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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782951/clinical-consequences-of-toxic-envenomations-by-hymenoptera
#1
Justin O Schmidt
Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern. This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations, which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple organ failures, and death...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769360/multiple-large-inversions-and-breakpoint-rewiring-of-gene-expression-in-the-evolution-of-the-fire-ant-social-supergene
#2
Yu-Ching Huang, Viet Dai Dang, Ni-Chen Chang, John Wang
Supergenes consist of co-adapted loci that segregate together and are associated with adaptive traits. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta , two 'social' supergene variants regulate differences in colony queen number and other traits. Suppressed recombination in this system is maintained, in part, by a greater than 9 Mb inversion, but the supergene is larger. Has the supergene in S. invicta undergone multiple large inversions? The initial gene content of the inverted allele of a supergene would be the same as that of the wild-type allele...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768988/single-cell-recordings-to-target-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#3
Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Yan Zhao, Marcus L F Janssen, G Louis Wagner, Albert J Colon, Danny M W Hilkman, Erik Gommer, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, Govert Hoogland, Linda Ackermans, Lo J Bour, Richard J A Van Wezel, Paul Boon, Yasin Temel, Tjitske Heida, Vivianne H J M Van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Rob P W Rouhl
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a promising treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. However, therapy response varies and precise positioning of the DBS lead is potentially essential for maximizing therapeutic efficacy. We investigate if single-cell recordings acquired by microelectrode recordings can aid targeting of the ANT during surgery and hypothesize that the neuronal firing properties of the target region relate to clinical outcome. We prospectively included 10 refractory epilepsy patients and performed microelectrode recordings under general anesthesia to identify the change in neuronal signals when approaching and transecting the ANT...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727729/an-alarm-pheromone-reduces-ventral-tegmental-area-nucleus-accumbens-shell-responsivity
#4
Ana G Gutiérrez-García, Carlos M Contreras, Mauricio Saldivar-Lara
2-Heptanone (methyl n-amyl ketone) is a ketone that produces alarm reactions in insects (e.g., bees and ants). As an olfactory stimulus, 2-heptanone produces anxiety reactions in the short term and despair in the long term in rodent models. Among the anatomical connections of the olfactory system that integrate behavioral responses, connections between the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are important, which in turn form a circuit with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). 2-Heptanone increases the firing rate of amygdala neurons without participation of the vomeronasal organ...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727711/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-anterior-vermis-modulates-behavioural-response-to-chronic-stress-involvement-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsal-raphe
#5
Francis Rodriguez Bambico, Stefano Comai, M S Nageeb Hasan, Joshua Dean Conway, Soroush Darvish-Gane, Clement Hamani, Gabriella Gobbi, José N Nobrega
Some evidence suggests that the cerebellum modulates affect via connectivities with mood-regulating corticolimbic structures, such as the prefrontal cortex and monoamine nuclei. In rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), we examined the neuro-behavioural effects of high frequency stimulation and surgical ablation/disconnection of the cerebellar vermis. CUS reduced sucrose preference, increased novelty-induced feeding suppression and passive coping. These depressive-like behaviours were associated with decreased cerebellar zif268 expression, indicating possible cerebellar involvement in stress pathology...
May 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721300/brain-gene-expression-analyses-in-virgin-and-mated-queens-of-fire-ants-reveal-mating-independent-and-socially-regulated-changes
#6
Travis L Calkins, Mei-Er Chen, Arinder K Arora, Chloe Hawkings, Cecilia Tamborindeguy, Patricia V Pietrantonio
Transcriptomes of dissected brains from virgin alate and dealate mated queens from polygyne fire ants ( Solenopsis invicta ) were analyzed and compared. Thirteen genes were upregulated in mated queen brain, and nine were downregulated. While many of the regulated genes were either uncharacterized or noncoding RNAs, those annotated genes included two hexamerin proteins, astakine neuropeptide, serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors. We found that for select differentially expressed genes in the brain, changes in gene expression were most likely driven by the changes in physiological state (i...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709609/physiological-identification-of-cortico-striatal-projection-neurons-for-song-control-in-bengalese-finches
#7
Neal A Hessler, Kazuo Okanoya
The avian song system is a group of brain areas specialized for vocal learning and production of song. A major cortical control area, HVC, projects both to a motor output circuit and to a striatal area in the anterior forebrain pathway. These projections are made by two groups of neurons, with mainly distinct roles in either programming vocal production or regulating vocal plasticity. In order to distinguish these two types of projection neurons in singing birds, we recorded unit activity in HVC of anesthetized birds, while stimulating in the anterior forebrain nucleus Area X...
