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Ben J Hardcastle, Holger G Krapp
The use of vision to coordinate behavior requires an efficient control design that stabilizes the world on the retina or directs the gaze towards salient features in the surroundings. With a level gaze, visual processing tasks are simplified and behaviorally relevant features from the visual environment can be extracted. No matter how simple or sophisticated the eye design, mechanisms have evolved across phyla to stabilize gaze. In this review, we describe functional similarities in eyes and gaze stabilization reflexes, emphasizing their fundamental role in transforming sensory information into motor commands that support postural and locomotor control...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Utsav Bansal, Thomas W Fuller, Xuewen Jiang, Jathin Bandari, Zhaocun Zhang, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
AIMS: To determine the spinal segmental afferent contributions to tibial and pudendal inhibition of bladder overactivity. METHODS: Intravesical infusion of 0.5% acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder and induce bladder overactivity in anesthetized cats. Tibial or pudendal nerve stimulation was used to suppress the bladder overactivity and increase bladder capacity during cystometry. L5-S3 dorsal roots ipsilateral to the stimulation were exposed by a laminectomy and transected sequentially during the experiments to determine the role of individual dorsal roots in tibial or pudendal neuromodulation...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Robert D Black, Lesco L Rogers, Kristen K Ade, Heather A Nicoletto, Heather D Adkins, Daniel T Laskowitz
Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) to elicit the vestibulo-ocular reflex has long been used in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis of balance disorders and to confirm the absence of brainstem function. While a number of studies have hinted at the potential therapeutic applications of CVS, the limitations of existing devices have frustrated that potential. Current CVS irrigators use water or air during short-duration applications; however, this approach is not tenable for longer duration therapeutic protocols or home use...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Carola Vogel, Roman Rukwied, Lenka Stockinger, Marcus Schley, Martin Schmelz, Wolfgang Schleinzer, Christoph Konrad
: At-level and above-level hypersensitivity was assessed in patients with chronic complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Patients were classified by somatosensory mapping (brush, cold, pinprick) and assigned into two groups, i.e. patients i) with at-level hypersensitivity (SCIHs, n=8) and ii) without at-level hypersensitivity (SCINHs, n=7). Gender and age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrically- and histamine-induced pain and itch, laser Doppler imaging and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) were recorded at-level and above-level in SCI-patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Ibrahim M Salman, Cara M Hildreth, Jacqueline K Phillips
We investigated age- and sex-related changes in reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and haemodynamic responses to vagal afferent stimulation in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using anaesthetised juvenile (7-8weeks) and adult (12-13weeks) Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and Lewis control rats of either sex (n=63 total), reflex changes in RSNA, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to vagal afferent stimulation (5-s train, 4.0V, 2.0-ms pulses, 1-16Hz) were measured. In all groups, stimulation of the vagal afferents below 16Hz produced frequency-dependent reductions in RSNA, HR and MAP, while a 16Hz stimulus produced an initial sympathoinhibition followed by sympathoexcitation...
October 11, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Meltem Çobanoğulları Direk, Veli Yıldırım, Serkan Güneş, Gülçin Bozlu, Çetin Okuyaz
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with increased serotonergic activity in central nervous system and may occur during the use of serotonergic drugs. Although increasing frequency of serotonergic drug use in children, pediatricians, emergency medicine and pediatric intensive care specialists have not enough knowledge and experience about SS that is a potentially life-threatening condition. A 12-year-old girl patient was admitted to our emergency room with the history of involuntary contractions on her extremities and alteration of consciousness...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Diego L Guarin, Robert E Kearney
The mechanical properties of a joint are determined by the combination of intrinsic and reflex mechanisms. However, in some situations the reflex contributions are small so that intrinsic mechanisms play the dominant role in the control of posture and movement. The intrinsic mechanisms, characterized by the joint compliance, can be described well by a second order, linear model for small perturbations around an operating point defined by mean position and torque. However, the compliance parameters depend strongly on the operating point...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
M Ortega Escudero, J M Gutiérrez Dueñas, C Hernández Díaz, C Ruiz Hierro, R Chamorro Juárez, E Ardela Díaz
OBJECIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of surgery (Lynn's myectomy) in patients with chronic persistent constipation and failure of medical treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study of patients with severe chronic constipation treated by posterior anorectal myectomy (Lynn's technique). We report data from the last 15 years, with a minimum postoperative follow-up of one year. Patients included in the study suffered from a long-term constipation refractory to medical management...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Gabriel Ruiz, Natividad Sánchez
William Horsley Gantt is well known as one to the principal proponents of Pavlovian methodology in the U.S. After a long stay at Ivan Petrovich Pavlov's laboratory in Leningrad from 1925 to 1929, Gantt was invited by Adolf Meyer to join the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, where he founded and directed the Pavlovian Laboratory from 1930 to 1964. Soon after his arrival at Phipps Clinic in 1931, Gantt began a Pavlovian research program that included the investigation of nervous disturbances in dogs and clinical researches with psychiatric patients...
