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Sample size calculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781881/individual-and-network-factors-associated-with-hiv-care-continuum-outcomes-among-nigerian-msm-accessing-healthcare-services
#1
Habib O Ramadhani, Nicaise Ndembi, Rebecca G Nowak, Uchenna Ononaku, Jerry Gwamna, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Sylvia Adebajo, Trevor A Crowell, Hongjie Liu, Stefan D Baral, Julie Ake, Man E Charurat
BACKGROUND: and setting: As data on the determinants of the HIV care continuum from key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) in resource-limited, settings (RLS) are limited, the study aimed to characterize HIV care continuum outcomes and assess individual and network barriers to progression through the HIV care continuum among MSM in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: TRUST/RV368 study used respondent-driven-sampling to accrue MSM into community-based clinics in Nigeria...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780266/what-is-a-species-a-new-universal-method-to-measure-differentiation-and-assess-the-taxonomic-rank-of-allopatric-populations-using-continuous-variables
#2
Thomas M Donegan
Existing models for assigning species, subspecies, or no taxonomic rank to populations which are geographically separated from one another were analyzed. This was done by subjecting over 3,000 pairwise comparisons of vocal or biometric data based on birds to a variety of statistical tests that have been proposed as measures of differentiation. One current model which aims to test diagnosability (Isler et al. 1998) is highly conservative, applying a hard cut-off, which excludes from consideration differentiation below diagnosis...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778345/health-literacy-and-uptake-of-anti-fracture-medications-in-a-population-based-sample-of-australian-women
#3
Sarah M Hosking, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Alison Beauchamp, Rachelle Buchbinder, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco
This study investigated associations between health literacy and use of anti-fracture medications in women with osteoporosis. Data were collected for women participating in the population-based Geelong Osteoporosis Study in Australia. Health literacy was ascertained using the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) and bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Self-reported current medications were classified using MIMS codes, with the category 'Agent affecting calcium and bone metabolism' indicating osteoporosis treatment...
May 9, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773696/electroacupuncture-as-a-complement-to-usual-care-for-patients-with-non-acute-low-back-pain-after-back-surgery-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
In Heo, Man-Suk Hwang, Eui-Hyoung Hwang, Jae-Heung Cho, In-Hyuk Ha, Kyung-Min Shin, Jun-Hwan Lee, Nam-Kwen Kim, Dong-Wuk Son, Byung-Cheul Shin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the sample size for a large pragmatic study of the comparative effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) for low back pain (LBP) after back surgery. DESIGN: A randomised, active-controlled, assessor-blinded trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with recurrent or persistent LBP, defined as a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of ≥50 mm, with or without leg pain after back surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised to an EA plus usual care (UC) group or to a UC alone group at a 1:1 ratio...
May 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772803/the-impact-of-activity-based-working-abw-on-workplace-activity-eating-behaviours-productivity-and-satisfaction
#5
Lauren Arundell, Bronwyn Sudholz, Megan Teychenne, Jo Salmon, Brooke Hayward, Genevieve N Healy, Anna Timperio
The redesign of the physical workplace according to activity-based working (ABW) principles has potential to influence employee health and workplace outcomes. This natural experiment examined changes in accelerometer-derived workplace activity, self-reported eating behaviours, productivity, workplace satisfaction before (March to November 2014) and six to nine months after moving to an ABW workplace compared to a comparison workplace ( n = 146 at baseline (56% ABW, aged 40.1 ± 8.5 years, 72% female). Interviews were also conducted with 21 ABW participants...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767432/open-sepulchers-and-closed-boundaries-biodistance-analysis-of-cemetery-structure-and-postmarital-residence-in-the-late-prehispanic-andes
#6
Matthew C Velasco
OBJECTIVES: In the Late Intermediate Period Andes (AD 1100-1450), the proliferation of above-ground sepulchers reconfigured social boundaries within and between communities engaged in protracted conflict. However, the biosocial dimensions of these mortuary practices, and their implications for conflict and alliance formation, remain unexplored. This study examines patterns of phenotypic variation to: (1) evaluate if open sepulchers were organized on the basis of biological relatedness, and (2) explore if sex-specific phenotypic variability conforms to models of postmarital residence...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765569/bolton-discrepancy-in-an-iranian-population-and-its-relation-with-maxillary-lateral-incisors-size
#7
Shabnam Ajami, Hamidreza Fattahi, Mahsa Zare, Peyman Jenabi
Background: Bolton's two main ratios describing the proportional size of upper and lower teeth, could contribute to estimating the excess or deficiency of tooth size necessary to obtain an ideal occlusion. However, the mean Bolton values are not the same among different societies. Determining the prevalence of tooth size deviations from population-specific Bolton indices might help local orthodontists to have a more concise treatment plan. Objective: The study aimed to define the prevalence of clinically significant tooth size discrepancies (TSD) in an Iranian population and to evaluate the influence of lateral incisors' size on this discrepancy...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764496/reporting-quality-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-otolaryngology-review-of-adherence-to-the-consort-statement
#8
Yu Qing Huang, Katsiaryna Traore, Badr Ibrahim, Maida J Sewitch, Lily H P Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in medical and surgical research to assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. The reporting of these trials should be of high quality to allow readers' appropriate interpretation and application. METHODS: The objectives of our study were to assess the extent to which the recent Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) randomized control trials in the top nine journals and in the top Canadian journal comply with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement, and to identify the CONSORT items most in need of improvement...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764442/cross-cultural-adaptation-validity-and-reliability-of-the-persian-version-of-the-spine-functional-index
#9
Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia, Azadeh Hosseini, Azam Maleki-Ghahfarokhi, Charles Philip Gabel, Majid Zohrabi
BACKGROUND: There are various instruments and methods to evaluate spinal health and functional status. Whole-spine patient reported outcome (PRO) measures, such as the Spine Functional Index (SFI), assess the spine from the cervical to lumbo-sacral sections as a single kinetic chain. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the SFI for Persian speaking patients (SFI-Pr) and determine the psychometric properties of reliability and validity (convergent and construct) in a Persian patient population...
