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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342029/association-of-involutional-lower-eyelid-entropion-with-reduced-upper-eyelid-position-relative-to-the-corneal-light-reflex-quantification-of-facial-asymmetry
#1
Paul O Phelps, Edward J Wladis, Dale R Meyer
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between upper eyelid position relative to the corneal light reflex (MRD1) and to delineate an association between eyelid height and involutional lower eyelid entropion. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients presenting for entropion repair to an academic ophthalmic plastic surgery service. A total of 111 patients were included in the study; 95 had unilateral involutional lower eyelid entropion, and 16 had bilateral lower eyelid entropion...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341826/mu-opioid-receptors-inhibit-the-exercise-pressor-reflex-by-closing-n-type-calcium-channels-but-not-by-opening-girk-channels-in-rats
#2
Juan A Estrada, Marc P Kaufman
Mu opioid G-protein coupled receptors (MOR) interact with ion channels to decrease neuronal excitability. In humans, intrathecal administration of the MOR agonist, fentanyl, inhibits the exercise pressor reflex, an effect that can be attributed to either the opening of inward rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) or the closing of N-type calcium channels. The purpose of this study was to determine if the highly selective MOR agonist DAMGO attenuates the exercise pressor reflex, and which of these two channels are responsible for this effect...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341797/visual-dependence-affects-postural-sway-responses-to-continuous-visual-field-motion-in-individuals-with-cerebral-palsy
#3
Yawen Yu, Richard T Lauer, Carole A Tucker, Elizabeth D Thompson, Emily A Keshner
The current study aimed to explore the impact of visual dependence on sensorimotor coupling of postural sway and visual motion in adults and teens with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We hypothesized that individuals with CP would exhibit greater magnitudes of sway than healthy individuals, and the presence of visual dependence (VD) would produce instability in the direction of visual motion. Participants stood in a virtual environment in which the visual scene remained static or continuously rotated 30 degree/second in pitch-up or pitch-down...
January 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341362/a-novel-mutation-of-lrsam1-in-a-chinese-family-with-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#4
Guohua Zhao, Jie Song, Mi Yang, Xiuhua Song, Xiaomin Liu
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy with decreased or absent tendon reflexes. Mutations in LRSAM1 have been identified to cause CMT disease type 2P. We report a novel LRSAM1 mutation c.2021-2024del (p.E674VfsX11) in a Chinese autosomal dominant CMT disease type 2 family. The phenotype was characterized by late onset and mild sensory impairment. Electrophysiological findings showed normal or mildly to moderately reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities in lower and upper limb nerves...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340899/assessing-sensorimotor-excitability-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-reflex-testing-method-based-on-cycling-with-afferent-stimulation
#5
Stefano Piazza, Diego Torricelli, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Gerardo Ávila-Martín, Iriana Galán-Arriero, José Luis Pons, Julian Taylor
Several studies have examined spinal reflex modulation during leg cycling in healthy and spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects. However, the effect of cutaneous plantar afferent input on spinal excitability during leg cycling after SCI has not been characterised. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using controlled leg cycling in combination with plantar cutaneous electrical stimulation (ES) cycling to assess lower limb spinal sensorimotor excitability in subjects with motor complete or incomplete SCI...
January 17, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340810/ureteral-stents-increase-risk-of-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-following-colorectal-surgery
#6
Taryn E Hassinger, J Hunter Mehaffey, Matthew G Mullen, Alex D Michaels, Nathan R Elwood, Shoshana T Levi, Traci L Hedrick, Charles M Friel
BACKGROUND: Ureteral stents are commonly placed before colorectal resection to assist in identification of ureters and prevent injury. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common cause of morbidity and increased cost following colorectal surgery. Although previously associated with reflex anuria, prophylactic stents have not been found to increase AKI. We sought to determine the impact of ureteral stents on the incidence of AKI following colorectal surgery. METHODS: All patients undergoing colon or rectal resection at a single institution between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset...
