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Autism GI disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303420/aging-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-naturalistic-longitudinal-study-of-the-comorbidities-and-behavioral-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-adults-with-asd
#1
Elizabeth A Wise, Marcia D Smith, Peter V Rabins
Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features of ASD remained stable. GI disorders (68.9%) and seizure disorders (23%) were common, and 25.7% of the sample had a BMI >30. Females were more likely to engage in screaming (p < 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237548/application-of-packed-fiber-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-with-gc-ms-for-the-determination-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-children-s-urine
#2
Renshan Zhao, Lanling Chu, Yu Wang, Yuan Song, Ping Liu, Chen Li, Jingjing Huang, Xuejun Kang
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder involving interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are prevalent in the cohort of children with ASD and they have been recognized as a comorbid condition recently. It is of value to monitor GI issues in individuals, and to help further characterize factors that may contribute to GI disorders (in individuals with and without ASD). Due to the biological relevance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to GI disorders, it is important to develop a rapid and selective detection method capable of identifying and quantifying SCFAs in complex biological samples...
February 22, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122648/microbiota-transfer-therapy-alters-gut-ecosystem-and-improves-gastrointestinal-and-autism-symptoms-an-open-label-study
#3
Dae-Wook Kang, James B Adams, Ann C Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B Sullivan, J Gregory Caporaso, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10(13) bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD...
January 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081325/plasma-levels-of-serotonin-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-sleep-problems-in-children-with-autism
#4
Sorayya Kheirouri, Parinaz Kalejahi, Seyyed Gholamreza Noorazar
BACKGROUND/AIM: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder identified with higher frequency of serotonin abnormalities and gastrointestinal (GI) and sleep problems. This study aimed to evaluate the plasma levels of serotonin, GI symptoms, and sleep problems, and their relationship with autism severity in children with autism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five children with autism and 31 healthy subjects were studied. GI problems, sleep disorders, and severity of disorder were assessed...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879968/can-urinary-indolylacroylglycine-iag-levels-be-used-to-determine-whether-children-with-autism-will-benefit-from-dietary-intervention
#5
Julie Wilson, Barry Wright, Sandra Jost, Robert Smith, Helen Pearce, Sally Richardson
BACKGROUND: An increase in urinary indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG) has been reported in children with ASD who suffer with bowel problems in comparison to ASD children without gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The case for dietary intervention for ASD children with GI symptoms might be strengthened were such a difference to be autism-specific. METHODS: Quantitative analysis of urinary IAG levels was performed for 53 children on the autism spectrum and 146 age-matched controls...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398286/the-brain-gut-microbiome-axis-what-role-does-it-play-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Ruth Ann Luna, Tor C Savidge, Kent C Williams
The brain-gut-microbiome axis refers to the interactions between the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract. Exploring these interactions provides a rationale for why gastrointestinal disorders commonly occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Signs of altered brain-gut interactions that are closely associated with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) commonly occur in children with ASD. Studies of microbiome in ASD suggest that changes in the gut microbiome may be associated with ASD and with GI disorders in children with ASD...
March 2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260271/gut-to-brain-interaction-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-role-of-probiotics-on-clinical-biochemical-and-neurophysiological-parameters
#7
Elisa Santocchi, Letizia Guiducci, Francesca Fulceri, Lucia Billeci, Emma Buzzigoli, Fabio Apicella, Sara Calderoni, Enzo Grossi, Maria Aurora Morales, Filippo Muratori
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is frequently reported in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The GI disturbances in ASD might be linked to gut dysbiosis representing the observable phenotype of a "gut-brain axis" disruption. The exploitation of strategies which can restore normal gut microbiota and reduce the gut production and absorption of toxins, such as probiotics addition/supplementation in a diet, may represent a non-pharmacological option in the treatment of GI disturbances in ASD...
