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Autism GI disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536957/brief-report-association-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-gastrointestinal-problems-and-perinatal-risk-factors-within-sibling-pairs
#1
Johan Isaksson, Erik Pettersson, Elzbieta Kostrzewa, Rochellys Diaz Heijtz, Sven Bölte
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) problems, but the nature of this association is unclear. Parents to siblings, concordant or discordant for ASD (N = 217), participated in a web survey covering mother's weight gain during pregnancy, maternal viral/bacterial infection and use of antibiotics, duration of breastfeeding, mode of delivery, birth weight and child GI problems. ASD was associated with GI problems and perinatal environmental risk, based on a summation of maternal infection and antibiotic use during pregnancy and/or the breastfeeding period...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526761/a-retrospective-chart-review-of-the-features-of-pten-hamartoma-tumour-syndrome-in-children
#2
Emily Hansen-Kiss, Sarah Beinkampen, Brent Adler, Thomas Frazier, Thomas Prior, Steven Erdman, Charis Eng, Gail Herman
OBJECTIVE: It is recognised that 5% - 10 % of children with macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability (ID) have a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene that is associated with PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. However, the clinical features and course in children with a pathogenic PTEN mutation are unclear and have not been well documented. STUDY OBJECTIVES: We undertook a retrospective chart review of children (< 18  years) with pathogenic PTEN mutations to ascertain clinical findings, clinical course and possible outcomes...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511484/efficacy-of-structured-yoga-intervention-for-sleep-gastrointestinal-and-behaviour-problems-of-asd-children-an-exploratory-study
#3
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
INTRODUCTION: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder which appears at early childhood age between 18 and 36 months. Apart from behaviour problems ASD children also suffer from sleep and Gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Major behaviour problems of ASD children are lack of social communication and interaction, less attention span, repetitive and restrictive behaviour, lack of eye to eye contact, aggressive and self-injurious behaviours, sensory integration problems, motor problems, deficiency in academic activities, anxiety and depression etc...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474389/developmental-functioning-and-medical-co-morbidity-profile-of-children-with-complex-and-essential-autism
#5
Jaimie Flor, Jayne Bellando, Maya Lopez, Amy Shui
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may be characterized as "complex" (those with microcephaly and/or dysmorphology) or "essential" (those with neither of these two). Previous studies found subjects in the complex group exhibited lower IQ scores, poorer response to behavioral intervention, more seizures and more abnormal EEGs and brain MRIs compared to the essential group. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in complex versus essential subjects based on several developmental/psychological measures as well as certain medical comorbidities...
May 5, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345660/zinc-deficiency-and-low-enterocyte-zinc-transporter-expression-in-human-patients-with-autism-related-mutations-in-shank3
#6
Stefanie Pfaender, Ann Katrin Sauer, Simone Hagmeyer, Katharina Mangus, Leonhard Linta, Stefan Liebau, Juergen Bockmann, Guillaume Huguet, Thomas Bourgeron, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
Phelan McDermid Syndrome (PMDS) is a genetic disorder characterized by features of Autism spectrum disorders. Similar to reports of Zn deficiency in autistic children, we have previously reported high incidence of Zn deficiency in PMDS. However, the underlying mechanisms are currently not well understood. Here, using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry to measure the concentration of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) in hair samples from individuals with PMDS with 22q13.3 deletion including SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3), we report a high rate of abnormally low Zn/Cu ratios...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303420/aging-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-naturalistic-longitudinal-study-of-the-comorbidities-and-behavioral-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-adults-with-asd
#7
Elizabeth A Wise, Marcia D Smith, Peter V Rabins
Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features of ASD remained stable. GI disorders (68.9%) and seizure disorders (23%) were common, and 25.7% of the sample had a BMI >30. Females were more likely to engage in screaming (p < 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237548/application-of-packed-fiber-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-with-gc-ms-for-the-determination-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-children-s-urine
#8
Renshan Zhao, Lanling Chu, Yu Wang, Yuan Song, Ping Liu, Chen Li, Jingjing Huang, Xuejun Kang
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder involving interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are prevalent in the cohort of children with ASD and they have been recognized as a comorbid condition recently. It is of value to monitor GI issues in individuals, and to help further characterize factors that may contribute to GI disorders (in individuals with and without ASD). Due to the biological relevance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to GI disorders, it is important to develop a rapid and selective detection method capable of identifying and quantifying SCFAs in complex biological samples...
February 22, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122648/microbiota-transfer-therapy-alters-gut-ecosystem-and-improves-gastrointestinal-and-autism-symptoms-an-open-label-study
#9
Dae-Wook Kang, James B Adams, Ann C Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B Sullivan, J Gregory Caporaso, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10(13) bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD...
January 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081325/plasma-levels-of-serotonin-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-sleep-problems-in-children-with-autism
#10
Sorayya Kheirouri, Parinaz Kalejahi, Seyyed Gholamreza Noorazar
BACKGROUND/AIM: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder identified with higher frequency of serotonin abnormalities and gastrointestinal (GI) and sleep problems. This study aimed to evaluate the plasma levels of serotonin, GI symptoms, and sleep problems, and their relationship with autism severity in children with autism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five children with autism and 31 healthy subjects were studied. GI problems, sleep disorders, and severity of disorder were assessed...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879968/can-urinary-indolylacroylglycine-levels-be-used-to-determine-whether-children-with-autism-will-benefit-from-dietary-intervention
#11
Julie Wilson, Barry Wright, Sandra Jost, Robert Smith, Helen Pearce, Sally Richardson
BACKGROUND: An increase in urinary indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG) has been reported in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who suffer with bowel problems in comparison to ASD children without gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The case for dietary intervention for ASD children with GI symptoms might be strengthened were such a difference to be autism-specific. METHODS: Quantitative analysis of urinary IAG levels was performed for 53 children on the autism spectrum and 146 age-matched controls...
