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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893300/the-use-of-robotic-and-laparoscopic-surgical-stapling-devices-during-minimally-invasive-colon-and-rectal-surgery-a-comparison
#1
Jeremy L Holzmacher, Samuel Luka, Madiha Aziz, Richard L Amdur, Samir Agarwal, Vincent Obias
PURPOSE: To date there exists no published study examining the safety and efficacy of the EndoWrist 45 (Intuitive Surgical, Inc.) robotic stapler. We compared outcomes between the robotic and comparable laparoscopic stapler in robotic-assisted colorectal procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 93 patients who underwent robotic-assisted colorectal surgery at our institution from 2012 to 2014. Surgeries included left, sigmoid, subtotal and total colectomies, and low anterior rectal resections...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864050/ancestry-trumps-experience-transgenerational-but-not-early-life-stress-affects-the-adult-physiological-stress-response
#2
Gail L McCormick, Travis R Robbins, Sonia A Cavigelli, Tracy Langkilde
Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood...
November 15, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819800/high-efficiency-upconversion-nanophosphors-for-high-contrast-bioimaging
#3
Masfer H Alkahtani, Fahad S Alghannam, Carlos Sanchez, Carmen L Gomes, Hong Liang, Philip R Hemmer
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are of interest because they allow suppression of tissue autofluorescence and are therefore visible deep inside biological tissue. Compared to upconversion dyes, UCNPs have a lower pump intensity threshold, better photostability, and less toxicity. Recently, YVO4: Er(+3), Yb(+3) nanoparticles were shown to exhibit strong up-conversion luminescence with a relatively low 10 kW cm(-2) excitation intensity even in water, which makes them excellent bio-imaging candidates. Herein, we investigate their use as internal probes in insects by injecting YVO4 : Er(+3), Yb(+3) nanoparticles into fire ants as a biological model, and obtain 2D optical images with 980 nm illumination...
December 2, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789454/electrophysiological-characterization-of-human-rectal-afferents
#4
Kheng-Seong Ng, Simon J Brookes, Noemi A Montes-Adrian, David A Mahns, Marc A Gladman
It is presumed that extrinsic afferent nerves link the rectum to the central nervous system. However, the anatomical/functional existence of such nerves has never previously been demonstrated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to identify and make electrophysiological recordings in vitro from extrinsic afferents, comparing human rectum to colon. Sections of normal rectum and colon were procured from anterior resection and right hemicolectomy specimens, respectively. Sections were pinned and extrinsic nerves dissected...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784806/contractile-function-and-motor-unit-firing-rates-of-the-human-hamstrings
#5
Eric A Kirk, Charles L Rice
AIM: Neuromuscular properties of the lower limb in health, aging and disease are well-described for major lower limb muscles comprising the quadriceps, triceps surae and dorsiflexors with the notable exception of the posterior thigh (hamstrings). The purpose was to further characterize major muscles of the lower limb by comprehensively exploring contractile properties in relation to spinal motor neuron output expressed as motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) in the hamstrings of 11 (26.5 ± 3...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775722/gravity-orientation-tuning-in-macaque-anterior-thalamus
#6
Jean Laurens, Byounghoon Kim, J David Dickman, Dora E Angelaki
Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774769/developmental-dna-methyltransferase-expression-in-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta
#7
Sasha Kay, Daniel Skowronski, Brendan G Hunt
DNA methylation is accomplished in animals by two classes of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3 and DNMT1, which perform de novo methylation and maintenance methylation, respectively. Several studies of hymenopteran eusocial insects suggest that DNA methylation is capable of influencing developmental plasticity. However, fundamental questions remain about the patterning of DNA methylation during the course of insect development. In this study, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on transcripts from the single-copy orthologs of DNMT1 and DNMT3 in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta...
