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Traumatic brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922256/statins-in-critical-care-to-give-or-not-to-give
#1
Amr S Omar, Samy Hanoura, Haifa M Aljanubi, Ahmed Mahfouz
Owing to statin's immune modulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic and endothelial function actions, they are widely used in the critical care settings in diverse disease scenarios. We aim to explore the evidence to globalize the utilization of statins in the intensive care practice for different indications. We carried out a search of the PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE databases up to January 2016. We included review articles, meta-analyses, and original trials on the effects of statin therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) combining the following MESH terms: 'satins', 'intensive care, 'cardiac surgery', 'sepsis', 'acute respiratory distress syndrome' 'pneumonia', subarachnoid hemorrhage', traumatic brain injury and 'critical illness'...
December 6, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920935/cerebral-foreign-body-granuloma-in-brain-triggering-generalized-seizures-without-obvious-craniocerebral-injury-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Nina Brawanski, Peter Baumgarten, Jürgen Konczalla, Volker Seifert, Christian Senft
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral foreign body granuloma is rarely reported. We present the case of a male patient with a cerebral foreign body granuloma. CASE DESCRIPTION: Initial admission of a 67-year-old male patient was after an aphasia followed by secondary generalized seizures. Cranial computed tomography (CCT) showed a metal-dense, wedge-shaped foreign body in the range of the frontal sinus on the left side, breaking through the frontal sinus, and creating a connection to the frontal cerebral lobe...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920793/cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-chronic-hydrocephalus-and-normal-aging-growing-into-deficits
#3
Marlijn H de Beer, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND/AIM: To explore the theory of 'growing into deficits', a concept known from developmental neurology, in a series of cases with chronic hydrocephalus (CH). METHODS: Patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and underwent extensive dementia screening. RESULTS: Twelve patients with CH were selected, in whom Alzheimer's disease was considered unlikely, based on biomarker information and follow-up. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 24 (range 7-30)...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920753/neuroproteomics-and-systems-biology-approach-to-identify-temporal-biomarker-changes-post-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#4
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy D Guingab-Cagmat, Zhiqun Zhang, Ahmed Moghieb, Olena Y Glushakova, Stefania Mondello, Angela M Boutté, John Anagli, Richard Rubenstein, Hisham Bahmad, Amy K Wagner, Ronald L Hayes, Kevin K W Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a critical health problem of which diagnosis, management, and treatment remain challenging. TBI is a contributing factor in approximately one-third of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1.7 million people suffer a TBI in the United States annually. Efforts continue to focus on elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying TBI pathophysiology and defining sensitive and specific biomarkers that can aid in improving patient management and care...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919750/mapping-the-functional-connectome-in-traumatic-brain-injury-what-can-graph-metrics-tell-us
#5
Karen Caeyenberghs, Helena Verhelst, Adam Clemente, Peter H Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with cognitive and motor deficits, and poses a significant personal, societal, and economic burden. One mechanism by which TBI is thought to affect cognition and behaviour is through changes in functional connectivity. Graph theory is a powerful framework for quantifying topological features of neuroimaging-derived functional networks. The objective of this paper is to review studies examining functional connectivity in TBI with an emphasis on graph theoretical analysis that is proving to be valuable in uncovering network abnormalities in this condition...
