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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678949/hu-antigen-r-regulates-antiviral-innate-immune-responses-through-the-stabilization-of-mrna-for-polo-like-kinase-2
#1
Takuya Sueyoshi, Takumi Kawasaki, Yuichi Kitai, Daisuke Ori, Shizuo Akira, Taro Kawai
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), RIG-I, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) play a critical role in inducing antiviral innate immune responses by activating IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB, which regulates the transcription of type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines. Antiviral innate immune responses are also regulated by posttranscriptional and translational mechanisms. In this study, we identified an RNA-binding protein HuR as a regulator for RLR signaling...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678826/rna-binding-protein-hur-regulates-scn5a-expression-through-stabilizing-mef2c-transcription-factor-mrna
#2
Anyu Zhou, Guangbin Shi, Gyeoung-Jin Kang, An Xie, Hong Liu, Ning Jiang, Man Liu, Euy-Myoung Jeong, Samuel C Dudley
BACKGROUND: Although transcription is the initial process of gene expression, posttranscriptional gene expression regulation has also played a critical role for fine-tuning gene expression in a fast, precise, and cost-effective manner. Although the regulation of sodium channel α-subunit ( SCN5A ) mRNA expression has been studied at both transcriptional and pre-mRNA splicing levels, the molecular mechanisms governing SCN5A mRNA expression are far from clear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Herein, we show that, as evidenced by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation assay, RNA binding protein Hu antigen R/ELAV like RNA binding protein 1 (HuR/ELAVL1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C) transcription factor mRNA are associated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676246/enzymes-involved-in-posttranscriptional-rna-metabolism-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#3
Bijoy K Mohanty, Sidney R Kushner
Gene expression in Gram-negative bacteria is regulated at many levels, including transcription initiation, RNA processing, RNA/RNA interactions, mRNA decay, and translational controls involving enzymes that alter translational efficiency. In this review, we discuss the various enzymes that control transcription, translation, and RNA stability through RNA processing and degradation. RNA processing is essential to generate functional RNAs, while degradation helps control the steady-state level of each individual transcript...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674181/high-glucose-forces-a-positive-feedback-loop-connecting-erbb4-expression-and-mtor-s6k-pathway-to-aggravate-the-formation-of-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-differentiated-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Sheng-Dan Nie, Xin Li, Can-E Tang, Fang-Yuan Min, Xia-Jie Shi, Liang-Yan Wu, Shan-Lei Zhou, Zi Chen, Jing Wu, Tao Song, Zhi-Jie Dai, Jiao Zheng, Jia-Jia Liu, Shan Wang
High glucose (HG)-induced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) overactivation acts as a signaling hub for the formation of tau hyperphosphorylation, which contributes to the development of diabetes-associated cognitive deficit. How HG induces the sustained activation of mTOR in neurons is not clearly understood. ErbB4, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, plays critical roles in development and function of neural circuitry, relevant to behavioral deficits. Here, we showed HG-induced ErbB4 overexpression in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and primary hippocampal neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
March 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673704/synergistic-action-of-the-nephrotoxic-mycotoxins-ochratoxin-a-and-citrinin-at-nanomolar-concentrations-in-human-proximal-tubule-derived-cells
#5
Marie-Christin Schulz, Luise Schumann, Ulrike Rottkord, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Michael Gekle, Gerald Schwerdt
Increased ochratoxin A (OTA) or citrinin (CIT) concentrations in food correlate with increased prevalence of tubule-interstitial nephropathy. We tested the hypothesis that co-exposure of human proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells (HK-2) to OTA and CIT promotes synergistic events indicative for inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) or fibrosis. We measured markers of inflammation, EMT and fibrosis and investigated the role of MAP-kinases. Only concurrent but not individual exposure to OTA and CIT at nanomolar concentrations led to (i) an increase of TNF protein and mRNA, (ii) a decrease of COX-2 protein and mRNA, (iii) a decrease of E-cadherin protein and (iv) an increase of vimentin and α-SMA protein...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673457/-mir-182-promotes-cell-proliferation-of-cervical-cancer-cells-by-targeting-adenomatous-polyposis-coli-apc-gene
#6
Pei Li, Jing Hu, Ying Zhang, Jianping Li, Yunzhi Dang, Rui Zhang, Lichun Wei, Mei Shi
Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of microRNA-182 (miR-182) in the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Methods With liposome-mediated transient transfection method, the level of miR-182 in HeLa and SiHa cells was increased or decreased. CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the effect of miR-182 on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Using bioinformatics predictions, real-time quantitative PCR, and dual luciferase reporter assay, we clarified the role of miR-182 in posttranscriptional regulation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and its effect on the downstream molecules (c-Myc and cyclin D1) of Wnt singling pathway...