October 24, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765943/tissue-developmental-and-caste-specific-expression-of-odorant-binding-proteins-in-a-eusocial-insect-the-red-imported-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta
#8
Wei Zhang, Arun Wanchoo, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Yuxian Xia, Nemat O Keyhani
Insects interact with the surrounding environment via chemoreception, and in social insects such as ants, chemoreception functions to mediate diverse behaviors including food acquisition, self/non-self recognition, and intraspecific communication. The invasive red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has spread worldwide, displaying a remarkable environmental adaptability. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are chemical compound carriers, involved in diverse physiological processes including odor detection and chemical transport...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749488/single-incision-laparoscopic-anterior-resection-using-a-curved-stapler
#9
Jun Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi Ota, Yusuke Suwa, Atsushi Ishibe, Hidenobu Masui, Kaoru Nagahori
INTRODUCTION: Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy is technically limited because of such factors as instrument crowding, in-line viewing, and insufficient countertraction. In particular, it is technically difficult to cut the distal rectum from the umbilicus using an articulating linear stapler in single-incision laparoscopic anterior resection. TECHNIQUE: After treating the mesorectum, the 5-mm trocar is replaced with a 12-mm trocar. The cartridge of the curved stapler is mounted while the shaft of the stapler is inserted into the 12-mm port extracorporeally...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733616/coordinated-interaction-between-hippocampal-sharp-wave-ripples-and-anterior-cingulate-unit-activity
#10
Dong V Wang, Satoshi Ikemoto
: Hippocampal-cortical interaction during sleep promotes transformation of memory for long-term storage in the cortex. In particular, hippocampal sharp-wave ripple-associated neural activation is important for this transformation during slow-wave sleep. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be crucial for expression and likely storage of long-term memory. However, little is known about how ACC activity is influenced by hippocampal ripple activity during sleep. We report here about coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripple activity and ACC neural firings...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733614/spatiotemporal-distribution-of-location-and-object-effects-in-primary-motor-cortex-neurons-during-reach-to-grasp
#11
Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber
: Reaching and grasping typically are considered to be spatially separate processes that proceed concurrently in the arm and the hand, respectively. The proximal representation in the primary motor cortex (M1) controls the arm for reaching, while the distal representation controls the hand for grasping. Many studies of M1 activity therefore have focused either on reaching to various locations without grasping different objects, or else on grasping different objects all at the same location...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687959/effect-of-irradiation-on-queen-survivorship-and-reproduction-in-the-invasive-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-a-proposed-phytosanitary-irradiation-treatment-for-ants
#12
Peter A Follett, Sol Porcel, Luis A Calcaterra
We studied radiation tolerance in queens of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to identify a dose that prevents reproduction. Virgin or fertile queens were collected from Santa Fe and Formosa provinces in Argentina and reared in the laboratory in microcolonies. Virgin queens were irradiated at 0 (control), 70, 90, 120, or 150 Gy, and fertile queens were irradiated at 0, 60, 125, and 190 Gy, and then followed for 11 wk in the microcolonies to evaluate survival and reproduction...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682998/fluorescent-angiography-used-to-evaluate-the-perfusion-status-of-anastomosis-in-laparoscopic-anterior-resection
#13
Frederick H Koh, Ker-Kan Tan
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage after gastrointestinal surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.1 Insufficient vascular supply is one cause.2 Recent reports of using intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent angiography to evaluate whether perfusion of the anastomosis is adequate has yielded positive outcomes.3 (-) 6 The authors describe their use of ICG-enhanced fluorescence angiography in a laparoscopic anterior resection. METHODS: The patient was an 80-year-old with an upper rectal adenocarcinoma and significant cardiovascular risk factors...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651533/decreased-small-mammal-and-on-host-tick-abundance-in-association-with-invasive-red-imported-fire-ants-solenopsis-invicta
#14
Adrian A Castellanos, Matthew C I Medeiros, Gabriel L Hamer, Michael E Morrow, Micky D Eubanks, Pete D Teel, Sarah A Hamer, Jessica E Light
Invasive species may impact pathogen transmission by altering the distributions and interactions among native vertebrate reservoir hosts and arthropod vectors. Here, we examined the direct and indirect effects of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) on the native tick, small mammal and pathogen community in southeast Texas. Using a replicated large-scale field manipulation study, we show that small mammals were more abundant on treatment plots where S. invicta populations were experimentally reduced...
