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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426970/thalamic-regulation-of-sucrose-seeking-during-unexpected-reward-omission
#1
Fabricio H Do-Monte, Angélica Minier-Toribio, Kelvin Quiñones-Laracuente, Estefanía M Medina-Colón, Gregory J Quirk
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is thought to regulate behavioral responses under emotionally arousing conditions. Reward-associated cues activate PVT neurons; however, the specific PVT efferents regulating reward seeking remain elusive. Using a cued sucrose-seeking task, we manipulated PVT activity under two emotionally distinct conditions: (1) when reward was available during the cue as expected or (2) when reward was unexpectedly omitted during the cue. Pharmacological inactivation of the anterior PVT (aPVT), but not the posterior PVT, increased sucrose seeking only when reward was omitted...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402466/efficacy-of-nootka-oil-as-a-biopesticide-for-management-of-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#2
K M Addesso, J B Oliver, P A O'Neal, N Youssef
Recent concerns regarding the impact of traditional synthetic pesticides on nontarget organisms have generated demand for alternative products with lower environmental impact. This demand has led to increasing focus on plant essential oils as sources of new biopesticides. In this study, we demonstrate that the essential oil of the Alaskan yellow cedar, Cupressus nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, has activity against hybrid imported fire ant workers, Solenopsis invicta Buren × Solenopsis richteri Forel. In digging assays, ants were repelled by nootka oil and digging continued to be suppressed by nearly 50% in nootka oil-treated sand aged 6 mo in the laboratory...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392030/an-unusual-exit-wound-as-a-result-of-a-shotgun-suicide-to-the-head
#3
S N Kunz
The location of a gunshot entrance wound as well as the wound path trajectory are the main findings that help to determine the position from which a weapon was fired and thus distinguish firearm suicides from homicides and accidents. We present a case of a 28-year old man, who was found dead in his car. Because of an unusual position of the firearm, which was clamped into the steering wheel, and an unclear entrance/exit wound, an autopsy was performed. The deceased showed typical signs of a contact shotgun wound to the head with an entrance wound in the right temporal region and an exit wound in the midface...
March 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386571/the-broken-ring-of-fire-a-new-radiological-sign-as-predictor-of-syndesmosis-injury
#4
James Calder, Adam Mitchell, Adam Lomax, Moez S Ballal, John Grice, Niek van Dijk, Justin Lee
BACKGROUND: Subcircumferential periosteal edema above the ankle joint is frequently present on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with syndesmosis injuries but has not been previously reported. Fluid height within the interosseous membrane also has not previously been shown to be associated with syndesmosis injury severity. PURPOSE: To investigate whether a new sign on MRI and measurement of the length of fluid within the interosseous membrane above the ankle may be used to enable identification of a syndesmosis injury and allow differentiation from lateral ligament injury...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384419/are-invasive-species-stressful-the-glucocorticoid-profile-of-native-lizards-exposed-to-invasive-fire-ants-depends-on-the-context
#5
Sean P Graham, Nicole A Freidenfelds, Christopher J Thawley, Travis R Robbins, Tracy Langkilde
Invasive species represent a substantial threat to native species worldwide. Research on the impacts of invasive species on wild living vertebrates has focused primarily on population-level effects. The sublethal, individual-level effects of invaders may be equally important but are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) on the physiological stress response of a native lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) within two experimental contexts: directly exposing lizards to a fire ant attack and housing lizards with fire ants in seminatural field enclosures...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380320/reappraisal-of-the-f-m-amplitude-ratio-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#6
F Ginanneschi, M Mondelli, A Aretini, Alessandro Rossi
The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls...