January 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340148/reducing-unnecessary-culturing-a-systems-approach-to-evaluating-urine-culture-ordering-and-collection-practices-among-nurses-in-two-acute-care-settings
#7
Robert Redwood, Mary Jo Knobloch, Daniela C Pellegrini, Matthew J Ziegler, Michael Pulia, Nasia Safdar
Background: Inappropriate ordering and acquisition of urine cultures leads to unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Treatment of ASB contributes to antimicrobial resistance particularly among hospital-acquired organisms. Our objective was to investigate urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses to identify key system-level and human factor barriers and facilitators that affect optimal ordering and collection practices. Methods: We conducted two focus groups, one with ED nurses and the other with ICU nurses...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339776/the-experience-of-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-perceived-characteristics-and-impact-on-daily-life
#8
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339258/relationship-between-very-early-brain-structure-and-neuromotor-neurological-and-neurobehavioral-function-in-infants-born-31%C3%A2-weeks-gestational-age
#9
Joanne M George, Simona Fiori, Jurgen Fripp, Kerstin Pannek, Andrea Guzzetta, Michael David, Robert S Ware, Stephen E Rose, Paul B Colditz, Roslyn N Boyd
AIM: This study aimed to examine associations between structural MRI and concurrent motor, neurological and neurobehavioral measures at 30-32 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA; 'Early'), and at term equivalent age ('Term'). METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, infants underwent Early MRI (n = 119; 73 male; median 32 weeks 1 day PMA) and Term MRI (n = 102; 61 male; median 40 weeks 4 days PMA) at 3 T. Structural images were scored generating white matter (WM), cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, cerebellar and global brain abnormality scores...
January 13, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337833/effects-of-plyometric-and-resistance-training-on-muscle-strength-explosiveness-and-neuromuscular-function-in-young-adolescent-soccer-players
#10
Brandon John McKinlay, Phillip Wallace, Raffy Dotan, Devon Long, Craig Tokuno, David Gabriel, Bareket Falk
This study examined the effect of 8-weeks of free-weight-resistance (RT) and plyometric (PLYO) training on maximal strength, explosiveness and jump performance compared with no added training (CON), in young male soccer players. Forty-one 11[FIGURE DASH]13-year-old soccer players were divided into three groups (RT, PLYO, CON). All participants completed isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions pre- and post-training. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), electromechanical-delay (EMD), rate of muscle activation (Q50), m...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337269/inhibitors-of-phosphodiesterases-in-the-treatment-of-cough
#11
REVIEW
Juraj Mokry, Anna Urbanova, Martin Kertys, Daniela Mokra
A group of 11 enzyme families of metalophosphohydrolases called phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is responsible for a hydrolysis of intracellular cAMP and cGMP. Xanthine derivatives (methylxanthines) inhibit PDEs without selective action on their single isoforms and lead to many pharmacological effects, e.g. bronchodilation, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, and thus they can modulate the cough reflex. Contrary, selective PDE inhibitors have been developed to inhibit PDE isoforms with different pharmacological effects based on their tissue expression...
January 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337268/the-double-sidedness-of-cough-in-the-elderly
#12
REVIEW
Ha-Kyeong Won, Sol-Ji Yoon, Woo-Jung Song
Cough is a physiological reflex to protect airways against aspiration, but also it is one of the most frequent problems that lead patients to seek medical care. Chronic cough is more prevalent in the elderly than younger subjects, and more challenging to manage due to frequent comorbidities and possible side effects from drug treatment. Meanwhile, cough reflex does not decrease with natural aging but is often impaired by pathologic conditions like stroke. The impairment in cough reflex may lead to fatal complication like aspiration pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337081/abolishment-of-spontaneous-flight-turns-in-visually-responsive-drosophila
#13
Bennett Drew Ferris, Jonathan Green, Gaby Maimon
Animals react rapidly to external stimuli, such as an approaching predator, but in other circumstances, they seem to act spontaneously, without any obvious external trigger. How do the neural processes mediating the execution of reflexive and spontaneous actions differ? We studied this question in tethered, flying Drosophila. We found that silencing a large but genetically defined set of non-motor neurons virtually eliminates spontaneous flight turns while preserving the tethered flies' ability to perform two types of visually evoked turns, demonstrating that, at least in flies, these two modes of action are almost completely dissociable...
