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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323887/involvement-of-small-g-protein-rhob-in-the-regulation-of-proliferation-adhesion-and-migration-by-dexamethasone-in-osteoblastic-cells
#1
Fei Diao, Kangyao Chen, Yan Wang, Yidong Li, Weidong Xu, Jian Lu, Yu-Xia Chen
Long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) results in bone remodeling, which frequently causes osteoporosis and fracture healing retardation because of the abnormality of osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms of GCs' effect on osteoblasts are largely unknown. In this present study, we found that dexamethasone (Dex) could induce the expression of the small G protein, RhoB, in mRNA and protein levels in the osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63. The up-regulation of RhoB mRNA by Dex mainly occurs at posttranscriptional level by increasing its mRNA stability through PI-3K/Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317889/mirnas-novel-regulators-of-autoimmunity-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-destruction-in-type-1-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Ying Zheng, Zhen Wang, Zhiguang Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of conserved, short, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression in a posttranscriptional manner. miRNAs are involved in almost every physiological and pathological process. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is the result of selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells driven by the immune system. miRNAs are also important participants in T1D pathogenesis. Herein, we review the most recent data on the potential involvement of miRNAs in T1D. Specifically, we focus on two aspects: the roles of miRNAs in maintaining immune homeostasis and regulating β-cell survival and/or functions in T1D...
March 20, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317323/a-functional-snp-regulated-by-mir-196a-3p-in-the-3-utr-of-fgf2-is-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-the-chinese-population
#3
Dong-Li Zhu, Yan Guo, Yan Zhang, Shan-Shan Dong, Wen Xu, Ruo-Han Hao, Xiao-Feng Chen, Han Yan, Shui-Yun Yang, Tie-Lin Yang
Previous studies have identified FGF2 as a susceptibility gene for osteoporosis in Caucasians. Evaluating the genetic associations in different ethnicities is necessary. Moreover, elucidating the functional mechanism for the susceptibility loci is important to offer new targets for therapeutic studies. Here, we genotyped ten SNPs in FGF2 and tested for associations with bone mineral density (BMD) in a discovery sample of 1300 Chinese subjects. Nominally significant results were subjected to replication in another sample of 1039 Chinese subjects...
March 19, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314781/sex-specific-reciprocal-regulation-of-er%C3%AE-and-mir-22-controls-muscle-lipid-metabolism-in-male-mice
#4
Judith Schweisgut, Christian Schutt, Stas Wüst, Astrid Wietelmann, Bart Ghesquière, Peter Carmeliet, Stefan Dröse, Kenneth S Korach, Thomas Braun, Thomas Boettger
Control of energy homeostasis and metabolism is achieved by integrating numerous pathways, and miRNAs are involved in this process by regulating expression of multiple target genes. However, relatively little is known about the posttranscriptional processing of miRNAs and a potential role for the precursors they derive from. Here, we demonstrate that mature miRNA-22 is more abundant in muscle from male mice relative to females and that this enables sex-specific regulation of muscular lipid metabolism and body weight by repressing estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression...
March 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304398/characterization-of-the-polyphenol-oxidase-gene-family-reveals-a-novel-microrna-involved-in-posttranscriptional-regulation-of-ppos-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#5
Caili Li, Dongqiao Li, Jiang Li, Fenjuan Shao, Shanfa Lu
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially expressed in plant tissues and eight of them were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, indicating that some SmPPOs are functionally redundant, whereas the others are associated with different physiological processes...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300326/hur-promotes-the-molecular-signature-and-phenotype-of-activated-microglia-implications-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Prachi Matsye, Lei Zheng, Ying Si, Soojin Kim, Wenyi Luo, David K Crossman, Preston E Bratcher, Peter H King
In neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), chronic activation of microglia contributes to disease progression. Activated microglia produce cytokines, chemokines, and other factors that normally serve to clear infection or damaged tissue either directly or through the recruitment of other immune cells. The molecular program driving this phenotype is classically linked to the transcription factor NF-κB and characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299467/cardiomyocyte-ogt-limits-ventricular-dysfunction-in-mice-following-pressure-overload-without-affecting-hypertrophy
#7
Sujith Dassanayaka, Robert E Brainard, Lewis J Watson, Bethany W Long, Kenneth R Brittian, Angelica M DeMartino, Allison L Aird, Anna M Gumpert, Timothy N Audam, Peter J Kilfoil, Senthilkumar Muthusamy, Tariq Hamid, Sumanth D Prabhu, Steven P Jones
The myocardial response to pressure overload involves coordination of multiple transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and metabolic cues. The previous studies show that one such metabolic cue, O-GlcNAc, is elevated in the pressure-overloaded heart, and the increase in O-GlcNAcylation is required for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Yet, it is not clear whether and how O-GlcNAcylation participates in the hypertrophic response in vivo. Here, we addressed this question using patient samples and a preclinical model of heart failure...