October 24, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Douglas Powell, Anburaj Muthumani, RuiPing Xia
OBJECTIVE: Quantify the effect of a continuous compared to discontinuous movement trajectory on parkinsonian rigidity and reflex responses to passive stretch and shortening. METHODS: Eighteen participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) performed passive wrist flexion and extension movements through a 90° range of motion at 50 °/sec using continuous (CONT) and discontinuous (DISC) movement trajectories. Participants were tested in both the OFF-MED and ON-MED states...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Xiaohui Duan, Weihong Gu, Ying Hao, Renbin Wang, Hong Wen, Shaojie Sun, Jinsong Jiao, Dongsheng Fan
Myelin protein zero (MPZ) is a major component of compact myelin in peripheral nerves. Mutations in MPZ have been associated with different Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) phenotypes (CMT1B, CMT2I/J, CMTDI), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, and congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. Here, we report phenotypic variability in a four-generation Chinese family with the MPZ mutation Asp121Asn. Genetic testing was performed on nine family members and 200 controls. Clinical, electrophysiological and skeletal muscle MRI assessments were available for review in six family members...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Carlynn Willmore-Payne, Kristy Damjanovich-Colmenares, Alexandra V Pasi, Theresa L Werner, H Evin Gulbahce, Erinn Downs-Kelly, Katherine B Geiersbach
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines suggest that secondary reflex testing may be useful for resolving HER2 status in breast cancers with equivocal results by both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH). We compared two reflex ISH assays and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for this application. METHODS: Twenty-nine breast cancers with equivocal IHC and ISH results were retested two ways: (1) ISH using differentially labeled probes targeting ERBB2 (HER2, 17q12) and either RAI1 (17p11...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Visual fixation (VF) of a target is a possible, although atypical, feature of the Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS). Whether VF may indicate residual awareness in these patients is debatable, since it may simply subtend a series of reflex processes. Objective tools should therefore be used to identify aware VF, which depends on the integrity of visuomotor networks encompassing frontal-parietal-occipital areas. The aim of our study was to detect residual visuomotor network functionality potentially sustaining aware VF...
October 20, 2016: Brain Research
Giovanna Squintani, Francesco Donato, Mara Turri, Luciano Deotto, Francesco Teatini, Giuseppe Moretto, Roberto Erro
BACKGROUND: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) has been recently approved for the management of treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. Although the symptomatic relief of Sativex® on MS-spasticity has been consistently demonstrated, the pathogenetic implications remain unclear and the few electrophysiological studies performed to address this topic yielded controversial results. We therefore aimed to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the modulation of spastic hypertonia by Sativex®, at both central and spinal levels, through an extensive neurophysiological battery in patients with MS...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
In Ae Chang, Hee Don Lim, Ki Joong Kim, Hwachul Shin, Uk Namgung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological symptoms, and recent experimental studies have begun to provide evidence showing its protective effects on neural cells. Yet, its function for the regenerative responses of axons in the peripheral nerve after injury is not known. AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary objective of the present study was to explore that BYHWD is involved in growth-promoting activity of the peripheral nerve axons after injury...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Salwa El Tawil, Robin Morris, Nandini Mullatti, Lina Nashef, Sanjeev Rajakulendran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ugur Uygunoglu, Aysegul Gunduz, Harika Devrimsel Ertem, Derya Uluduz, Sabahattin Saip, Baki Goksan, Aksel Siva, Nurten Uzun, Feray Karaali-Savrun, Meral Kızıltan
OBJECTIVE: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the blink reflex (BR) is a reduction in BR excitability due to a conditioning stimulus, reflecting sensory gating by brainstem structures. We aimed to analyze PPI changes during a painful episode in chronic or episodic migraine and its relation to allodynia, since abnormal brainstem filtering has been hypothesized in migraine pathophysiology. METHODS: We included 20 patients with migraine during headache episode, and age- and gender-matched 22 healthy subjects...
October 19, 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Mehmet Cemal Kahya, Oğuz Sebik, Kemal S Türker
Painful stimulation of the hand results in an inhibitory response in the hand muscles known as the cutaneous silent period (CSP). In this study, we employed probability- and frequency-based analysis methods to examine the CSP induced by laser stimuli. Subjects were asked to contract their first dorsal interosseous muscle so that selected motor units discharged at a rate of about 8Hz. Laser pulses were delivered to the palm of the hand, and reflex responses were recorded. The stimuli generated CSP in all test subjects...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Riikka Homanen
This article discusses practices of parental support in the maternity healthcare provided by the welfare state. Drawing on ethnographic material from clinics in Finland, I discuss maternity healthcare practices and processes as the specific contexts of subjectification to parenthood in the Nordic welfare state. The analysis shows that in both nurses' (work) experience-based knowledge and population-statistical knowledge, parental competence is achieved largely through the 'natural' process of experiencing pregnant life...
October 22, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
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