January 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337016/tear-instability-importance-mechanisms-validity-and-reliability-of-assessment
#14
Charles W Mcmonnies
PURPOSE: To examine the factors which contribute to tear stability and the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing tear break up time which is a core part of an examination of tear stability in dry eye patients. METHODS: A review of publications which are relevant to tear stability and its assessment. RESULTS: Tear break up time may be more invasive than intended if difficulty avoiding blinking during assessment results in reflex tearing...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336209/effects-of-treadmill-training-combined-with-serotonergic-interventions-on-spasticity-after-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Youngjae Ryu, Toru Ogata, Motoshi Nagao, Yasuhiro Sawada, Ryohei Nishimura, Naoki Fujita
Spasticity usually emerges during the course of recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). While medications and physical rehabilitation are prescribed to alleviate spastic symptoms, the insufficiency of their effects remains an important problem to be addressed. Given the challenges associated with increasing the dose of medication, we supposed that a combination therapy with medication and physical rehabilitation can be effective. Therefore, we examined the effects of treadmill training (TMT) along with serotonergic medication using a spastic rat model after contusive injury...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336126/effects-of-smoking-on-eustachian-tube-and-hearing
#16
Matteo Pezzoli, Denise Lofaro, Alessandro Oliva, Monica Orione, Daniela Cupi, Andrea Albera, Guido Bongioannini, Roberto Albera
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tobacco use on the Eustachian tube and inner ear function. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS: Thirty-one nonsmoking volunteers and 34 smoking subjects recruited in an University Hospital, submitted to an audiological evaluation including pure tone audiometry, basal tympanogram, stapedial reflexes analysis, and nine-step eustachian tube (ET) function test...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336124/masking-treatment-and-its-effect-on-tinnitus-parameters
#17
Ismail Aytac, Elif Baysal, Secaattin Gulsen, Koray Tumuklu, Cengiz Durucu, Lütfi Semih Mumbuc, MUzaffer Kanlikama
OBJECTIVE: Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound without any external acoustic stimulation. Any pathology of auditory pathways or any system of the human body may result with tinnitus. The pathophysiology of tinnitus accompanying the disorders of auditory system is not fully understood and there is not any particular effective treatment method has been specified. Tinnitus masking therapy has been reported as an effective treatment modality in the treatment of tinnitus. In this study, the results of tinnitus masking treatment on the parameters were evaluated prospectively...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336011/decreased-retinal-sensitivity-in-depressive-disorder-a-controlled-study
#18
G Berman, D Muttuvelu, D Berman, J I Larsen, R W Licht, J Ledolter, R H Kardon
OBJECTIVE: To compare pupil responses in depressed patients with a seasonal pattern, depressed patients without a seasonal pattern and healthy controls as a function of daylight hours on the testing day. METHOD: Patients suffering from a major depressive episode were included in wintertime. The pupil light reflex was measured at inclusion and in the following summer using a binocular pupillometer. A protocol of low (1 lux) and high (400 lux) intensity red and blue lights was used to assess rod, cone and melanopsin-containing intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cell input to the pupil reflex...
January 15, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335430/transspinal-direct-current-stimulation-produces-persistent-plasticity-in-human-motor-pathways
#19
Lynda M Murray, Behdad Tahayori, Maria Knikou
The spinal cord is an integration center for descending, ascending, and segmental neural signals. Noninvasive transspinal stimulation may thus constitute an effective method for concomitant modulation of local and distal neural circuits. In this study, we established changes in cortical excitability and input/output function of corticospinal and spinal neural circuits before, at 0-15 and at 30-45 minutes after cathodal, anodal, and sham transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to the thoracic region in healthy individuals...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335084/-influence-of-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-on-the-diagnosis-of-functional-gastrointestinal-diseases-based-on-the-rome-iv-standard-in-infants-and-young-children
#20
Bo-Wen Feng, Si-Mao Fu, Quan-Shan Zhang, Xiao-Ling Long, Xiao-Ling Xie, Wei Ren, Zhan-Tu Liang, Zhu-Ling Yang, Ang Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) on the diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID) based on the Rome IV standard in infants and young children. METHODS: A total of 84 children aged 1 month to 3 years who were diagnosed with CMPA were enrolled as the case group, and 84 infants and young children who underwent physical examination and had no CMPA were enrolled as the control group. The pediatricians specializing in gastroenterology asked parents using a questionnaire for the diagnosis of FGID based on the Rome IV standard to assess clinical symptoms and to diagnose FGID...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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