May 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296572/srna154-a-newly-identified-regulator-of-nitrogen-fixation-in-methanosarcina%C3%A2-mazei-strain-g%C3%A3-1
#8
Daniela Prasse, Konrad U Förstner, Dominik Jäger, Rolf Backofen, Ruth A Schmitz
Trans-encoded sRNA154 is exclusively expressed under nitrogen (N)-deficiency in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1. The sRNA154 deletion strain showed a significant decrease in growth under N-limitation, pointing towards a regulatory role of sRNA154 in N-metabolism. Aiming to elucidate its regulatory function we characterized sRNA154 by means of biochemical and genetic approaches. 24 homologs of sRNA154 were identified in recently reported draft genomes of Methanosarcina strains, demonstrating high conservation in sequence and predicted secondary structure with two highly conserved single stranded loops...
March 15, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294061/the-association-of-mme-microrna-binding-site-polymorphism-with-risk-of-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-northern-han-chinese
#9
Chun-Xia Liu, Lin Tan, Fu-Rong Sun, Wei Zhang, Dan Miao, Meng-Shan Tan, Yu Wan, Chen-Chen Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
Background Although amyloid β (Aβ) degradation has been normally implicated in the pathogenesis of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) through cellular biological studies, genetic studies linking Aβ degradation and LOAD are still not deeply investigated. Neprilysin (NEP), as one of the most crucial Aβ-degrading enzymes in AD, is the metalloendopeptidases which particularly participates in the monomeric Aβ species degradation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert posttranscriptional dysregulation and their target sequence on the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) may be regulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282370/tor1-and-ck2-kinases-control-a-switch-between-alternative-ribosome-biogenesis-pathways-in-a-growth-dependent-manner
#10
Isabelle C Kos-Braun, Ilona Jung, Martin Koš
Ribosome biogenesis is a major energy-consuming process in the cell that has to be rapidly down-regulated in response to stress or nutrient depletion. The target of rapamycin 1 (Tor1) pathway regulates synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the level of transcription initiation. It remains unclear whether ribosome biogenesis is also controlled directly at the posttranscriptional level. We show that Tor1 and casein kinase 2 (CK2) kinases regulate a rapid switch between a productive and a non-productive pre-rRNA processing pathways in yeast...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280365/downregulation-of-long-noncoding-rna-hotairm1-promotes-monocyte-dendritic-cell-differentiation-through-competitively-binding-to-endogenous-mir-3960
#11
Jiaxuan Xin, Jing Li, Yue Feng, Liyang Wang, Yuan Zhang, Rongcun Yang
Myeloid differentiation is controlled by a multilayered regulatory circuitry consisting of various elements, including histone modifications, transcription factors, and posttranscriptional regulators such as miRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this biological process remains unclear. In this study, through epigenetic profiling analysis using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified an lncRNA, HOTAIRM1, with a critical role in myeloid development...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278381/alternative-splicing-of-stat3-is-affected-by-rna-editing
#12
Lior Goldberg, Mor Abutbul-Amitai, Gideon Paret, Yael Nevo-Caspi
A-to-I RNA editing, carried out by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, is an epigenetic phenomenon of posttranscriptional modifications on pre-mRNA. RNA editing in intronic sequences may influence alternative splicing of flanking exons. We have previously shown that conditions that induce editing result in elevated expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), preferentially the alternatively-spliced STAT3β isoform. Mechanisms regulating alternative splicing of STAT3 have not been elucidated...
March 9, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277930/wobble-uridine-modifications-a-reason-to-live-a-reason-to-die
#13
Raffael Schaffrath, Sebastian A Leidel
Wobble uridines (U34) are generally modified in all species. U34 modifications can be essential in metazoans but are not required for viability in fungi. In this review, we provide an overview on the types of modifications and how they affect the physico-chemical properties of wobble uridines. We describe the molecular machinery required to introduce these modifications into tRNA posttranscriptionally and discuss how posttranslational regulation may affect the activity of the modifying enzymes. We highlight the activity of anticodon specific RNases that target U34 containing tRNA...