May 15, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764145/nucleus-size-pinning-for-determination-of-nucleation-free-energy-barriers-and-nucleus-geometry
#10
Abhishek K Sharma, Fernando A Escobedo
Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) has recently been used in conjunction with a seeding approach to simulate nucleation phenomena at small-to-moderate supersaturation conditions when large free-energy barriers ensue. In this study, the conventional seeding approach [J. R. Espinosa et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 034501 (2016)] is improved by a novel, more robust method to estimate nucleation barriers. Inspired by the interfacial pinning approach [U. R. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104102 (2013)] used before to determine conditions where two phases coexist, the seed of the incipient phase is pinned to a preselected size to iteratively drive the system toward the conditions where the seed becomes a critical nucleus...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763431/the-efficacy-of-life-review-therapy-combined-with-memory-specificity-training-lrt-mst-targeting-cancer-patients-in-palliative-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Gitta Kleijn, Birgit I Lissenberg-Witte, Ernst T Bohlmeijer, Bas Steunenberg, Kitty Knipscheer-Kuijpers, Vincent Willemsen, Annemarie Becker, Egbert F Smit, Corien M Eeltink, Anna M E Bruynzeel, Maurice van der Vorst, Remco de Bree, C René Leemans, Michiel W M van den Brekel, Pim Cuijpers, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention combining Life Review Therapy (LRT) and Memory Specificity Training (MST) (LRT-MST) to improve ego-integrity and despair among cancer patients in palliative care. METHODS: In this multicentre randomized controlled trial, cancer patients in palliative care were randomized to the intervention group (LRT-MST; n = 55) or waiting-list control group (n = 52). LRT-MST is a 4-session home-based psychological intervention that aims to retrieve specific positive memories, to re-evaluate life events and to reconstruct the story of a patient's life, including the diagnosis of incurable cancer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763355/risk-factors-of-early-childhood-caries-among-young-children-in-hong-kong-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Sherry Shiqian Gao, Duangporn Duangthip, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun Hung Chu
OBJECTIVE: Early childhood caries (ECC) was prevalent in Hong Kong. Children with ECC risk should be identified early for prevention. This study aimed to identify common risk factors of ECC in Hong Kong 3-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: Sample size calculation showed at least 6,321 of 3-year-old children should be invited in this study. A consent form and a questionnaire enquiring the children's oral health behaviours and social-economic background were distributed to their parents...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761839/effects-of-plasma-transfusions-on-antithrombin-levels-after-paediatric-liver-transplantation
#13
D Arni, B E Wildhaber, V McLin, P C Rimensberger, M Ansari, P Fontana, O Karam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thrombotic complications affect 3-10% of patients after liver transplantation (LT), leading to potentially life-threatening complications. In the days following LT, antithrombin (AT) is decreased longer than pro-coagulant factors, thus favouring a pro-thrombotic profile. Plasma transfusions are given empirically in some centres to correct AT levels following LT. We assessed the effect of plasma transfusion on AT levels after paediatric LT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective single-centre observational study in 20 consecutive paediatric LT recipients over a 24-month period...
