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Sample size calculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106662/medication-adherence-interventions-among-hypertensive-black-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Todd M Ruppar, Jacqueline M Dunbar-Jacob, David R Mehr, Lisa Lewis, Vicki S Conn
BACKGROUND: Black adults have higher rates of hypertension and lower rates of blood pressure (BP) control than white adults. Improving BP control requires attention to use of antihypertensive medications, but antihypertensive regimen adherence remains low, preventing improved BP control. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a comprehensive search and systematic review of intervention studies testing interventions to improve adherence to BP medications among black adults with hypertension...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105579/measuring-residential-segregation-with-the-acs-how-the-margin-of-error-affects-the-dissimilarity-index
#2
Jeffrey Napierala, Nancy Denton
The American Community Survey (ACS) provides valuable, timely population estimates but with increased levels of sampling error. Although the margin of error is included with aggregate estimates, it has not been incorporated into segregation indexes. With the increasing levels of diversity in small and large places throughout the United States comes a need to track accurately and study changes in racial and ethnic segregation between censuses. The 2005-2009 ACS is used to calculate three dissimilarity indexes (D) for all core-based statistical areas (CBSAs) in the United States...
January 19, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103817/erratum-to-sample-size-calculations-for-cluster-randomised-controlled-trials-with-a-fixed-number-of-clusters
#4
Karla Hemming, Alan J Girling, Alice J Sitch, Jennifer Marsh, Richard J Lilford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101761/the-sg13s114-polymorphism-of-the-alox5ap-gene-is-associated-with-ischemic-stroke-in-europeans-a-meta-analysis-of-8062-subjects
#5
Zhongjun Chen, Jinyu Zheng, Wenguang Liu, Kun Yang, Kai Li, Baosheng Huang, Ronglan Zhu, Xiaocheng Lu, Lixin Li
The association between ALOX5AP SG13S114 polymorphism and ischemic stroke (IS) susceptibility has extensively been investigated, especially in white populations; however, the results were inconclusive. Here, we perform a meta-analysis to clarify the effect of SG13S114 variant on the IS risk in Europeans. The Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and Medline were searched up to August 1st, 2016. Data were extracted and the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by a fixed-effects or random-effects model...
January 18, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100761/the-acceptability-of-self-sampled-screening-for-hpv-dna-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Erik J Nelson, Brandy R Maynard, Travis Loux, Jessica Fatla, Rebecca Gordon, Lauren D Arnold
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether or not self-sampled cervical screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is acceptable and if women prefer self-sampling to clinician-based sampling. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Thirty-seven primary studies obtained through a comprehensive search of six electronic bibliographic databases from 1986 to 2014 and other sources. Search keywords included HPV, screening, DNA testing, vaginal testing, self-collected specimen, self-collected sample, self-sampling, self-screening, preferences and acceptability...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100468/feasibility-of-sample-size-calculation-for-rna-seq-studies
#7
Alicia Poplawski, Harald Binder
Sample size calculation is a crucial step in study design but is not yet fully established for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses. To evaluate feasibility and provide guidance, we evaluated RNA-seq sample size tools identified from a systematic search. The focus was on whether real pilot data would be needed for reliable results and on identifying tools that would perform well in scenarios with different levels of biological heterogeneity and fold changes (FCs) between conditions. We used simulations based on real data for tool evaluation...