April 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667639/-a-change-in-the-direction-of-the-wound-channel-in-the-case-of-the-combined-injury-inflicted-by-a-shot-from-the-9-0-mm-makarov-pistol
#8
A A Gusarov, I Yu Makarov, V A Fetisov
The authors present an example from the expert practice demonstrating the influence of such factors as the properties of the ammunition fired from a weapon (including its weight, size, shape, and speed) as well as the anatomical features of the body tissues being affected on the mechanism of formation of a gunshot wound in the human body. The investigation of the suicide of subject P. has demonstrated the penetrating bullet wound of the neck and the head. The entrance wound was located at the anterior neck surface and the exit one in the left half of the occipital region...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659783/managed-fire-frequency-significantly-influences-the-litter-arthropod-community-in-longleaf-pine-flatwoods
#9
Rachel A Atchison, Jiri Hulcr, Andrea Lucky
Frequent prescribed burns are essential to pine forest restoration and management. Research studies have assessed effects of prescribed fire and burn frequency on plants and vertebrates, but impacts of fire on terrestrial invertebrate communities are still poorly understood. This case study investigated effects of burning frequency on species richness and community composition of social insects (ants, Hymenoptera: Formicidae and termites, Blattodea: Isoptera) in fire-managed Southern longleaf pine flatwoods in central Florida...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656567/major-venom-proteins-of-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-insights-into-possible-pheromone-binding-function-from-mass-spectrometric-analysis
#10
T Das, I Alabi, M Colley, F Yan, W Griffith, S Bach, S T Weintraub, R Renthal
Proteins in the venom of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta have been suggested to function in pheromone binding. Venom from queens and workers contains different isoforms of these proteins, consistent with the differing pheromones they secrete, but questions remain about the venom protein composition and glandular source. We found that the queen venom contains a previously uncharacterized pheromone-binding protein paralogue known as Sol i 2X1. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we located the main venom proteins in the poison sac, implying that pheromones might have to compete with venom alkaloids for binding...
April 15, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652169/contribution-of-neuromuscular-factors-to-quadriceps-asymmetry-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#11
Alexa K Johnson, Riann M Palmieri-Smith, Lindsey K Lepley
CONTEXT:   To quantify quadriceps weakness after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), researchers have often analyzed only peak torque. However, analyzing other characteristics of the waveform, such as the rate of torque development (RTD), time to peak torque (TTP), and central activation ratio (CAR), can lend insight into the underlying neuromuscular factors that regulate torque development. OBJECTIVE:   To determine if interlimb neuromuscular asymmetry was present in patients with ACLR at the time of clearance to return to activity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614132/only-multi-taxon-studies-show-the-full-range-of-arthropod-responses-to-fire
#12
Inam Yekwayo, James S Pryke, René Gaigher, Michael J Samways
Fire is a major driver in many ecosystems. Yet, little is known about how different ground-living arthropods survive fire. Using three sampling methods, and time-since-fire (last fire event: 3 months, 1 year, and 7 years), we investigate how ground-living arthropod diversity responds to fire, and how species richness, diversity, abundance, and composition of the four dominant taxa: ants, beetles, cockroaches and mites, respond. We did this in the naturally fire-prone Mediterranean-type scrubland vegetation (fynbos) of the Cape Floristic Region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604611/controlled-semantic-cognition-relies-upon-dynamic-and-flexible-interactions-between-the-executive-semantic-control-and-hub-and-spoke-semantic-representation-systems
#13
Rocco Chiou, Gina F Humphreys, JeYoung Jung, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Built upon a wealth of neuroimaging, neurostimulation, and neuropsychology data, a recent proposal set forth a framework termed controlled semantic cognition (CSC) to account for how the brain underpins the ability to flexibly use semantic knowledge (Lambon Ralph et al., 2017; Nature Reviews Neuroscience). In CSC, the 'semantic control' system, underpinned predominantly by the prefrontal cortex, dynamically monitors and modulates the 'semantic representation' system that consists of a 'hub' (anterior temporal lobe, ATL) and multiple 'spokes' (modality-specific areas)...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593632/stroke-related-changes-in-the-complexity-of-muscle-activation-during-obstacle-crossing-using-fuzzy-approximate-entropy-analysis
#14
Ying Chen, Huijing Hu, Chenming Ma, Yinwei Zhan, Na Chen, Le Li, Rong Song