September 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630942/ultrastructural-analysis-of-incinerated-teeth-by-scanning-electron-microscope-a-short-study
#15
Sugunakar Raju Godishala Swamy, Shyam Prasad Reddy Dorankula, Keerthi Muddana
INTRODUCTION: In forensic context precise knowledge on physical and histological changes of teeth subjected to high temperatures is of great importance. Preserving fragile incinerated teeth for physical, histological and ultra structural examinations is essential in fire investigations involving the origin of fire, its cause as well as the identification of victims which relies on a thorough understanding of the structural changes in dental tissues subjected to heat. AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the physical and ultrastructural changes seen in freshly extracted teeth when subjected to gradual heating at different temperatures using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628313/evolution-of-long-centromeres-in-fire-ants
#16
Yu-Ching Huang, Chih-Chi Lee, Chia-Yi Kao, Ni-Chen Chang, Chung-Chi Lin, DeWayne Shoemaker, John Wang
BACKGROUND: Centromeres are essential for accurate chromosome segregation, yet sequence conservation is low even among closely related species. Centromere drive predicts rapid turnover because some centromeric sequences may compete better than others during female meiosis. In addition to sequence composition, longer centromeres may have a transmission advantage. RESULTS: We report the first observations of extremely long centromeres, covering on average 34 % of the chromosomes, in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625592/nucleus-accumbens-shell-and-mpfc-but-not-insula-orexin-1-receptors-promote-excessive-alcohol-drinking
#17
Kelly Lei, Scott A Wegner, Ji Hwan Yu, Arisa Mototake, Bing Hu, Frederic W Hopf
Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs) promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior insular cortex (aINS) in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597763/spatial-and-activity-dependent-catecholamine-release-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-under-native-neuronal-stimulation
#18
Kyle Wolf, Georgy Zarkua, Shyue-An Chan, Arun Sridhar, Corey Smith
Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla in rat receive excitatory synaptic input through anterior and posterior divisions of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve. Upon synaptic stimulation, the adrenal medulla releases the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine into the suprarenal vein for circulation throughout the body. Under sympathetic tone, catecholamine release is modest. However, upon activation of the sympathoadrenal stress reflex, and increased splanchnic firing, adrenal catecholamine output increases dramatically...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595575/the-novel-appearance-of-low-rectal-anastomosis-on-contrast-enema-following-laparoscopic-anterior-resection-discriminating-anastomotic-leaks-from-dog-ears-on-water-soluble-contrast-enema-and-flexible-sigmoidoscopy
#19
Mark Katory, Ross McLean, Khalid Osman, Mukhtar Ahmad, Tracey Hughes, Mike Newby, Christopher Dennison, Paul O'Loughlin
PURPOSE: Interpretation of water-soluble contrast enema following laparoscopic low anterior resection can be very challenging for both radiologists and colorectal surgeons. Discriminating the radiological appearances secondary to anastomotic configuration from those caused by actual anastomotic dehiscence is a common problem and may be made worse with the advent of laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to identify potential novel appearances of the water-soluble contrast enema (WSCE) images of rectal anastomosis following laparoscopic low anterior resection to radiologists and surgeons...
September 6, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550842/crf-receptor-type-2-neurons-in-the-posterior-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-critically-contribute-to-stress-recovery
#20
M J A G Henckens, Y Printz, U Shamgar, J Dine, M Lebow, Y Drori, C Kuehne, A Kolarz, M Eder, J M Deussing, N J Justice, O Yizhar, A Chen
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is critical in mediating states of anxiety, and its dysfunction has been linked to stress-related mental disease. Although the anxiety-related role of distinct subregions of the anterior BNST was recently reported, little is known about the contribution of the posterior BNST (pBNST) to the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Previously, we observed abnormal expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms...
August 23, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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