April 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398286/the-brain-gut-microbiome-axis-what-role-does-it-play-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Ruth Ann Luna, Tor C Savidge, Kent C Williams
The brain-gut-microbiome axis refers to the interactions between the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract. Exploring these interactions provides a rationale for why gastrointestinal disorders commonly occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Signs of altered brain-gut interactions that are closely associated with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) commonly occur in children with ASD. Studies of microbiome in ASD suggest that changes in the gut microbiome may be associated with ASD and with GI disorders in children with ASD...
March 2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260271/gut-to-brain-interaction-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-role-of-probiotics-on-clinical-biochemical-and-neurophysiological-parameters
#13
Elisa Santocchi, Letizia Guiducci, Francesca Fulceri, Lucia Billeci, Emma Buzzigoli, Fabio Apicella, Sara Calderoni, Enzo Grossi, Maria Aurora Morales, Filippo Muratori
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is frequently reported in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The GI disturbances in ASD might be linked to gut dysbiosis representing the observable phenotype of a "gut-brain axis" disruption. The exploitation of strategies which can restore normal gut microbiota and reduce the gut production and absorption of toxins, such as probiotics addition/supplementation in a diet, may represent a non-pharmacological option in the treatment of GI disturbances in ASD...
June 4, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181180/associations-between-cytokines-endocrine-stress-response-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Bradley J Ferguson, Sarah Marler, Lily L Altstein, Evon Batey Lee, Micah O Mazurek, Aaron McLaughlin, Eric A Macklin, Erin McDonnell, Daniel J Davis, Anthony M Belenchia, Catherine H Gillespie, Catherine A Peterson, Margaret L Bauman, Kara Gross Margolis, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, David Q Beversdorf
Many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the etiology is currently unknown. Some individuals with ASD show altered reactivity to stress and altered immune markers relative to typically-developing individuals, particularly stress-responsive cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Acute and chronic stress is associated with the onset and exacerbation of GI symptoms in those without ASD. The present study examined whether GI symptoms in ASD were associated with increases in cortisol, a stress-associated endocrine marker, and TNF-α and IL-6 in response to stress...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111230/serotonin-transporter-variant-drives-preventable-gastrointestinal-abnormalities-in-development-and-function
#15
Kara Gross Margolis, Zhishan Li, Korey Stevanovic, Virginia Saurman, Narek Israelyan, George M Anderson, Isaac Snyder, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Randy D Blakely, Michael D Gershon
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862815/video-imaging-and-spatiotemporal-maps-to-analyze-gastrointestinal-motility-in-mice
#16
Mathusi Swaminathan, Elisa Hill-Yardin, Melina Ellis, Matthew Zygorodimos, Leigh A Johnston, Rachel M Gwynne, Joel C Bornstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility and can function independently of the central nervous system. Changes in ENS function are a major cause of GI symptoms and disease and may contribute to GI symptoms reported in neuropsychiatric disorders including autism. It is well established that isolated colon segments generate spontaneous, rhythmic contractions known as Colonic Migrating Motor Complexes (CMMCs). A procedure to analyze the enteric neural regulation of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of mouse colon is described...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26604573/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-low-fluoridated-and-calcium-phosphate-based-dentifrice-formulations-when-used-with-powered-and-manual-toothbrush-in-children-with-autism
#17
Prateek Awasthi, Bharti Peshwani, Shilpi Tiwari, Ruchi Thakur, N D Shashikiran, Shilpy Singla
BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurobiological disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, communication difficulties, and lacking manual dexterity. These limitations make the oral hygiene maintenance very difficult. AIM: The aim of this present study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of low fluoridated and calcium phosphate-based dentifrice formulations when used with powered and manual toothbrush in children with autism. SETTING AND DESIGN: Sample comprised 22 children with autism who daily visited a day care and education center named ARUSHI - a center for children with special health care needs in Bhopal...
September 2015: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527110/brief-report-whole-blood-serotonin-levels-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Sarah Marler, Bradley J Ferguson, Evon Batey Lee, Brittany Peters, Kent C Williams, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Pat Levitt, Catherine Hagan Gillespie, George M Anderson, Kara Gross Margolis, David Q Beversdorf, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD, we observed a correlation between a quantitative measure of lower GI symptoms and whole blood serotonin levels. No significant association was seen between functional constipation diagnosis and serotonin levels in the hyperserotonemia range, suggesting that this correlation is not driven by a single subgroup...
March 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26427004/comparison-of-fecal-microbiota-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-neurotypical-siblings-in-the-simons-simplex-collection
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joshua S Son, Ling J Zheng, Leahana M Rowehl, Xinyu Tian, Yuanhao Zhang, Wei Zhu, Leighann Litcher-Kelly, Kenneth D Gadow, Grace Gathungu, Charles E Robertson, Diana Ir, Daniel N Frank, Ellen Li
In order to assess potential associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype, functional GI disorders and fecal microbiota, we recruited simplex families, which had only a single ASD proband and neurotypical (NT) siblings, through the Simons Simplex Community at the Interactive Autism Network (SSC@IAN). Fecal samples and metadata related to functional GI disorders and diet were collected from ASD probands and NT siblings of ASD probands (age 7-14). Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) were assessed using the parent-completed ROME III questionnaire for pediatric FGIDs, and problem behaviors were assessed using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26384115/sleep-and-gastrointestinal-disturbances-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Mark Klukowski, Jolanta Wasilewska, Dariusz Lebensztejn
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers...
April 2015: Developmental Period Medicine
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