December 2, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919684/neuroprotective-effects-of-mir-27a-against-traumatic-brain-injury-via-suppressing-foxo3a-mediated-neuronal-autophagy
#6
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Yan Wang, Aihua Liu, Ming Lv, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
MicroRNA-27a (miR-27a) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and aberrantly expressed in the brain suffered from traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study is designed to investigate the potential role and molecular mechanism of miR-27a in the pathogenesis of TBI. The level of miR-27a in brain was manipulated by intracerebroventricular injection of lentiviral-encoding miR-27a before TBI induction. Real-time PCR was used to detected miR-27a and Forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) levels in the hippocampus...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919624/metabolic-fate-of-glucose-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-pyruvate-or-glucose-treatments-a-nmr-spectroscopy-study
#7
Katsunori Shijo, Richard L Sutton, Sima S Ghavim, Neil G Harris, Brenda L Bartnik-Olson
Administration of sodium pyruvate (SP; 9.08 μmol/kg, i.p.), ethyl pyruvate (EP; 0.34 μmol/kg, i.p.) or glucose (GLC; 11.1 μmol/kg, i.p.) to rats after unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury has been reported to reduce neuronal loss and improve cerebral metabolism. In the present study these doses of each fuel or 8% saline (SAL; 5.47 nmoles/kg) were administered immediately and at 1, 3, 6 and 23 h post-CCI. At 24 h all CCI groups and non-treated Sham injury controls were infused with [1,2 (13)C] glucose for 68 min (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained from cortex + hippocampus tissues from left (injured) and right (contralateral) hemispheres...
December 2, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919428/anxiety-and-comorbid-depression-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-community-based-sample-of-young-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#8
A J Osborn, J L Mathias, A K Fairweather-Schmidt, K J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Anxiety is common following a traumatic brain injury (TBI), but who is most at risk, and to what extent, is not well understood. METHODS: Longitudinal data from a randomly-selected community sample (Wave 1: 7397, Wave 2: 6621 and Wave 3: 6042) comprising three adult cohorts (young: 20-24 years of age, middle-aged: 40-44, older: 60-64), were analysed. The association between TBI history, anxiety and comorbid depression was assessed, controlling for age, sex, marital/employment status, medical conditions, recent life events, alcohol consumption, social support and physical activity...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919376/usability-evaluation-of-the-smart-application-for-youth-with-mtbi
#9
Judith W Dexheimer, Brad G Kurowski, Shilo H Anders, Nicole McClanahan, Shari L Wade, Lynn Babcock
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of evidence-based treatments available to address the significant morbidity associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). To address this gap, we designed a novel user-friendly, web-based application. We describe the preliminary evaluation of feasibility and usability of the application to promote recovery following mTBI in youth, the Self-Monitoring Activity-Restriction and Relaxation Treatment (SMART). SMART incorporates real-time recommendations for individualized symptom management and activity restriction along with training in cognitive-behavioral coping strategies...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919019/induction-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-expression-in-rats-by-cortical-spreading-depression
#10
Yan Wang, Anne E Tye, Junli Zhao, Dongqing Ma, Ann C Raddant, Fan Bu, Benjamin L Spector, Nolan K Winslow, Minyan Wang, Andrew F Russo
OBJECTIVE: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has now been established as a key player in migraine. However, the mechanisms underlying the reported elevation of CGRP in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of some migraineurs are not known. A candidate mechanism is cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is associated with migraine with aura and traumatic brain injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CGRP gene expression may be induced by experimental CSD in the rat cerebral cortex...
November 9, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918959/specificity-protein-1-zinc-finger-protein-179-pathway-is-involved-in-the-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-following-brain-injury
#11
Jian-Ying Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao, Shu-Hui Lin, An-Chih Wu, Pin-Tse Lee, Tsung-Ping Su, Shiu-Hwa Yeh, Yi-Chao Lee, Chung-Che Wu, Wen-Chang Chang
After sudden traumatic brain injuries, secondary injuries may occur during the following days or weeks, which leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since ROS exacerbate brain damage, it is important to protect neurons against their activity. Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) was shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, but the regulation of gene expression under oxidative stress remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated an increase in Znf179 protein levels in both in vitro model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation and animal models of traumatic brain injury...
