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Autism GI disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028817/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-gastrointestinal-mucosa-of-children-with-autism-a-blinded-case-control-study
#1
Shannon Rose, Sirish C Bennuri, Katherine F Murray, Timothy Buie, Harland Winter, Richard Eugene Frye
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Imbalances in the enteric microbiome have been associated with ASD and can cause GI dysfunction potentially through disruption of mitochondrial function as microbiome metabolites modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is highly associated with GI symptoms. In this study, we compared mitochondrial function in rectal and cecum biopsies under the assumption that certain microbiome metabolites, such as butyrate and propionic acid, are more abundant in the cecum as compared to the rectum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946927/food-and-the-gut-relevance-to-some-of-the-autisms
#2
Paul Whiteley
Complex, diverse and rarely appearing without comorbidity, the autism spectrum disorders continue to be a source of research interest. With core symptoms variably impacting on social communication skills, the traditional focus of many research efforts has centred on the brain and how genetic and environmental processes impact on brain structure, function and/or connectivity to account for various behavioural presentations. Alongside emerging ideas on autistic traits being present in various clinical states, the autisms, and the overrepresentation of several comorbid conditions impacting on quality of life, other research avenues have opened up...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867997/autism-spectrum-disorder-related-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-language-network-in-children-adolescents-and-adults
#3
Yubu Lee, Bo-Yong Park, Oliver James, Seong-Gi Kim, Hyunjin Park
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disability with global implication. Altered brain connectivity in the language network has frequently been reported in ASD patients using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) compared to typically developing (TD) participants. Most of these studies have focused on a specific age group or mixed age groups with ASD. In the current study, we investigated age-related changes in functional connectivity related measure, degree centrality (DC), in the language network across three age groups with ASD (113 children, 113 adolescents and 103 adults) using resting-state fMRI data collected from the autism brain imaging data exchange repository...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861640/bone-mineral-density-in-boys-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-case-control-study
#4
Kelly Barnhill, Lucas Ramirez, Alan Gutierrez, Wendy Richardson, C Nathan Marti, Amy Potts, Rebeca Shearer, Claire Schutte, Laura Hewitson
This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), nutritional status, biochemical markers, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in 4-8 year old boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with a group of age-matched, healthy boys without ASD. Boys with ASD had significantly lower spine BMD compared to controls but this was not correlated with any biochemical markers, dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, elimination diet status, or GI symptomology...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856868/gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature-on-ascertainment-and-prevalence
#5
REVIEW
Calliope Holingue, Carol Newill, Li-Ching Lee, Pankaj J Pasricha, M Daniele Fallin
There is no standard approach to measuring GI symptoms in individuals with ASD, despite postulated interactions. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe the range of GI symptom ascertainment approaches in studies of ASD, (b) describe the range of prevalence estimates across studies, and (c) assess associations between ascertainment approach and prevalence estimates. Studies published from 1/1/1980 to 1/31/2017 were collected via PubMed. Eligibility included studies with at least ten individuals with ASD that measured GI symptoms or conditions...
August 30, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799094/hydrogen-breath-test-to-detect-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-a-prevalence-case-control-study-in-autism
#6
Li Wang, Yu-Mei Yu, You-Qi Zhang, Jie Zhang, Na Lu, Na Liu
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by hydrogen breath test in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with respect to a consistent control group. From 2011 to 2013, 310 children with ASD and 1240 sex- and age-matched typical children were enrolled in this study to undergo glucose breath test. The study participants were considered to exhibit SIBO when an increase in H2 of ≥20 ppm or CH4 of ≥10 ppm with respect to the fasting value was observed up to 60 min after the ingestion of glucose...
August 10, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686541/the-role-of-probiotics-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-prospective-open-label-study
#7
Sanaa Y Shaaban, Yasmin G El Gendy, Nayra S Mehanna, Waled M El-Senousy, Howaida S A El-Feki, Khaled Saad, Osama M El-Asheer
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the efficacy of probiotics in children with ASD, therefore, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of probiotics in an Egyptian cohort of children with ASD. METHODS: Gastrointestinal (GI) flora were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR of stool samples of 30 autistic children from 5 to 9 years old. GI symptoms of autistic children were assessed with a modified six-item Gastrointestinal Severity Index (6-GSI) questionnaire, and autistic symptoms were assessed with Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after 3 months of supplementation of probiotics nutritional supplement formula (each gram contains 100 × 10(6) colony forming units of three probiotic strains; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacteria longum)...
July 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680792/using-animal-models-to-study-the-role-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-autism
#8
REVIEW
Jess Nithianantharajah, Gayathri K Balasuriya, Ashley E Franks, Elisa L Hill-Yardin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly also suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction; however, few animal model studies have systematically examined both ASD and GI dysfunction. In this review, we highlight studies investigating GI dysfunction and alterations in gut microbiota in animal models of ASD with the aim of determining if routinely used microbiology and enteric neurophysiology assays could expand our understanding of the link between the two...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551756/extracerebral-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Elisa L Hill-Yardin, Sonja J McKeown, Gaia Novarino, Andreas M Grabrucker
Genetic factors might be largely responsible for the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that alone or in combination with specific environmental risk factors trigger the pathology. Multiple mutations identified in ASD patients that impair synaptic function in the central nervous system are well studied in animal models. How these mutations might interact with other risk factors is not fully understood though. Additionally, how systems outside of the brain are altered in the context of ASD is an emerging area of research...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536957/brief-report-association-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-gastrointestinal-problems-and-perinatal-risk-factors-within-sibling-pairs
#10
Johan Isaksson, Erik Pettersson, Elzbieta Kostrzewa, Rochellys Diaz Heijtz, Sven Bölte
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) problems, but the nature of this association is unclear. Parents to siblings, concordant or discordant for ASD (N = 217), participated in a web survey covering mother's weight gain during pregnancy, maternal viral/bacterial infection and use of antibiotics, duration of breastfeeding, mode of delivery, birth weight and child GI problems. ASD was associated with GI problems and perinatal environmental risk, based on a summation of maternal infection and antibiotic use during pregnancy and/or the breastfeeding period...
