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Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Spyridon N Vasilopoulos, Robert H A Coutts, Stamatios Theocharis
Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator that belongs to the Hu/ELAV family. HuR expression levels are modulated by a variety of proteins, microRNAs, chemical compounds, or the microenvironment, and in turn, HuR affects mRNA stability and translation of various genes implicated in breast cancer formation, progression, metastasis, and treatment. The aim of the present review is to critically summarize the role of HuR in breast cancer development and its potential as a prognosticator and a therapeutic target...
October 17, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Jimena Giudice, Zheng Xia, Wei Li, Thomas A Cooper
The RNA binding protein Celf1 regulates alternative splicing in the nucleus and mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm. Celf1 is strongly down-regulated during mouse postnatal heart development. Its re-induction in adults induced severe heart failure and reversion to fetal splicing and gene expression patterns. However, the impact of Celf1 depletion on cardiac transcriptional and posttranscriptional dynamics in neonates has not been addressed. We found that homozygous Celf1 knock-out neonates exhibited cardiac dysfunction not observed in older homozygous animals, although homozygous mice are smaller than wild type littermates throughout development...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chaoyang Hu, Quanlin Li, Xuefang Shen, Sheng Quan, Hong Lin, Lei Duan, Yifa Wang, Qian Luo, Guorun Qu, Qing Han, Yuan Lu, Dabing Zhang, Zheng Yuan, Jianxin Shi
Elucidation of the metabolic pathways determining pigmentation and their underlying regulatory mechanisms in maize kernels is of high importance in attempts to improve the nutritional composition of our food. In this study, we compared dynamics in the transcriptome and metabolome between colored SW93 and white SW48 by integrating RNA-Seq and non-targeted metabolomics. Our data revealed that expression of enzyme coding genes and levels of primary metabolites decreased gradually from 11 to 21 DAP, corresponding well with the physiological change of developing maize kernels from differentiation through reserve accumulation to maturation, which was cultivar independent...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amandine Chaix, Amir Zarrinpar, Satchidananda Panda
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous timing mechanisms that organize cell functions in a 24-h periodicity. In mammals, the main circadian oscillator consists of transcription-translation feedback loops composed of transcriptional regulators, enzymes, and scaffolds that generate and sustain daily oscillations of their own transcript and protein levels. The clock components and their targets impart rhythmic functions to many gene products through transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Qinghong Wang, Jianguo Liu
IL-27 is a pleiotropic cytokine that has diverse immune regulatory activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. IL-27 enhances the functions of Th1 and CD8(+) T cells, promotes the development of Tfh and Tr1, and suppresses the functions of Th2, Treg, Th9, and Th17 cells. IL-27 is also involved in regulation of immune responses of B cells, NK, DCs, and macrophages. IL-27 production is strictly regulated at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Given its broad effects on immune regulation, IL-27 has been implicated in the pathogeneses of autoimmune and infectious diseases as well as cancers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Toshio Tanaka, Masashi Narazaki, Kazuya Masuda, Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a prototypical cytokine with functional pleiotropy and plays an important role in host defense. When infections or tissue injuries occur, IL-6 is promptly produced by monocytes and macrophages and contributes to removal of infectious agents and restoration of damaged tissues through activation of immune, hematological, and acute-phase responses. Once stress is removed from the host, IL-6 synthesis ends, but uncontrolled excessive or persistent IL-6 production plays a pathological role in the development of various inflammatory diseases and cancers, indicating that IL-6 is a double-edged sword for the host...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Li Chen, David R Brigstock
Liver fibrosis occurs during chronic injury and represents, in large part, an exaggerated matrigenic output by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which become activated as a result of injury-induced signaling pathways in parenchymal and inflammatory cells (hepatocytes, macrophages, etc.). The molecular components in these pathways (e.g., CCN proteins) are modulated by transcription factors as well as by factors such as microRNAs (miRs) that act posttranscriptionally. MiRs are small (~23 nt) noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by specifically interacting with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target gene mRNA to repress translation or enhance mRNA cleavage...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Seiji Kondo, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Cells generally control the concentration of mRNA by transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, so the separate contributions of synthesis and degradation ("decay") cannot be discriminated by the quantification of mRNA. To elucidate the contribution of posttranscriptional regulation, all experimental procedures for the analysis of the total transcript level, transcriptional induction, and degradation of the target mRNA are performed either individually, or in combination. From our experience, measurement of the steady-state levels of the mRNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an essential first step in quantifying ccn2 gene expression level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lorenzo Giusti, Erica Mica, Edoardo Bertolini, Anna Maria De Leonardis, Primetta Faccioli, Luigi Cattivelli, Cristina Crosatti
Plant stress response is a complex molecular process based on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of many stress-related genes. microRNAs are the best-studied class of small RNAs known to play key regulatory roles in plant response to stress, besides being involved in plant development and organogenesis. We analyzed the leaf miRNAome of two durum wheat cultivars (Cappelli and Ofanto) characterized by a contrasting water use efficiency, exposed to heat stress, and mild and severe drought stress...
