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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615333/excitability-and-firing-behavior-of-single-slow-motor-axons-transmitting-natural-repetitive-firing-of-human-motoneurons
#1
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function - transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibres. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601561/the-3dbiopsy-prostate-biopsy-system-preclinical-investigation-of-a-needle-actuator-and-specimen-collection-device-allowing-sampling-of-individualized-prostate-lengths-between-20-and-60-mm
#2
Nelson N Stone, Vladimir Mouraviev, David Schechter, M Scott Lucia, Elizabeth E Smith, Paul Arangua, John Hoenemeyer, Jim Rosa, Rajan Bawa, E David Crawford
OBJECTIVE: To increase the likelihood of detecting anterior cancers within the prostate and provide a specimen that spans the length of the gland. Newly designed 17- and 15-gauge (G) biopsy needles, a variable actuator and integrated pathology system intended for the longer cores were developed and tested for this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testing was performed comparing two common cannula tip grinds, a Vet-point (sharp tip) and Menghini-point (atraumatic tip) and were tested against 18-G Bard MonoptyTM in porcine kidney...
June 7, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556479/tonic-and-phasic-changes-in-anteromedial-globus-pallidus-activity-in-tourette-syndrome
#3
Michal Israelashvili, Anouk Y J M Smeets, Maya Bronfeld, Dagmar H Zeef, Albert F G Leentjens, Vivianne van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Marcus L F Janssen, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans, Izhar Bar-Gad
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome is a hyperkinetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics. OBJECTIVE: Assess the neuronal changes in the associative/limbic GP associated with Tourette syndrome. METHODS: Neurophysiological recordings were performed from the anterior (associative/limbic) GPe and GPi of 8 awake patients during DBS electrode implantation surgeries. RESULTS: The baseline firing rate of the neurons was low in a state-dependent manner in both segments of the GP...
May 29, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514887/transanal-inspection-and-management-of-low-colorectal-anastomosis-performed-with-a-new-technique-the-ticrant-study
#4
Francesco Crafa, Sebastian Smolarek, Giulia Missori, Mostafa Shalaby, Silvia Quareisma, Adele Noviello, Diletta Cassini, Pasquale Ascenzi, Luana Franceschilli, Paolo Delrio, Giannandrea Baldazzi, Ucchino Giampiero, Jacques Megevand, Giovanni Maria Romano, Pierpaolo Sileri
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage is one of the most serious complications after rectal cancer surgery. METHOD: A prospective multicenter interventional study to assess a newly described technique of creating the colorectal and coloanal anastomosis. The primary outcome was to access the safety and efficacy of this technique in the reduction of anastomotic leak. RESULT: Fifty-three patients with rectal cancer who underwent low or ultra-low anterior resection were included in the study...
May 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509509/fracture-of-zirconia-abutment-with-metallic-insertion-on-anterior-single-titanium-implant-with-internal-hexagon-retrieval-analysis-of-a-failure
#5
Marco Antonio Bottino, Regina Furbino Villefort Rocha, Lilian Costa Anami, Mutlu Özcan, Renata Marques de Melo
This case report presents a retrieval analysis of a screw-retained one-piece restoration with the veneering ceramic fired directly onto the zirconia abutment that fractured during insertion. A patient who experienced root fracture of a maxillary left central incisor received a titanium implant on the same day as extraction. After delayed implant loading, a two-piece zirconia abutment with metallic insertion was customized. Upon installation, a horizontal fracture of the crown just above the metallic portion was detected...
September 2016: European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508034/laminar-localization-and-projection-specific-properties-of-presubicular-neurons-targeting-the-lateral-mammillary-nucleus-thalamus-or-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#6
Li-Wen Huang, Jean Simonnet, Mérie Nassar, Louis Richevaux, Roxanne Lofredi, Desdemona Fricker
The presubiculum (PrS) is part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions where individual neurons signal the animals heading direction. PrS sends axons to medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), it is reciprocally connected with anterior thalamic nuclei (ATNs), and it sends feedback projections to the lateral mammillary nucleus (LMN), involved in generating the head direction signal. The intrinsic properties of projecting neurons will influence the pathway-specific transmission of activity. Here, we used projection-specific labeling of presubicular neurons to identify MEC-, LMN-, and ATN-projecting neurons in mice...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480618/beyond-chemoreception-diverse-tasks-of-soluble-olfactory-proteins-in-insects
#7
Paolo Pelosi, Immacolata Iovinella, Jiao Zhu, Guirong Wang, Francesca R Dani
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are regarded as carriers of pheromones and odorants in insect chemoreception. These proteins are typically located in antennae, mouth organs and other chemosensory structures; however, members of both classes of proteins have been detected recently in other parts of the body and various functions have been proposed. The best studied of these non-sensory tasks is performed in pheromone glands, where OBPs and CSPs solubilise hydrophobic semiochemicals and assist their controlled release into the environment...