January 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365770/on-the-molecular-basis-of-division-of-labor-in-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae-workers-rna-seq-analysis
#7
Hua-Long Qiu, Cheng-Yin Zhao, Yu-Rong He
The fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren is an important invasive pest. Among S. invicta workers behavioral changes depend on age where younger ants are nurses and older ants foragers. To identify potential genes associated with this division of labor, we compared gene expression between foragers and nurses by high-throughput sequencing. In total, we identified 1,618 genes significantly differently expressed between nurses and foragers, of which 542 were upregulated in foragers and 1,076 were upregulated in nurses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346645/facial-trauma-caused-by-electronic-cigarette-explosion
#8
Brian Vaught, Joseph Spellman, Anil Shah, Alexander Stewart, David Mullin
Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular as a supposed safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes or a smoking cessation tool. Research and debate have focused primarily on possible adverse effects caused by the inhaled aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes and on smoking cessation efficacy. Few reports in the medical literature describe injuries secondary to device malfunction. We present a case of electronic cigarette explosion, with a projectile fracturing the patient's right naso-orbital-ethmoid complex and anterior and posterior frontal sinus tables, with frontal sinus outflow tract involvement...
March 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334221/enhanced-pest-ant-control-with-hydrophobic-bait
#9
R K Vander Meer, D E Milne
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), left most of its natural enemies behind in South America when it arrived in Mobile, AL, in the 1930s and spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, reaching population levels up to 10 times those found in South America. The large population densities and propensity for disturbed habitats led to direct conflict with human activities. Bait control methods were first developed for fire ants in the early 1960s and little has changed in the subsequent decades, despite the drawback that the bait carrier rapidly breaks down when wet...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334211/effect-of-sweeteners-on-the-survival-of-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae
#10
Xiaoqiang Zhang, Siqi Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Yijuan Xu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a serious agricultural, ecological, and public health pest in its invaded range. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this notorious pest. To search for novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly materials for fire ant control, we tested various sweeteners for their toxicity to S. invicta. The S. invicta that were fed erythritol, aspartame, and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality rates than those fed other sweeteners...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334021/the-effect-of-remnant-forest-on-insect-successional-response-in-tropical-fire-impacted-peatland-a-bi-taxa-comparison
#11
Kok-Boon Neoh, Lee-Jin Bong, Ahmad Muhammad, Masayuki Itoh, Osamu Kozan, Yoko Takematsu, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura
Fire has become a common feature in tropical drained peatlands, and it may have detrimental impacts on the overall biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. We investigated the effect of fire on termite and ant assemblages and the importance of remnant forest in restoring species diversity in fire-impacted tropical peat swamp forests. The species loss of both termites and ants was as high as 50% in some fire-impacted peats compared to remnant forests, but in most cases the species richness for termites and ants was statistically equal along the land uses surveyed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321178/post-training-inactivation-of-the-anterior-thalamic-nuclei-impairs-spatial-performance-on-the-radial-arm-maze
#12
Ryan E Harvey, Shannon M Thompson, Lilliana M Sanchez, Ryan M Yoder, Benjamin J Clark
The limbic thalamus, specifically the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), contains brain signals including that of head direction cells, which fire as a function of an animal's directional orientation in an environment. Recent work has suggested that this directional orientation information stemming from the ATN contributes to the generation of hippocampal and parahippocampal spatial representations, and may contribute to the establishment of unique spatial representations in radially oriented tasks such as the radial arm maze...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298302/visual-and-presaccadic-activity-in-area-8ar-of-the-macaque-monkey-lateral-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Kelly R Bullock, Florian Pieper, Adam J Sachs, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Common trends observed in many visual and oculomotor-related cortical areas include retinotopically organized receptive and movement fields exhibiting a Gaussian shape and increasing size with eccentricity. These trends are demonstrated in the frontal eye fields (FEF), many visual areas, and the superior colliculus (SC), but have not been thoroughly characterized in prearcuate area 8Ar of the prefrontal cortex. This is important since area 8Ar, located anterior to the FEF, is more cytoarchitectonically similar to prefrontal areas than premotor areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292545/adding-fuel-to-the-fire-coronary-artery-dissection-complicating-blunt-chest-trauma