May 15, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761473/glucocorticosteroids-for-infants-with-biliary-atresia-following-kasai-portoenterostomy
#14
REVIEW
Athanasios Tyraskis, Christopher Parsons, Mark Davenport
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia is a life-threatening disease characterised by progressive destruction of both intra- and extra-hepatic biliary ducts. The mainstay of treatment is Kasai portoenterostomy, as soon as the disease has been confirmed. Glucocorticosteroids are steroid hormones which act on the glucocorticoid receptor and have a range of metabolic and immunomodulatory effects. Glucocorticosteroids are used to improve the postoperative outcomes in infants who have undergone Kasai portoenterostomy...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761228/patterns-of-care-analysis-for-head-neck-cancer-of-unknown-primary-site-a-survey-inside-the-german-society-of-radiation-oncology-degro
#15
Jens Müller von der Grün, Dimitra Bon, Claus Rödel, Panagiotis Balermpas
BACKGROUND: Due to the absence of randomized trials, the optimal management for squamous cell cancer of unknown primary in the head and neck region (SCCHN CUP) remains controversial. Current strategies are based on retrospective studies, clinical experience, and institutional policies. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire with a total of 24 questions was created and distributed by the use of an online version (Google Forms®, Google, Mountain View, CA, USA) as well as a printout version as equivalent option...
May 14, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761128/brain-computer-interfaces-for-post-stroke-motor-rehabilitation-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
María A Cervera, Surjo R Soekadar, Junichi Ushiba, José Del R Millán, Meigen Liu, Niels Birbaumer, Gangadhar Garipelli
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide sensory feedback of ongoing brain oscillations, enabling stroke survivors to modulate their sensorimotor rhythms purposefully. A number of recent clinical studies indicate that repeated use of such BCIs might trigger neurological recovery and hence improvement in motor function. Here, we provide a first meta-analysis evaluating the clinical effectiveness of BCI-based post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Trials were identified using MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PEDro and by inspection of references in several review articles...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761116/estimation-of-intrathecal-igg-synthesis-simulation-of-the-risk-of-underestimation
#17
Mickael Bonnan, Mariana Gianoli-Guillerme, Henri Courtade, Stéphanie Demasles, Elsa Krim, Raluca Marasescu, Hervé Dréau, Stéphane Debeugny, Bruno Barroso
Objective: The low level of passively diffused IgG through the blood-brain barrier is sufficient to blur the estimation of intrathecal IgG synthesis (ITS). Therefore, this estimation requires a mathematical calculation derived from empirical laws, but the range of normal values in healthy controls is wide enough to prevent a precise calculation. This study investigated the precision of various methods of ITS estimations and their application to two clinical situations: plasma exchange and immune suppression targeting ITS...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757369/statistical-primer-sample-size-and-power-calculations-why-when-and-how
#18
Graeme L Hickey, Stuart W Grant, Joel Dunning, Matthias Siepe
When designing a clinical study, a fundamental aspect is the sample size. In this article, we describe the rationale for sample size calculations, when it should be calculated and describe the components necessary to calculate it. For simple studies, standard formulae can be used; however, for more advanced studies, it is generally necessary to use specialized statistical software programs and consult a biostatistician. Sample size calculations for non-randomized studies are also discussed and two clinical examples are used for illustration...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754088/sampling-of-suspended-particulate-matter-using-particle-traps-in-the-rh%C3%A3-ne-river-relevance-and-representativeness-for-the-monitoring-of-contaminants
#19
M Masson, H Angot, C Le Bescond, M Launay, A Dabrin, C Miège, J Le Coz, M Coquery
Monitoring hydrophobic contaminants in surface freshwaters requires measuring contaminant concentrations in the particulate fraction (sediment or suspended particulate matter, SPM) of the water column. Particle traps (PTs) have been recently developed to sample SPM as cost-efficient, easy to operate and time-integrative tools. But the representativeness of SPM collected with PTs is not fully understood, notably in terms of grain size distribution and particulate organic carbon (POC) content, which could both skew particulate contaminant concentrations...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753611/neo-adjuvant-platinum-based-chemotherapy-followed-by-chemoradiation-and-radical-surgery-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-lacc-patients-a-phase-ii-study
#20
Gabriella Ferrandina, Eleonora Palluzzi, Valerio Gallotta, Maria Antonietta Gambacorta, Rosa Autorino, Luigi Carlo Turco, Gabriella Macchia, Francesco Cosentino, Benedetta Gui, Maria Vittoria Mattoli, Graziana Ronzino, Vincenzo Valentini, Giovanni Scambia
PURPOSE: The aim of this Phase II, non-randomized study was to assess activity and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before chemoradiation (CT/RT) followed by radical surgery (RS) in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The primary end point was rate of pathologic complete response (pCR). FIGO Stage IB2-IVA patients were administered NACT chemotherapy (paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 , carboplatin AUC 2), for 6 weeks, followed by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plus simultaneous boost (total dose of 50...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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