May 7, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467586/an-excellent-anatomical-and-visual-recovery-after-surgical-repair-of-an-open-eye-injury-with-poor-baseline-prognostic-factors
#8
Serpil Yazgan, Orhan Ayar, Orçun Akdemir, Yaran Koban
Presently described is case of a 42-year-old woman with eye injury that was result of gunshot fired by a man at a wedding celebration. Bullet penetrated inferior quadrant of nasal sclera of left eye 7-12 mm behind limbus. Choroid and vitreous were prolapsed around bullet. Hemorrhage, vitreous prolapse and lens subluxation were present in anterior chamber. Presenting visual acuity (VA) was hand motion. Bullet 14x5 mm in size was carefully extracted from the eye. Fifteen days later, argon laser photocoagulation was performed on retina in area of bullet entry point...
March 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444322/fumigant-activity-of-sweet-orange-essential-oil-fractions-against-red-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#9
Wei Hu, Ning Zhang, Hongli Chen, Balian Zhong, Aixue Yang, Fan Kuang, Zhigang Ouyang, Jiong Chun
Sweet orange oil fractions were prepared by molecular distillation of cold-pressed orange oil from sample A (Citrus sinensis (L.) 'Hamlin' from America) and sample B (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall' from China) respectively, and their fumigant activities against medium workers of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) were investigated. The volatile composition of the orange oil fractions was identified and quantified using GC-MS. Fractions from sample A (A1, A2, and A3) contained 23, 37, and 48 chemical constituents, and fractions from sample B (B1, B2, and B3) contained 18, 29, and 26 chemical constituents, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444203/a-chemosensory-protein-gene-si-csp1-associated-with-necrophoric-behavior-in-red-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#10
Hua-Long Qiu, Dai-Feng Cheng
Necrophoric behavior is essential to colony health in social insects. Little is known about the genes that are responsible for necrophoric behavior. Here, we show that a chemosensory protein gene Si-CSP1 was expressed significantly higher in the antennae than in other tissues such as the legs and heads of Solenopsis invicta Buren workers. Furthermore, Si-CSP1-silenced workers moved significantly fewer corpses of their nestmates than normal workers. Finally, Si-CSP1-silenced workers exhibited weaker antennal responses to oleic acid and linoleic acid than controls...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426970/thalamic-regulation-of-sucrose-seeking-during-unexpected-reward-omission
#11
Fabricio H Do-Monte, Angélica Minier-Toribio, Kelvin Quiñones-Laracuente, Estefanía M Medina-Colón, Gregory J Quirk
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is thought to regulate behavioral responses under emotionally arousing conditions. Reward-associated cues activate PVT neurons; however, the specific PVT efferents regulating reward seeking remain elusive. Using a cued sucrose-seeking task, we manipulated PVT activity under two emotionally distinct conditions: (1) when reward was available during the cue as expected or (2) when reward was unexpectedly omitted during the cue. Pharmacological inactivation of the anterior PVT (aPVT), but not the posterior PVT, increased sucrose seeking only when reward was omitted...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402466/efficacy-of-nootka-oil-as-a-biopesticide-for-management-of-imported-fire-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae
#12
K M Addesso, J B Oliver, P A O'Neal, N Youssef
Recent concerns regarding the impact of traditional synthetic pesticides on nontarget organisms have generated demand for alternative products with lower environmental impact. This demand has led to increasing focus on plant essential oils as sources of new biopesticides. In this study, we demonstrate that the essential oil of the Alaskan yellow cedar, Cupressus nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, has activity against hybrid imported fire ant workers, Solenopsis invicta Buren × Solenopsis richteri Forel. In digging assays, ants were repelled by nootka oil and digging continued to be suppressed by nearly 50% in nootka oil-treated sand aged 6 mo in the laboratory...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392030/an-unusual-exit-wound-as-a-result-of-a-shotgun-suicide-to-the-head
#13
S N Kunz
The location of a gunshot entrance wound as well as the wound path trajectory are the main findings that help to determine the position from which a weapon was fired and thus distinguish firearm suicides from homicides and accidents. We present a case of a 28-year old man, who was found dead in his car. Because of an unusual position of the firearm, which was clamped into the steering wheel, and an unclear entrance/exit wound, an autopsy was performed. The deceased showed typical signs of a contact shotgun wound to the head with an entrance wound in the right temporal region and an exit wound in the midface...