February 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670621/integrated-analysis-reveals-that-mir-193b-mir-671-and-trem-1-correlate-with-a-good-response-to-treatment-of-human-localized-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-braziliensis
#7
Sara Nunes, Icaro Bonyek Silva, Mariana Rosa Ampuero, Almério Libório Lopes de Noronha, Lígia Correia Lima de Souza, Thaizza Cavalcante Correia, Ricardo Khouri, Viviane Sampaio Boaventura, Aldina Barral, Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Cláudia Brodskyn, Pablo Rafael Silveira Oliveira, Natalia Machado Tavares
Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is a chronic disease characterized by ulcerated skin lesion(s) and uncontrolled inflammation. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of LCL are not completely understood, and little is known about posttranscriptional regulation during LCL. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression and can be implicated in the pathogenesis of LCL. We investigated the involvement of miRNAs and their targets genes in human LCL using publicly available transcriptome data sets followed by ex vivo validation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669595/imp1-regulates-uca1-mediated-cell-invasion-through-facilitating-uca1-decay-and-decreasing-the-sponge-effect-of-uca1-for-mir-122-5p
#8
Yanchun Zhou, Xiuhua Meng, Shaoying Chen, Wei Li, Delin Li, Robert Singer, Wei Gu
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a class of widespread and diverse endogenous RNAs that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression through the interaction with RNA-binding proteins and micro RNAs (miRNAs). Here, we report that in breast carcinoma cells, the insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA binding protein (IMP1) binds to lncRNA urethral carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) and suppresses the UCA1-induced invasive phenotype. METHODS: RT-qPCR and RNA sequence assays were used to investigate the expression of UCA1 and miRNAs in breast cancer cells in response to IMP1 expression...
April 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664809/microrna-19a-b-3p-protect-the-heart-from-hypertension-induced-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy-through-pde5a
#9
Kun Liu, Qiongyu Hao, Jie Wei, Gong-Hao Li, Yong Wu, Yun-Feng Zhao
AIM: PDE5A is a leading factor contributing to cGMP signaling and cardiac hypertrophy. However, microRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation of PDE5A has not been reported. The aim of this study is to screen the microRNAs that are able to regulate PDE5A and explore the function of the microRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Although miR-19a/b-3p (microRNA-19a-3p and microRNA-19b-3p) have been reported to be differentially expressed during cardiac hypertrophy, the direct targets and the functions of this microRNA family for regulation of cardiac hypertrophy have not yet been investigated...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659417/circulating-microrna-as-emerging-biomarkers-of-exercise
#10
Manuel Fernández-Sanjurjo, David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Benjamín Fernández-García, Sergio Díez-Robles, Ángel Martínez-Canal, Hugo Olmedillas, Alberto Dávalos, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez
An interest has recently emerged in the role of circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) as posttranscriptional regulators, intercellular communicators and, especially, as potential biomarkers of the systemic response to acute exercise and training. We propose that, with the limited, heterogeneous, and mainly descriptive information currently available, c-miRNAs do not provide a reliable biomarker of exercise in healthy or diseased individuals.
April 13, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656417/mirna-regulation-of-innate-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA and are pivotal posttranscriptional regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. They act by regulating the expression of multiple immune genes, thus, are the important elements to the complex immune regulatory network. Deregulated expression of specific miRNAs can lead to potential autoimmunity, immune tolerance, hyper-inflammatory phenotype, and cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the contributory pathways and mechanisms by which several miRNAs influence the development of innate immunity and fine-tune immune response...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651979/rnases-and-helicases-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#12
Sylvain Durand, Ciaran Condon
RNases are key enzymes involved in RNA maturation and degradation. Although they play a crucial role in all domains of life, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes have evolved with their own sets of RNases and proteins modulating their activities. In bacteria, these enzymes allow modulation of gene expression to adapt to rapidly changing environments. Today, >20 RNases have been identified in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , the paradigms of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649689/high-fat-diet-alters-pas-kinase-regulation-by-fasting-and-feeding-in-liver
#13
Ana Pérez-García, Pilar Dongil, Verónica Hurtado-Carneiro, Enrique Blázquez, Carmen Sanz, Elvira Álvarez
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population, along with their associated complications, is a major factor contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The liver is a vital organ for maintaining metabolic homeostasis, especially in the adjustment periods in fasting and feeding. Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK) controls glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism in response to nutritional status. PASK-deficient mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) resist the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis, with improved insulin sensitivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649101/pathobiologic-roles-of-epstein-barr-virus-encoded-micrornas-in-human-lymphomas
#14
REVIEW
Mohsen Navari, Maryam Etebari, Mostafa Ibrahimi, Lorenzo Leoncini, Pier Paolo Piccaluga
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus implicated in several human malignancies, including a wide range of lymphomas. Several molecules encoded by EBV in its latent state are believed to be related to EBV-induced lymphomagenesis, among which microRNAs-small RNAs with a posttranscriptional regulating role-are of great importance. The genome of EBV encodes 44 mature microRNAs belonging to two different classes, including BamHI-A rightward transcript ( BART ) and Bam HI fragment H rightward open reading frame 1 ( BHRF1 ), with different expression levels in different EBV latency types...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644261/detection-and-analysis-of-circular-rnas-by-rt-pcr
#15
Amaresh C Panda, Myriam Gorospe
Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Posttranscriptional processes, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, mRNA turnover, and mRNA translation, are controlled by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding (nc)RNAs. The vast family of ncRNAs comprises diverse regulatory RNAs, such as microRNAs and long noncoding (lnc)RNAs, but also the poorly explored class of circular (circ)RNAs. Although first discovered more than three decades ago by electron microscopy, only the advent of high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and the development of innovative bioinformatic pipelines have begun to allow the systematic identification of circRNAs (Szabo and Salzman, 2016; Panda et al ...