February 23, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277752/regulation-of-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-differentiation-by-micrornas
#14
Xi Ran, Chun-Hong Xiao, Gui-Ming Xiang, Xin-Ze Ran
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They play an important role in various cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, secretion, and proliferation. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the embryo. miRNAs are critical factors for the self-renewal and differentiation of ESCs. In this review, we will focus on the role of miRNAs in the self-renewal and directional differentiation of ESCs. We will present the current knowledge on key points related to miRNA biogenesis and their function in ESCs...
March 9, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267416/posttranscriptional-mechanisms-controlling-diurnal-gene-expression-cycles-by-body-temperature-rhythms
#15
Ivana Gotic, Ueli Schibler
In mammals, body temperature oscillates in a daily fashion around a set point of 36°C-37°C. These fluctuations are controlled by the circadian master clock residing in the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus and, despite their small amplitudes, contribute to the diurnal expression of genes throughout the organism. By focusing on the mechanisms underlying the temperature-dependent accumulation of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRBP - a factor involved in the tuning of amplitude and phase in circadian clocks of peripheral tissues - we have recently identified a novel mechanism governing temperature-dependent gene expression...
March 2, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263563/alkyne-functionalized-coumarin-compound-for-analytic-and-preparative-4-thiouridine-labeling
#16
Katharina Schmid, Maria Adobes-Vidal, Mark Helm
Bioconjugation of RNA is a dynamic field recently reinvigorated by a surge in research on posttranscriptional modification. This work focusses on the bioconjugation of 4-thiouridine, a nucleoside that occurs as a post-transcriptional modification in bacterial RNA, and is used as a metabolic label and for crosslinking purposes in eukaryotic RNA. A newly designed coumarin compound, named 7-propargyloxy-4-bromomethylcoumarin (PBC) is introduced, which exhibits remarkable selectivity for 4-thiouridine. Bearing a terminal alkyne group, it is conductive to secondary bioconjugation via "click chemistry", thereby offering a wide range of preparative and analytical options...
March 6, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261203/regulation-of-murine-natural-killer-cell-development
#17
REVIEW
Wilford Goh, Nicholas D Huntington
Natural killer (NK) cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are known for their ability to kill transformed and virus-infected cells. NK cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, and studies on mouse models have revealed that NK cell development is a complex, yet tightly regulated process, which is dependent on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The development of NK cells can be broadly categorized into two phases: lineage commitment and maturation. Efforts to better define the developmental framework of NK cells have led to the identification of several murine NK progenitor populations and mature NK cell subsets, each defined by a varied set of cell surface markers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257890/a-novel-role-of-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-in-pre-mrna-alternative-splicing-through-rna-binding-protein-14
#18
Lin-Tao Zhou, Shun-Hua Ye, Hai-Xuan Yang, Yong-Ting Zhou, Qi-Hua Zhao, Wei-Wen Sun, Mei-Mei Gao, Yong-Hong Yi, Yue-Sheng Long
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an important RNA-binding protein responsible for fragile X syndrome, is involved in posttranscriptional control of gene expression that links with brain development and synaptic functions. Here, we reveal a novel role of FMRP in pre-mRNA alternative splicing, a general event of posttranscriptional regulation. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays, we identified that FMRP interacts with an alternative-splicing-associated protein RNA-binding protein 14 (RBM14) in a RNA-dependent fashion, and the two proteins partially colocalize in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons...
February 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257297/new-concepts-in-the-molecular-understanding-of-uveal-melanoma
#19
David Reichstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, and its metastases are deadly. Significant work has been done to elucidate the molecular framework that causes uveal melanoma development and metastasis. This review is intended to highlight the most recent breakthroughs in the molecular understanding of uveal melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Monosomy of chromosome 3 and class 2 gene-expression profile ARE well-known INDICATORS of melanoma metastasis...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253363/mutation-in-cpsf6-cfim68-cleavage-and-polyadenylation-specificity-factor-subunit-6-causes-short-3-utrs-and-disturbs-gene-expression-in-developing-embryos-as-revealed-by-an-analysis-of-primordial-germ-cell-migration-using-the-medaka-mutant-naruto
#20
Takao Sasado, Hisato Kondoh, Makoto Furutani-Seiki, Kiyoshi Naruse
Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68)...
2017: PloS One
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