August 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526761/a-retrospective-chart-review-of-the-features-of-pten-hamartoma-tumour-syndrome-in-children
#11
Emily Hansen-Kiss, Sarah Beinkampen, Brent Adler, Thomas Frazier, Thomas Prior, Steven Erdman, Charis Eng, Gail Herman
OBJECTIVE: It is recognised that 5% - 10 % of children with macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability (ID) have a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene that is associated with PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. However, the clinical features and course in children with a pathogenic PTEN mutation are unclear and have not been well documented. STUDY OBJECTIVES: We undertook a retrospective chart review of children (< 18  years) with pathogenic PTEN mutations to ascertain clinical findings, clinical course and possible outcomes...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511484/efficacy-of-structured-yoga-intervention-for-sleep-gastrointestinal-and-behaviour-problems-of-asd-children-an-exploratory-study
#12
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
INTRODUCTION: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder which appears at early childhood age between 18 and 36 months. Apart from behaviour problems ASD children also suffer from sleep and Gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Major behaviour problems of ASD children are lack of social communication and interaction, less attention span, repetitive and restrictive behaviour, lack of eye to eye contact, aggressive and self-injurious behaviours, sensory integration problems, motor problems, deficiency in academic activities, anxiety and depression etc...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474389/developmental-functioning-and-medical-co-morbidity-profile-of-children-with-complex-and-essential-autism
#14
Jaimie Flor, Jayne Bellando, Maya Lopez, Amy Shui
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may be characterized as "complex" (those with microcephaly and/or dysmorphology) or "essential" (those with neither of these two). Previous studies found subjects in the complex group exhibited lower IQ scores, poorer response to behavioral intervention, more seizures and more abnormal EEGs and brain MRIs compared to the essential group. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in complex versus essential subjects based on several developmental/psychological measures as well as certain medical comorbidities...
August 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345660/zinc-deficiency-and-low-enterocyte-zinc-transporter-expression-in-human-patients-with-autism-related-mutations-in-shank3
#15
Stefanie Pfaender, Ann Katrin Sauer, Simone Hagmeyer, Katharina Mangus, Leonhard Linta, Stefan Liebau, Juergen Bockmann, Guillaume Huguet, Thomas Bourgeron, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
Phelan McDermid Syndrome (PMDS) is a genetic disorder characterized by features of Autism spectrum disorders. Similar to reports of Zn deficiency in autistic children, we have previously reported high incidence of Zn deficiency in PMDS. However, the underlying mechanisms are currently not well understood. Here, using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry to measure the concentration of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) in hair samples from individuals with PMDS with 22q13.3 deletion including SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3), we report a high rate of abnormally low Zn/Cu ratios...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303420/aging-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-naturalistic-longitudinal-study-of-the-comorbidities-and-behavioral-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-adults-with-asd
#16
Elizabeth A Wise, Marcia D Smith, Peter V Rabins
Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features of ASD remained stable. GI disorders (68.9%) and seizure disorders (23%) were common, and 25.7% of the sample had a BMI >30. Females were more likely to engage in screaming (p < 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237548/application-of-packed-fiber-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-with-gc-ms-for-the-determination-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-children-s-urine
#17
Renshan Zhao, Lanling Chu, Yu Wang, Yuan Song, Ping Liu, Chen Li, Jingjing Huang, Xuejun Kang
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder involving interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are prevalent in the cohort of children with ASD and they have been recognized as a comorbid condition recently. It is of value to monitor GI issues in individuals, and to help further characterize factors that may contribute to GI disorders (in individuals with and without ASD). Due to the biological relevance of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to GI disorders, it is important to develop a rapid and selective detection method capable of identifying and quantifying SCFAs in complex biological samples...
February 22, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122648/microbiota-transfer-therapy-alters-gut-ecosystem-and-improves-gastrointestinal-and-autism-symptoms-an-open-label-study
#18
Dae-Wook Kang, James B Adams, Ann C Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B Sullivan, J Gregory Caporaso, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10(13) bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD...
January 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081325/plasma-levels-of-serotonin-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-sleep-problems-in-children-with-autism
#19
Sorayya Kheirouri, Parinaz Kalejahi, Seyyed Gholamreza Noorazar
BACKGROUND/AIM: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder identified with higher frequency of serotonin abnormalities and gastrointestinal (GI) and sleep problems. This study aimed to evaluate the plasma levels of serotonin, GI symptoms, and sleep problems, and their relationship with autism severity in children with autism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five children with autism and 31 healthy subjects were studied. GI problems, sleep disorders, and severity of disorder were assessed...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879968/can-urinary-indolylacroylglycine-levels-be-used-to-determine-whether-children-with-autism-will-benefit-from-dietary-intervention
#20
Julie Wilson, Barry Wright, Sandra Jost, Robert Smith, Helen Pearce, Sally Richardson
BACKGROUND: An increase in urinary indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG) has been reported in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who suffer with bowel problems in comparison to ASD children without gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The case for dietary intervention for ASD children with GI symptoms might be strengthened were such a difference to be autism-specific. METHODS: Quantitative analysis of urinary IAG levels was performed for 53 children on the autism spectrum and 146 age-matched controls...
April 2017: Pediatric Research
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