March 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628141/pseudouridylation-of-trna-derived-fragments-steers-translational-control-in-stem-cells
#16
Nicola Guzzi, Maciej Cieśla, Phuong Cao Thi Ngoc, Stefan Lang, Sonali Arora, Marios Dimitriou, Kristyna Pimková, Mikael N E Sommarin, Roberto Munita, Michal Lubas, Yiting Lim, Kazuki Okuyama, Shamit Soneji, Göran Karlsson, Jenny Hansson, Göran Jönsson, Anders H Lund, Mikael Sigvardsson, Eva Hellström-Lindberg, Andrew C Hsieh, Cristian Bellodi
Pseudouridylation (Ψ) is the most abundant and widespread type of RNA epigenetic modification in living organisms; however, the biological role of Ψ remains poorly understood. Here, we show that a Ψ-driven posttranscriptional program steers translation control to impact stem cell commitment during early embryogenesis. Mechanistically, the Ψ "writer" PUS7 modifies and activates a novel network of tRNA-derived small fragments (tRFs) targeting the translation initiation complex. PUS7 inactivation in embryonic stem cells impairs tRF-mediated translation regulation, leading to increased protein biosynthesis and defective germ layer specification...
April 4, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624673/the-bone-marrow-is-patrolled-by-nk-cells-that-are-primed-and-expand-in-response-to-systemic-viral-activation
#17
Idan Milo, Ronnie Blecher-Gonen, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Raz Bar-Ziv, Orna Tal, Irina Gurevich, Tali Feferman, Ingo Drexler, Ido Amit, Philippe Bousso, Guy Shakhar
The bone marrow hosts NK cells whose distribution, motility and response to systemic immune challenge are poorly understood. At steady state, two-photon microscopy of the bone marrow in Ncr1gfp/+ mice captured motile NK cells interacting with dendritic cells. NK cells expressed markers and effector molecules of mature cells. Following poly (I:C) injection, RNA-Seq of NK cells revealed three phases of transcription featuring immune response genes followed by posttranscriptional processes and proliferation. Functionally, poly (I:C) promoted upregulation of granzyme B, enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and, in the same individual cells, triggered proliferation...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623872/origin-evolution-and-loss-of-bacterial-small-rnas
#18
H Auguste Dutcher, Rahul Raghavan
Despite the central role of bacterial noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) in posttranscriptional regulation, little is understood about their evolution. Here we compile what has been studied to date and trace a life cycle of sRNAs-from their mechanisms of emergence, through processes of change and frequent neofunctionalization, to their loss from bacterial lineages. Because they possess relatively unrestrictive structural requirements, we find that sRNA origins are varied, and include de novo emergence as well as formation from preexisting genetic elements via duplication events and horizontal gene transfer...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619127/clinical-significance-and-biological-role-of-hur-in-head-and-neck-carcinomas
#19
REVIEW
Georgia Levidou, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Jason Tasoulas, Thomas Papadopoulos, Stamatios Theocharis
Background: Hu-antigen R (HuR) is a posttranscriptional regulator of several target mRNAs, implicated in carcinogenesis. This review aims to present the current evidence regarding the biological role and potential clinical significance of HuR in head and neck carcinomas. Methods: The existing literature concerning HuR expression and function in head and neck carcinomas is critically presented and summarised. Results: HuR is expressed in the majority of the examined samples, showing higher cytoplasmic levels in malignant or premalignant cases...
2018: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615682/the-p53-s100a2-positive-feedback-loop-negatively-regulates-epithelialization-in-cutaneous-wound-healing
#20
Shin-Chen Pan, Che-Yu Li, Chia-Yi Kuo, Yi-Zih Kuo, Wei-Yu Fang, Yu-Hsuan Huang, Tzu-Chin Hsieh, Hung-Ying Kao, Yuan Kuo, Ya-Rong Kang, Wan-Chi Tsai, Sen-Tien Tsai, Li-Wha Wu
The S100A2 protein is an important regulator of keratinocyte differentiation, but its role in wound healing remains unknown. We establish epithelial-specific S100A2 transgenic (TG) mice and study its role in wound repair using punch biopsy wounding assays. In line with the observed increase in proliferation and migration of S100A2-depleted human keratinocytes, mice expressing human S100A2 exhibit delayed cutaneous wound repair. This was accompanied by the reduction of re-epithelialization as well as a slow, attenuated response of Mcp1, Il6, Il1β, Cox2, and Tnf mRNA expression in the early phase...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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