#14
Ankit Maheshwari, Thenappan Thenappan, Gladwin Das
A 21year-old male presented to the emergency department with 6 h of atypical chest pain after suffering blunt chest trauma. His electrocardiogram revealed 1-1.5mm ST segment elevation in leads V1-V3 with reciprocal depressions in II, III, and aVF. Mid-anterior wall akinesis was observed on echocardiography associated with an estimated left ventricular ejection fraction of 40%. A left main coronary artery dissection was diagnosed and treated surgically with a bypass graft. Although rare, coronary dissections can be a catastrophic complication of chest trauma...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274049/use-of-frontal-sinus-and-nasal-septum-pattern-as-an-aid-in-personal-identification-and-determination-of-gender-a-radiographic-study
#15
Kavita Verma, Prashant Nahar, Mohit Pal Singh, Hemant Mathur, S Bhuvaneshwari
INTRODUCTION: Personal identification and gender determination of unknown person has a vital importance in forensic investigation. Human skull radiography is a useful tool in human identification in natural disaster, in any accidents such as fire accident and road traffic accident where body remains become degraded or severely destroyed. AIM: Present study was performed to evaluate the measurement of frontal sinus, uniqueness of various pattern of nasal septum when combined with frontal sinus observed on posterio anterior cephalogram for sex determination as well as personal identification...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273343/fire-disturbance-disrupts-an-acacia-ant-plant-mutualism-in-favor-of-a-subordinate-ant-species
#16
Ryan L Sensenig, Duncan K Kimuyu, Juan Carlos Ruiz Guajardo, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Truman P Young
Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269308/corticomuscular-coherence-variation-throughout-the-gait-cycle-during-overground-walking-and-ramp-ascent-a-preliminary-investigation
#17
Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang
Recent designs of neural-machine interfaces (NMIs) incorporating electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG) have been used in lower limb assistive devices. While the results of previous studies have shown promise, a NMI which takes advantage of early movement-related EEG activity preceding movement onset, as well as the improved signal-to-noise ratio of EMG, could prove to be more accurate and responsive than current NMI designs based solely on EEG or EMG. Previous studies have demonstrated that the activity of the sensorimotor cortex is coupled to the firing rate of motor units in lower limb muscles during voluntary contraction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268974/neuromotor-response-of-the-leg-muscles-following-a-supine-stand-retraining-with-without-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-training-intervention-for-individuals-with-sci-a-case-series
#18
Stephen Canton, Kamyar Momeni, Arvind Ramanujam, Erica Garbarini, Gail F Forrest
The goal of this paper is to study the effects of supine and stand retraining (SRT) interventions with and without multi muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the neuromuscular EMG responses of the leg muscles for individuals with motor complete SCI during walking on a body-weight support (BWS) treadmill. The main outcome variables were EMG amplitude, integrated EMG and co-contraction indices (co-excitation and co-activation) collected during a 10-minute walking treadmill trial. Data was analyzed for the first, fifth and tenth minute of walking...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228586/modeling-the-diversity-of-spontaneous-and-agonist-induced-electrical-activity-in-anterior-pituitary-corticotrophs
#19
Patrick Allen Fletcher, Hana Zemkova, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Arthur Sherman
Pituitary corticotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to stimulation with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vaspressin (AVP), and such electrical activity is critical for calcium signaling and calcium-dependent adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. These cells typically fire tall sharp action potentials when spontaneously active, but a variety of other spontaneous patterns have also been reported, including various modes of bursting. There is variability in reports of the fraction of corticotrophs that are electrically active, as well as their patterns of activity, and the sources of this variation are not well understood...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227545/corticomuscular-coherence-variation-throughout-the-gait-cycle-during-overground-walking-and-ramp-ascent-a-preliminary-investigation
#20
Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Fangshi Zhu, Justin Brantley, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow
Recent designs of neural-machine interfaces (NMIs) incorporating electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG) have been used in lower limb assistive devices. While the results of previous studies have shown promise, a NMI which takes advantage of early movement-related EEG activity preceding movement onset, as well as the improved signal-to-noise ratio of EMG, could prove to be more accurate and responsive than current NMI designs based solely on EEG or EMG. Previous studies have demonstrated that the activity of the sensorimotor cortex is coupled to the firing rate of motor units in lower limb muscles during voluntary contraction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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