January 18, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100345/-anti-%C3%AE-2-gp%C3%A2-antibodies-accelerate-the-formation-of-atherosclerosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-apoe-deficient-mice
#8
X Y Wang, H Zhou, X J Zhu, L F Xia, C He, Q Q Cai, T Wang
Objective: To investigate the effects of anti-β(2) glycoprotein Ⅰ(β(2)GPⅠ) antibody on atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice. Methods: A total of 24 male ApoE deficient mice of specific pathogen free level(six to eight-week old)were divided into normal control group, high fat diet group, high fat diet with anti-β(2)GPⅠ group, high fat diet with homologous control antibody group (n=6 each group). During the feeding period, mice were weighed every 2 weeks and were intraperitoneally injected with anti-β(2)GPⅠIgG (100 μg/per) and homologous control IgG (100 μg/per) according to grouping once a week...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100192/design-and-rationale-of-a-large-international-prospective-cohort-study-to-evaluate-the-occurrence-of-malformations-and-perinatal-neonatal-death-using-insulin-detemir-in-pregnant-women-with-diabetes-in-comparison-with-other-long-acting-insulins
#9
Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Henning Andersen, Sofia I I Kring, Peter Damm
BACKGROUND: There are a lack of data regarding the effect of basal insulin analogues on rates of events like congenital malformation and perinatal mortality in diabetic pregnancy. METHODS: The present study is a prospective, non-interventional, multicentre cohort study conducted in seven countries, designed to assess the safety of insulin detemir during pregnancy, and to monitor the health status of resulting infants (exposed in utero) up to 1 year of age. The study population includes women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who are pregnant and being treated with insulin...
January 18, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100092/sample-size-requirements-for-one-year-treatment-effects-using-deep-gray-matter-volume-from-3t-mri-in-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically-relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099527/the-association-between-osteoarthritis-and-occupational-clusters-in-the-korean-population-a-nationwide-study
#11
Hongdeok Seok, Sung Jae Choi, Jin-Ha Yoon, Gwan Gyu Song, Jong-Uk Won, Jae-Hoon Kim, Jaehoon Roh, Jae Hyun Jung
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a considerable health problem worldwide. It is known to be associated with certain occupational risk factors. We examined the prevalence rate of OA by occupational cluster. Data were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010-2013). The total number of unweighted sample size was 9,905 participants: 4,460 men and 5,445 women, and OA prevalence was 5.3% and 18.4% respectively. OA patients were defined as participants with knee/hip joint pain and radiographic change of knee/hip joint...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099233/primary-outcome-measures-in-pediatric-septic-shock-trials-a-systematic-review
#12
Kusum Menon, James Dayre McNally, Jerry J Zimmerman, Michael S D Agus, Katie O'Hearn, R Scott Watson, Hector R Wong, Mark Duffett, David Wypij, Karen Choong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate all published pediatric randomized controlled trials of patients with septic shock from any cause to examine the outcome measures used, the strengths and limitations of these measurements and whether the trial outcomes met feasibility criteria. DATA SOURCES: We used a previously published database of pediatric critical care randomized controlled trials (PICUtrials.net) derived from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized controlled trials of interventions to children admitted to a PICU with septic or dengue hemorrhagic shock which were published in English...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098571/operating-room-anesthesia-subspecialization-is-not-associated-with-significantly-greater-quality-of-supervision-of-anesthesia-residents-and-nurse-anesthetists
#13
Franklin Dexter, Johannes Ledolter, Richard H Epstein, Bradley J Hindman
BACKGROUND: Supervision of anesthesia residents and nurse anesthetists is a major responsibility of faculty anesthesiologists. The quality of their supervision can be assessed quantitatively by the anesthesia residents and nurse anesthetists. Supervision scores are an independent measure of the contribution of the anesthesiologist to patient care. We evaluated the association between quality of supervision and level of specialization of anesthesiologists. METHODS: We used two 6-month periods, one with no feedback to anesthesiologists of the residents' and nurse anesthetists' evaluations, and the other with feedback...