October 12, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Daniel Köhler, Stefan Helm, Birgit Agne, Sacha Baginsky
Toc159-containing complexes at the outer chloroplast envelope membrane form stable super-complexes with a 1-MDa translocon at the inner chloroplast envelope membrane of which Tic56 is one essential subunit. While the single mutants tic56-1 and ppi2 (toc159) have an albino phenotype and are able to grow heterotrophically, we find the double mutant to be embryo-lethal. Comprehensive quantitative proteome profiling with both single mutants in combination with GeneChip analyses identified a posttranscriptional defect in the accumulation of plastid ribosomal proteins and diminished expression of plastid encoded proteins...
October 12, 2016: Plant Physiology
Madalena M Reimão-Pinto, Raphael A Manzenreither, Thomas R Burkard, Pawel Sledz, Martin Jinek, Karl Mechtler, Stefan L Ameres
The posttranscriptional addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of RNA regulates the maturation, function, and stability of RNA species in all domains of life. Here, we show that in flies, 3' terminal RNA uridylation triggers the processive, 3'-to-5' exoribonucleolytic decay via the RNase II/R enzyme CG16940, a homolog of the human Perlman syndrome exoribonuclease Dis3l2. Together with the TUTase Tailor, dmDis3l2 forms the cytoplasmic, terminal RNA uridylation-mediated processing (TRUMP) complex that functionally cooperates in the degradation of structured RNA RNA immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing reveals a variety of TRUMP complex substrates, including abundant non-coding RNA, such as 5S rRNA, tRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, and the essential RNase MRP Based on genetic and biochemical evidence, we propose a key function of the TRUMP complex in the cytoplasmic quality control of RNA polymerase III transcripts...
October 11, 2016: EMBO Journal
L S Resende, C E Amaral, R B S Soares, A S Alves, L Alves-Dos-Santos, L R G Britto, S Chiavegatto
MAX is a conserved constitutive small phosphoprotein from a network of transcription factors that are extensively studied in tumorigenesis and whose functions affect cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Inspired by its higher expression during development and in regions involved in emotional behaviors, we hypothesized its involvement in cerebral changes caused by early-life stress. We studied the effects of repeated social stress during adolescence on behaviors and on MAX and its putative partner MYC...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Wensheng Ge, Chaodong Han, Jing Wang, Yunping Zhang
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a common aggressive head and neck cancer with high mortality and incidence. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding and endogenous RNAs that posttranscriptionally inhibit gene expression. In this study, we showed that miR-300 expression was downregulated in LSCC tissues compared with adjacent no-tumor tissues. MiR-300 overexpression inhibited Hep-2 cell proliferation, as well as the expression of ki-67 and PCNA. Moreover, overexpression of miR-300 repressed the cell invasion in Hep-2 cells...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Yanping Han, Haihong Fang, Lei Liu, Dongsheng Zhou
Y. pestis exhibits dramatically different traits of pathogenicity and transmission, albeit their close genetic relationship with its ancestor-Y. pseudotuberculosis, a self-limiting gastroenteric pathogen. Y. pestis is evolved into a deadly pathogen and transmitted to mammals and/or human beings by infected flea biting or directly contacting with the infected animals. Various kinds of environmental changes are implicated into its complex life cycle and pathogenesis. Dynamic regulation of gene expression is critical for environmental adaptation or survival, primarily reflected by genetic regulation mediated by transcriptional factors and small regulatory RNAs at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level, respectively...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ewa Jablonska, Patryk Gorniak, Maciej Szydlowski, Tomasz Sewastianik, Emilia Bialopiotrowicz, Anna Polak, Krzysztof Warzocha, Przemyslaw Juszczynski
B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling plays pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), and targeting the BCR pathway is a highly promising therapeutic strategy in this malignancy. Oncogenic microRNA miR-17-92 modulates multiple cellular processes such as survival, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and BCR signaling. In the present study, we identified new targets of miR-17-92, PTPROt and PP2A phosphatases, which regulate SYK and AKT activity- critical components of BCR signal transduction in DLBCL cells...