June 4, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181180/associations-between-cytokines-endocrine-stress-response-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Bradley J Ferguson, Sarah Marler, Lily L Altstein, Evon Batey Lee, Micah O Mazurek, Aaron McLaughlin, Eric A Macklin, Erin McDonnell, Daniel J Davis, Anthony M Belenchia, Catherine H Gillespie, Catherine A Peterson, Margaret L Bauman, Kara Gross Margolis, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, David Q Beversdorf
Many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the etiology is currently unknown. Some individuals with ASD show altered reactivity to stress and altered immune markers relative to typically-developing individuals, particularly stress-responsive cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The present study examined whether GI symptoms in ASD were associated with increases in cortisol, a stress-associated endocrine marker, and TNF-α and IL-6 in response to stress...
May 12, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111230/serotonin-transporter-variant-drives-preventable-gastrointestinal-abnormalities-in-development-and-function
#9
Kara Gross Margolis, Zhishan Li, Korey Stevanovic, Virginia Saurman, Narek Israelyan, George M Anderson, Isaac Snyder, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Randy D Blakely, Michael D Gershon
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862815/video-imaging-and-spatiotemporal-maps-to-analyze-gastrointestinal-motility-in-mice
#10
Mathusi Swaminathan, Elisa Hill-Yardin, Melina Ellis, Matthew Zygorodimos, Leigh A Johnston, Rachel M Gwynne, Joel C Bornstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility and can function independently of the central nervous system. Changes in ENS function are a major cause of GI symptoms and disease and may contribute to GI symptoms reported in neuropsychiatric disorders including autism. It is well established that isolated colon segments generate spontaneous, rhythmic contractions known as Colonic Migrating Motor Complexes (CMMCs). A procedure to analyze the enteric neural regulation of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of mouse colon is described...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604573/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-low-fluoridated-and-calcium-phosphate-based-dentifrice-formulations-when-used-with-powered-and-manual-toothbrush-in-children-with-autism
#11
Prateek Awasthi, Bharti Peshwani, Shilpi Tiwari, Ruchi Thakur, N D Shashikiran, Shilpy Singla
BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurobiological disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, communication difficulties, and lacking manual dexterity. These limitations make the oral hygiene maintenance very difficult. AIM: The aim of this present study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism. SETTING AND DESIGN: Sample comprised 22 children with autism who daily visited a day care and education center named ARUSHI - a center for children with special health care needs in Bhopal...
September 2015: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527110/brief-report-whole-blood-serotonin-levels-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Sarah Marler, Bradley J Ferguson, Evon Batey Lee, Brittany Peters, Kent C Williams, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Pat Levitt, Catherine Hagan Gillespie, George M Anderson, Kara Gross Margolis, David Q Beversdorf, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD, we observed a correlation between a quantitative measure of lower GI symptoms and whole blood serotonin levels. No significant association was seen between functional constipation diagnosis and serotonin levels in the hyperserotonemia range, suggesting that this correlation is not driven by a single subgroup...
March 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26427004/comparison-of-fecal-microbiota-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-neurotypical-siblings-in-the-simons-simplex-collection
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joshua S Son, Ling J Zheng, Leahana M Rowehl, Xinyu Tian, Yuanhao Zhang, Wei Zhu, Leighann Litcher-Kelly, Kenneth D Gadow, Grace Gathungu, Charles E Robertson, Diana Ir, Daniel N Frank, Ellen Li
In order to assess potential associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype, functional GI disorders and fecal microbiota, we recruited simplex families, which had only a single ASD proband and neurotypical (NT) siblings, through the Simons Simplex Community at the Interactive Autism Network (SSC@IAN). Fecal samples and metadata related to functional GI disorders and diet were collected from ASD probands and NT siblings of ASD probands (age 7-14). Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) were assessed using the parent-completed ROME III questionnaire for pediatric FGIDs, and problem behaviors were assessed using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26384115/sleep-and-gastrointestinal-disturbances-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Mark Klukowski, Jolanta Wasilewska, Dariusz Lebensztejn
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers...