March 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386571/the-broken-ring-of-fire-a-new-radiological-sign-as-predictor-of-syndesmosis-injury
#14
James Calder, Adam Mitchell, Adam Lomax, Moez S Ballal, John Grice, Niek van Dijk, Justin Lee
BACKGROUND: Subcircumferential periosteal edema above the ankle joint is frequently present on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with syndesmosis injuries but has not been previously reported. Fluid height within the interosseous membrane also has not previously been shown to be associated with syndesmosis injury severity. PURPOSE: To investigate whether a new sign on MRI and measurement of the length of fluid within the interosseous membrane above the ankle may be used to enable identification of a syndesmosis injury and allow differentiation from lateral ligament injury...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384419/are-invasive-species-stressful-the-glucocorticoid-profile-of-native-lizards-exposed-to-invasive-fire-ants-depends-on-the-context
#15
Sean P Graham, Nicole A Freidenfelds, Christopher J Thawley, Travis R Robbins, Tracy Langkilde
Invasive species represent a substantial threat to native species worldwide. Research on the impacts of invasive species on wild living vertebrates has focused primarily on population-level effects. The sublethal, individual-level effects of invaders may be equally important but are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) on the physiological stress response of a native lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) within two experimental contexts: directly exposing lizards to a fire ant attack and housing lizards with fire ants in seminatural field enclosures...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380320/reappraisal-of-the-f-m-amplitude-ratio-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#16
F Ginanneschi, M Mondelli, A Aretini, Alessandro Rossi
The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls...
January 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365770/on-the-molecular-basis-of-division-of-labor-in-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae-workers-rna-seq-analysis
#17
Hua-Long Qiu, Cheng-Yin Zhao, Yu-Rong He
The fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren is an important invasive pest. Among S. invicta workers behavioral changes depend on age where younger ants are nurses and older ants foragers. To identify potential genes associated with this division of labor, we compared gene expression between foragers and nurses by high-throughput sequencing. In total, we identified 1,618 genes significantly differently expressed between nurses and foragers, of which 542 were upregulated in foragers and 1,076 were upregulated in nurses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346645/facial-trauma-caused-by-electronic-cigarette-explosion
#18
Brian Vaught, Joseph Spellman, Anil Shah, Alexander Stewart, David Mullin
Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular as a supposed safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes or a smoking cessation tool. Research and debate have focused primarily on possible adverse effects caused by the inhaled aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes and on smoking cessation efficacy. Few reports in the medical literature describe injuries secondary to device malfunction. We present a case of electronic cigarette explosion, with a projectile fracturing the patient's right naso-orbital-ethmoid complex and anterior and posterior frontal sinus tables, with frontal sinus outflow tract involvement...
March 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334221/enhanced-pest-ant-control-with-hydrophobic-bait
#19
R K Vander Meer, D E Milne
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), left most of its natural enemies behind in South America when it arrived in Mobile, AL, in the 1930s and spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, reaching population levels up to 10 times those found in South America. The large population densities and propensity for disturbed habitats led to direct conflict with human activities. Bait control methods were first developed for fire ants in the early 1960s and little has changed in the subsequent decades, despite the drawback that the bait carrier rapidly breaks down when wet...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334211/effect-of-sweeteners-on-the-survival-of-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae
#20
Xiaoqiang Zhang, Siqi Chen, Zhiqiang Li, Yijuan Xu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a serious agricultural, ecological, and public health pest in its invaded range. Chemical insecticides have been widely used for the prevention and control of this notorious pest. To search for novel, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly materials for fire ant control, we tested various sweeteners for their toxicity to S. invicta. The S. invicta that were fed erythritol, aspartame, and saccharin exhibited significantly higher mortality rates than those fed other sweeteners...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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