October 6, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Zhaoxia Li, Xinrui Zhang, Xiuxia Liu, Yajie Zhao, Baomei Wang, Juren Zhang
Maize is a globally important crop, and a low phosphate (LP) supply frequently limits maize yields in many areas. microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation. In this study, spatio-temporal miRNA transcript profiling and some of the target genes in the roots and leaves of the maize inbred line Q319 were analyzed in response to LP. Complex small RNA populations were detected after LP culture, and they displayed different patterns in the roots and leaves. Differentially expressed miRNAs can be grouped into 'early' miRNAs, which respond rapidly and are often non-specific to phosphate deficiency, and 'late' miRNAs, which alter the morphology, physiology or metabolism of plants upon prolonged phosphate deficiency...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Franco Santin, Sneha Bhogale, Elisa Fantino, Carolina Grandellis, Anjan K Banerjee, Rita M Ulloa
Among the many factors that regulate potato tuberization, calcium and Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) play an important role. CDPK activity increases at the onset of tuber formation with StCDPK1 expression being strongly induced in swollen stolons. However, not much is known about the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of StCDPK1 or its downstream targets in potato development. To elucidate further, we analyzed its expression in different tissues and stages of the life cycle. Histochemical analysis of StCDPK1::GUS plants demonstrated that StCDPK1 is strongly associated with the vascular system in stems, roots, during stolon to tuber transition, and in tuber sprouts...
October 7, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Junjie U Guo, David P Bartel
In vitro, some RNAs can form stable four-stranded structures known as G-quadruplexes. Although RNA G-quadruplexes have been implicated in posttranscriptional gene regulation and diseases, direct evidence for their formation in cells has been lacking. Here, we identified thousands of mammalian RNA regions that can fold into G-quadruplexes in vitro, but in contrast to previous assumptions, these regions were overwhelmingly unfolded in cells. Model RNA G-quadruplexes that were unfolded in eukaryotic cells were folded when ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli; however, they impaired translation and growth, which helps explain why we detected few G-quadruplex-forming regions in bacterial transcriptomes...
September 23, 2016: Science
Jun-Yao Wang, Lan Xiao, Jian-Ying Wang
Maintenance of the gut epithelial integrity under stressful environments requires epithelial cells to rapidly elicit changes in gene expression patterns to regulate their survival, adapt to stress, and keep epithelial homeostasis. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial integrity occurs commonly in patients with various critical illnesses, leading to the translocation of luminal toxic substances and bacteria to the blood stream. Recently, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as a novel class of master regulators of gene expression and are fundamentally involved in many aspects of gut mucosal regeneration, protection, and epithelial barrier function...
October 4, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Maria Barciszewska-Pacak, Katarzyna Knop, Artur Jarmołowski, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulińska
Arabidopsis microRNA162 (miRNA162) level regulation was studied under abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity. The TaqMan® microRNA assay proved that A. thaliana miRNA162 level was elevated under these stresses, confirming its salt and drought responsiveness. The promoter region analyses of A. thaliana miRNA162a and b genes (MIR162a and MIR162b) identified numerous salinity and drought responsive elements. However, our results indicated that Arabidopsis MIR162a was presumably the main locus responsible for the mature ath-miRNA162 accumulation under the stresses tested, and the MIR162b was generally rather weakly expressed, both in control and under the stress conditions...
October 5, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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