November 2, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096255/sheppheartcabg-trial-comprehensive-early-rehabilitation-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#14
Ida Elisabeth Højskov, Philip Moons, Niels Viggo Hansen, Søren La Cour, Peter Skov Olsen, Christian Gluud, Per Winkel, Jane Lindschou, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Ingrid Egerod, Selina Kikkenborg Berg
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of symptoms. Studies indicate that non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise training and psychoeducation have a positive physiological and psychological effect in early outpatient rehabilitation. The SheppHeartCABG trial will investigate the effect of early comprehensive rehabilitation in early phase rehabilitation versus usual care. The aim of this paper is to present the protocol for the SheppHeartCABG trial...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095892/comparative-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-chuna-manual-therapy-versus-conventional-usual-care-for-nonacute-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-multicenter-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial-pcrn-study
#15
Byung-Cheul Shin, Me-Riong Kim, Jae-Heung Cho, Jae-Young Jung, Koh-Woon Kim, Jun-Hwan Lee, Kibong Nam, Min Ho Lee, Eui-Hyoung Hwang, Kwang-Ho Heo, Namkwen Kim, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: While Chuna manual therapy is a Korean manual therapy widely used primarily for low back pain (LBP)-related disorders in Korea, well-designed studies on the comparative effectiveness of Chuna manual therapy are scarce. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is the protocol for a three-armed, multicenter, pragmatic randomized controlled pilot trial. Sixty severe nonacute LBP patients (pain duration of at least 3 weeks, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) ≥5) will be recruited at four Korean medicine hospitals...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095847/the-biomedical-piglet-establishing-reference-intervals-for-haematology-and-clinical-chemistry-parameters-of-two-age-groups-with-and-without-iron-supplementation
#16
Domenico Ventrella, Francesco Dondi, Francesca Barone, Federica Serafini, Alberto Elmi, Massimo Giunti, Noemi Romagnoli, Monica Forni, Maria L Bacci
BACKGROUND: The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, and the great correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs extremely useful in preclinical studies. New-born piglets can represent a model for congenital and genetic diseases in new-born children. It is known that piglets may have significant differences in clinicopathological results compared to adult pigs. Therefore, adult laboratory reference intervals cannot be applied to piglets. The aim of this study was to compare haematological and chemical variables in piglets of two ages and determinate age-related reference intervals for commercial hybrid young pigs...
January 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094429/a-comparison-between-the-effectiveness-of-full-outline-of-unresponsiveness-and-glasgow-coma-score-at-neurosurgical-intensive-care-unit-patients
#17
Nail Caglar Temiz, Gulsah Kose, Ozkan Tehli, Cengizhan Acikel, Sevgi Hatipoglu
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and the use of Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score by nurses in the follow-up and evaluation of patients who admitted to neurosurgical intensive care unit for cranial surgery or head trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed at a neurosurgical intensive care unit. Sample size was calculated 47 patients as 5% a, 95% Power and values less than 0.5 at correlation were accepted nonsense...
December 21, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094367/formation-of-carbon-nanodots-with-different-spin-states-in-mechanically-processed-mixtures-of-zno-with-carbon-nanoparticles-an-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-study
#18
M Kakazey, M Vlasova, V Gómez-Vidales, A Ángeles-Pascual, V A Basiuk
Mixtures of zinc oxide with carbon nanoparticles, ZnO + xC (x = 0.1%, 1% and 3% by weight), were subjected to mechanical processing (MP) in a hermetically sealed grinding chamber. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we monitored the evolution of spin centers in CNPs. While the initial CNPs were EPR silent, their short-duration MP (tMP) gave rise to emergence of low-intensity carbon signal. Increasing the sample temperature at tMP > 9 min induced CNP oxidation, which lead to a dramatic increase in the intensity of C signal...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093436/burden-of-disease-associated-with-lower-levels-of-income-among-us-adults-aged-65-and-older
#19
Erica I Lubetkin, Haomiao Jia
BACKGROUND: Persons aged 65 years and older represent a heterogeneous group whose prevalence in the USA is expected to markedly increase. Few investigations have examined the total burden of disease attributable to lower levels of income in a single number that accounts for morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We ascertained respondents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and mortality status from the 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up through 31 December 2011...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093356/laser-and-photochemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-oral-mucositis-in-young-patients-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
João Batista Medeiros Filho, Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Meire Coelho Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined with photochemotherapy (PCT) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in young patients. METHODS: A randomized, blind, clinical trial with a split-mouth design was conducted involving a sample of 15 cancer patients aged three to 16 years at the Aldenora Bello Hospital in the city of São Luís, Brazil. The treatments (PCT+LLLT and LLLT alone) were randomly determined for each side of the oral cavity...
January 13, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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