November 29, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918475/association-between-the-osteoporosis-self-assessment-tool-for-asians-score-and-mortality-in-patients-with-isolated-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#12
Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Pao-Jen Kuo, Shao-Chun Wu, Yi-Chun Chen, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Ching-Hua Hsieh
Background: The purpose of this study was to use a propensity score-matched analysis to investigate the association between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) scores and clinical outcomes of patients with isolated moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: The study population comprised 7855 patients aged ≥40 years who were hospitalized for treatment of isolated moderate and severe TBI (an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥3 points only in the head and not in other regions of the body) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918390/outcomes-for-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury-how-can-the-functional-status-scale-contribute
#13
Michael J Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917726/mechanism-of-death-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-non-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Kimberley Trickey, Laura Hornby, Sam D Shemie, Jeanne Teitelbaum
Decompressive craniectomy (DC) after devastating brain injury (DBI) may influence the manner in which patients die, having implications for end-of-life care and organ donation. We performed a retrospective review of deaths following a non-traumatic DBI between 2008 and 2012. 160 patients were reviewed; 26 were treated with DC and 134 received standard care. There was no relationship between DC and mechanism of death, (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.44-3.17). Prospective studies are required to confirm these preliminary finding...
December 5, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917471/diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-non-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Yuta Aoki, Ryota Inokuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916756/-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-higher-brain-function-deficits
#16
Yukichi Inoue
The management of higher brain dysfunctions such as stroke-induced unilateral spatial neglect (USN) or aphasia is crucial because these dysfunctions have devastating neurological repercussions on the patients' daily life and quality of life. Impairment of the physiological interhemispheric rivalry is often the result of brain insults such as strokes or traumatic injuries, and it may lead to USN or aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method, is a promising tool for restoring the pathological imbalance in interhemispheric rivalry by either suppressing the hyperactivity of the unaffected hemisphere or facilitating hypoactivity in the affected hemisphere...
December 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916727/posttraumatic-administration-of-a-sub-anesthestic-dose-of-ketamine-exerts-neuroprotection-via-attenuating-inflammation-and-autophagy
#17
C-Q Wang, Y Ye, F Chen, W-C Han, J-M Sun, X Lu, R Guo, K Cao, M-J Zheng, L-C Liao
As a complex disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in long-term psychiatric changes and sensorimotor and cognitive impairments. The TBI-induced loss of memory and long-term cognitive dysfunction are related to mechanistic factors including an increased inflammatory response, autophagy, edema, and ischemia. Many published studies have offered evidence for the neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine for TBI patients. Nonetheless, there is a limited understanding of the accurate mechanism that underlies the potential neuroprotective effects of ketamine...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916720/the-direct-cost-of-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-sub-saharan-african-country-benin
#18
Luphin Hode, Soumaïla Madougou, Holden Fatigba, Phileas Hounnou, Karl Ebassa, Akué Aristote Hans Moevi, Pamphile Assouto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916623/multiple-beneficial-effects-of-melanocortin-mc4-receptor-agonists-in-experimental-neurodegenerative-disorders-therapeutic-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Daniela Giuliani, Alessandra Ottani, Laura Neri, Davide Zaffe, Paolo Grieco, Jerzy Jochem, Gian Maria Cavallini, Anna Catania, Salvatore Guarini
Melanocortin peptides induce neuroprotection in acute and chronic experimental neurodegenerative conditions. Melanocortins likewise counteract systemic responses to brain injuries. Furthermore, they promote neurogenesis by activating critical signaling pathways. Melanocortin-induced long-lasting improvement in synaptic activity and neurological performance, including learning and memory, sensory-motor orientation and coordinated limb use, has been consistently observed in experimental models of acute and chronic neurodegeneration...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916406/cortical-excitability-after-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Trevor A Seeger, Adam Kirton, Michael J Esser, Clare Gallagher, Jeff Dunn, Ephrem Zewdie, Omar Damji, Patrick Ciechanski, Karen M Barlow
INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) outcomes are variable, and 10-15% may suffer from prolonged symptoms beyond 3 months that impair the child's return to normal activities. Neurophysiological mechanisms of mTBI are incompletely understood, particularly in children, but alterations in cortical excitability have been proposed to underlie post-concussion syndrome. Improved understanding is required to advance interventions and improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To determine if cortical excitability is altered in children with mTBI, and its association with clinical symptoms...
November 19, 2016: Brain Stimulation
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