gomes, Hong Liang, Philip R Hemmer
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are of interest because they allow suppression of tissue autofluorescence and are therefore visible deep inside biological tissue. Compared to upconversion dyes, UCNPs have a lower pump intensity threshold, better photostability, and less toxicity. Recently, YVO4: Er(+3), Yb(+3) nanoparticles were shown to exhibit strong up-conversion luminescence with a relatively low 10 kW cm(-2) excitation intensity even in water, which makes them excellent bio-imaging candidates. Herein, we investigate their use as internal probes in insects by injecting YVO4 : Er(+3), Yb(+3) nanoparticles into fire ants as a biological model, and obtain 2D optical images with 980 nm illumination...
December 2, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789454/electrophysiological-characterization-of-human-rectal-afferents
#13
Kheng-Seong Ng, Simon J Brookes, Noemi A Montes-Adrian, David A Mahns, Marc A Gladman
It is presumed that extrinsic afferent nerves link the rectum to the central nervous system. However, the anatomical/functional existence of such nerves has never previously been demonstrated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to identify and make electrophysiological recordings in vitro from extrinsic afferents, comparing human rectum to colon. Sections of normal rectum and colon were procured from anterior resection and right hemicolectomy specimens, respectively. Sections were pinned and extrinsic nerves dissected...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784806/contractile-function-and-motor-unit-firing-rates-of-the-human-hamstrings
#14
Eric A Kirk, Charles L Rice
: Neuromuscular properties of the lower limb in health, aging, and disease are well described for major lower limb muscles comprising the quadriceps, triceps surae, and dorsiflexors, with the notable exception of the posterior thigh (hamstrings). The purpose of this study was to further characterize major muscles of the lower limb by comprehensively exploring contractile properties in relation to spinal motor neuron output expressed as motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) in the hamstrings of 11 (26...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775722/gravity-orientation-tuning-in-macaque-anterior-thalamus
#15
Jean Laurens, Byounghoon Kim, J David Dickman, Dora E Angelaki
Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774769/developmental-dna-methyltransferase-expression-in-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta
#16
Sasha Kay, Daniel Skowronski, Brendan G Hunt
DNA methylation is accomplished in animals by two classes of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3 and DNMT1, which perform de novo methylation and maintenance methylation, respectively. Several studies of hymenopteran eusocial insects suggest that DNA methylation is capable of influencing developmental plasticity. However, fundamental questions remain about the patterning of DNA methylation during the course of insect development. In this study, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on transcripts from the single-copy orthologs of DNMT1 and DNMT3 in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta...
October 24, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765943/tissue-developmental-and-caste-specific-expression-of-odorant-binding-proteins-in-a-eusocial-insect-the-red-imported-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta
#17
Wei Zhang, Arun Wanchoo, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Yuxian Xia, Nemat O Keyhani
Insects interact with the surrounding environment via chemoreception, and in social insects such as ants, chemoreception functions to mediate diverse behaviors including food acquisition, self/non-self recognition, and intraspecific communication. The invasive red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has spread worldwide, displaying a remarkable environmental adaptability. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are chemical compound carriers, involved in diverse physiological processes including odor detection and chemical transport...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749488/single-incision-laparoscopic-anterior-resection-using-a-curved-stapler
#18
Jun Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi Ota, Yusuke Suwa, Atsushi Ishibe, Hidenobu Masui, Kaoru Nagahori
INTRODUCTION: Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy is technically limited because of such factors as instrument crowding, in-line viewing, and insufficient countertraction. In particular, it is technically difficult to cut the distal rectum from the umbilicus using an articulating linear stapler in single-incision laparoscopic anterior resection. TECHNIQUE: After treating the mesorectum, the 5-mm trocar is replaced with a 12-mm trocar. The cartridge of the curved stapler is mounted while the shaft of the stapler is inserted into the 12-mm port extracorporeally...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733616/coordinated-interaction-between-hippocampal-sharp-wave-ripples-and-anterior-cingulate-unit-activity
#19
Dong V Wang, Satoshi Ikemoto
: Hippocampal-cortical interaction during sleep promotes transformation of memory for long-term storage in the cortex. In particular, hippocampal sharp-wave ripple-associated neural activation is important for this transformation during slow-wave sleep. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be crucial for expression and likely storage of long-term memory. However, little is known about how ACC activity is influenced by hippocampal ripple activity during sleep. We report here about coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripple activity and ACC neural firings...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733614/spatiotemporal-distribution-of-location-and-object-effects-in-primary-motor-cortex-neurons-during-reach-to-grasp
#20
Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber
: Reaching and grasping typically are considered to be spatially separate processes that proceed concurrently in the arm and the hand, respectively. The proximal representation in the primary motor cortex (M1) controls the arm for reaching, while the distal representation controls the hand for grasping. Many studies of M1 activity therefore have focused either on reaching to various locations without grasping different objects, or else on grasping different objects all at the same location...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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