April 2015: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26306709/modulation-of-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-by-probiotics-prebiotics-and-diet
#15
REVIEW
Xiaofei Liu, Shangqing Cao, Xuewu Zhang
There exists a bidirectional communication system between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. Increasing evidence shows that gut microbiota can play a critical role in this communication; thus, the concept of a gut microbiota and brain axis is emerging. Here, we review recent findings in the relationship between intestinal microbes and brain function, such as anxiety, depression, stress, autism, learning, and memory. We highlight the advances in modulating brain development and behavior by probiotics, prebiotics, and diet through the gut microbiota-brain axis...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26282180/morbidity-and-medication-in-a-large-population-of-individuals-with-down-syndrome-compared-to-the-general-population
#16
Myriam Alexander, Hans Petri, Yingjie Ding, Christoph Wandel, Omar Khwaja, Nadia Foskett
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of morbidities and the prevalence of medical prescriptions in a large Down syndrome population. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was carried out using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2013. We matched individuals with Down syndrome to randomly selected control participants by practice site, sex, birth year, and recording period. RESULTS: A total of 6430 individuals with Down syndrome (3009 females, 3421 males) and 19 176 controls (8966 females, 10,210 males) were included in the study...
March 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243847/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-digestive-enzymes-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Khaled Saad, Azza A Eltayeb, Ismail L Mohamad, Abdulrahman A Al-Atram, Yasser Elserogy, Geir Bjørklund, Amira A El-Houfey, Bubba Nicholson
OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence for a gut-brain connection associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This suggests a potential benefit from introduced digestive enzymes for children with ASD. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial on 101 children with ASD (82 boys and 19 girls) aged from 3 to 9 years. ASD patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria...
August 31, 2015: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26239292/olfactory-stem-cells-reveal-mocos-as-a-new-player-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
F Féron, B Gepner, E Lacassagne, D Stephan, B Mesnage, M-P Blanchard, N Boulanger, C Tardif, A Devèze, S Rousseau, K Suzuki, J C Izpisua Belmonte, M Khrestchatisky, E Nivet, M Erard-Garcia
With an onset under the age of 3 years, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are now understood as diseases arising from pre- and/or early postnatal brain developmental anomalies and/or early brain insults. To unveil the molecular mechanisms taking place during the misshaping of the developing brain, we chose to study cells that are representative of the very early stages of ontogenesis, namely stem cells. Here we report on MOlybdenum COfactor Sulfurase (MOCOS), an enzyme involved in purine metabolism, as a newly identified player in ASD...
September 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26230900/breast-milk-protects-against-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism-during-early-development
#19
Alexander H Penn, Leslie J Carver, Carrie A Herbert, Tiffany S Lai, Melissa J McIntire, Jeffrey T Howard, Sharon F Taylor, Geert W Schmid-Schönbein, Karen R Dobkins
OBJECTIVES: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often report gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction in their children. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether infants at high risk for developing ASD (ie, siblings of children diagnosed as having ASD) show greater prevalence of GI problems and whether this prevalence is associated with diet and age at weaning from breast milk. METHODS: Using questionnaires, diet history and GI problems were tracked prospectively and retrospectively in 57 high-risk infants and for comparison in 114 low-risk infants (infants from families without ASD history)...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203574/-non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity-another-condition-that-responds-to-gluten
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth Navarro, Magdalena Araya
Remission of gastrointestinal and general symptoms after gluten withdrawal has been described in some non-celiac individuals for nearly 30 years. Only recently, efforts have been made to define this entity, now referred to as "non-celiac gluten sensitivity". It includes patients that clinically respond to gluten free diet without exhibiting allergic or autoimmune features to explain such response. Wheat allergy, celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome and symptoms induced by high FODMAPs (Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides And Polyols) consumption are the main differential diagnoses...
May 2015: Revista Médica de Chile
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