This study investigated the complexity of the electromyography (EMG) of lower limb muscles when performing obstacle crossing tasks at different heights in poststroke subjects versus healthy controls. Five poststroke subjects and eight healthy controls were recruited to perform different obstacle crossing tasks at various heights (randomly set at 10, 20, and 30% of the leg's length). EMG signals were recorded from bilateral biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior during obstacle crossing task...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593054/low-dimensional-and-monotonic-preparatory-activity-in-mouse-anterior-lateral-motor-cortex
#15
Hidehiko K Inagaki, Miho Inagaki, Sandro Romani, Karel Svoboda
Neurons in multiple brain regions fire trains of action potentials anticipating specific movements, but this "preparatory activity" has not been systematically compared across behavioral tasks. We compared preparatory activity in auditory and tactile delayed-response tasks in male mice. Skilled, directional licking was the motor output. The anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) is necessary for motor planning in both tasks. Multiple features of ALM preparatory activity during the delay epoch were similar across tasks...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551460/conflict-monitoring-mechanism-at-the-single-neuron-level-in-the-human-ventral-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#16
Irit Shapira-Lichter, Ido Strauss, Noga Oren, Tomer Gazit, Francesco Sammartino, Peter Giacobbe, Sidney Kennedy, William D Hutchison, Itzhak Fried, Talma Hendler, Andres M Lozano
Life requires monitoring and adjusting behavior in the face of conflicts. The conflict monitoring theory implicates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in these processes; its ventral aspect (vACC) specializes in emotional conflict. To elucidate the underpinning neural mechanism, we recorded vACC extracellular activity from 12 patients with mood disorders or epilepsy who performed the face-emotional Stroop task. Behaviorally, both conflict detection and adaptation to conflict were evident. The firing rate of neurons in the vACC represented current conflict, i...
July 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526717/biogenic-amine-signaling-systems-in-the-red-imported-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-possible-contributors-to-worker-division-of-labor
#17
Yi-Xiang Qi, Tian Zeng, Lei Wang, Yong-Yue Lu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a dangerous invasive pest in the United States, China and other countries. Efficient division of labor is one of the main reasons for the success of this social insect. Biogenic amines are important regulators of worker division of labor in this eusocial insect, but the related molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we identified 10 candidate biogenic amine synthetic enzyme genes and 17 candidate biogenic amine receptor genes in the genome of S...
June 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510162/speedy-milking-of-fresh-venom-from-aculeate-hymenopterans
#18
Eduardo G P Fox, Meng Xu, Lei Wang, Li Chen, Yong-Yue Lu
A straightforward method for extracting aculeate arthropod venoms by centrifugation is described, based on adapting a glass insert containing a piece of metal mesh or glass wool into a centrifuge tube. Venom apparatuses are centrifuged for 30 s intervals at ≈2000-6000 g, with samples being dislodged between cycles. Venom from fire ants, honeybees, and a social wasp were extracted within minutes. The method is suited for small-scale bioassays and allows for faithful descriptions of unmodified toxin cocktails...
May 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466388/prospecting-for-viral-natural-enemies-of-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-in-argentina
#19
Steven M Valles, Sanford D Porter, Luis A Calcaterra
Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina) with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide natural, sustainable control of this ant. RNA was purified from worker ants from 182 S. invicta colonies, which was pooled into 4 groups according to location. A library was created from each group and sequenced using Illumina Miseq technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463643/hyperactivity-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-areas-24a-24b-drives-chronic-pain-induced-anxiodepressive-like-consequences
#20
Jim Sellmeijer, Victor Mathis, Sylvain Hugel, Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Qi-Yu Chen, Florent Barthas, Pierre-Eric Lutz, Meltem Karatas, Andreas Luthi, Pierre Veinante, Ad Aertsen, Michel Barrot, Min Zhuo, Ipek Yalcin
Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development of these sensory and aversive components as well as anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain and determined their electrophysiological impact on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cortical areas 24a/24b). We show that these symptoms of neuropathic pain evolve and recover in different time courses following nerve injury in male mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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