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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028150/potential-of-micrornas-as-novel-targets-in-the-alleviation-of-pathological-fear
#1
REVIEW
Conor P Murphy, Nicolas Singewald
The current treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias and other anxiety disorders, remains insufficient particularly in producing long-lasting full symptom control. Dysfunctional fear processing is common in these disorders, including a deficiency in fear-inhibitory mechanisms and impairment in the ability to discriminate between safety and danger cues. Research has aimed to elucidate brain circuitries, neurotransmitters and downstream signaling pathways important in the alleviation of aberrant fear, with a specific focus on mechanisms modulating fear memory and its behavioral expression...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016735/lncrna-tug1-sponges-mir-204-5p-to-promote-osteoblast-differentiation-through-upregulating-runx2-in-aortic-valve-calcification
#2
Cong Yu, Lifu Li, Fei Xie, Shichao Guo, Fayuan Liu, Nianguo Dong, Yongjun Wang
Aims: Emerging evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Although the lncRNA TUG1 is implicated in atherosclerosis, its function in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) remains unknown. Methods and Results: In this study, we found that TUG1 was highly expressed in human aortic valves and primary valve interstitial cells (VICs). Moreover, TUG1 knockdown induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in CAVD both in vitro and in vivo ...
September 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993774/the-clinical-application-of-micrornas-in-infectious-disease
#3
REVIEW
Ruth E Drury, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences that posttranscriptionally regulate up to 60% of protein encoding genes. Evidence is emerging that miRNAs are key mediators of the host response to infection, predominantly by regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways. miRNAs can govern the cellular tropism of some viruses, are implicated in the resistance of some individuals to infections like HIV, and are associated with impaired vaccine response in older people...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993514/the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-responsive-long-noncoding-rna-firre-regulates-posttranscriptional-regulation-of-inflammatory-gene-expression-through-interacting-with-hnrnpu
#4
Yajing Lu, Xu Liu, Minghong Xie, Mingjia Liu, Mengling Ye, Mingxuan Li, Xian-Ming Chen, Xiaoqing Li, Rui Zhou
Long noncoding RNAs, a newly identified class of noncoding RNAs, are important regulators of gene expression in innate immunity. We report in this study that the transcription of FIRRE, a conserved long noncoding RNA between humans and mice, is controlled by NF-κB signaling in macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells. Functionally, FIRRE appears to positively regulate the expression of several inflammatory genes in macrophages or intestinal epithelial cells in response to LPS stimulation via posttranscriptional mechanisms...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992202/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factors-and-vascular-wall-homeostasis
#5
Yanbo Fan, Haocheng Lu, Wenying Liang, Wenting Hu, Jifeng Zhang, Y Eugene Chen
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are major causes of death worldwide. Identification of promising targets for prevention and treatment of CVDs is paramount in the cardiovascular field. Numerous transcription factors regulate cellular function through modulation of specific genes and thereby are involved in the physiological and pathophysiological processes of CVDs. Although Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) have a similar protein structure with a conserved zinc finger domain, they possess distinct tissue and cell distribution patterns as well as biological functions...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986222/auf1-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-signal-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-via-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-nedd4l-expression
#6
Jing Yan, Feng Du, Sheng-Dong Li, Ye Yuan, Jing-Yi Jiang, Si Li, Xin-Yu Li, Zhen-Xian Du
Posttranscriptional regulation process plays important roles in renal disease pathogenesis. AU-rich element RNA-binding protein (AUF1) interacts with and destabilizes mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3'UTR. The current study demonstrated that AUF1 was increased in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) animal models. While proliferation and migration of HK2 cells was unaltered by AUF1 downregulation under normal condition, proliferative inhibition and migratory promotion mediated by TGF-β was significantly compromised...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984054/rna-uridylation-a-key-posttranscriptional-modification-shaping-the-coding-and-noncoding-transcriptome
#7
REVIEW
Caroline De Almeida, Hélène Scheer, Hélène Zuber, Dominique Gagliardi
RNA uridylation is a potent and widespread posttranscriptional regulator of gene expression. RNA uridylation has been detected in a range of eukaryotes including trypanosomes, animals, plants, and fungi, but with the noticeable exception of budding yeast. Virtually all classes of eukaryotic RNAs can be uridylated and uridylation can also tag viral RNAs. The untemplated addition of a few uridines at the 3' end of a transcript can have a decisive impact on RNA's fate. In rare instances, uridylation is an intrinsic step in the maturation of noncoding RNAs like for the U6 spliceosomal RNA or mitochondrial guide RNAs in trypanosomes...
October 5, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981206/defective-kernel-6-encodes-a-ppr-protein-required-for-seed-development-in-maize
#8
Xiaojie Li, Wei Gu, Silong Sun, Zongliang Chen, Jing Chen, Weibin Song, Haiming Zhao, Jinsheng Lai
RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process that is important in mitochondria and plastids of higher plants. All RNA editing specific trans-factors reported so far belong to PLS-class of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Here, we report the map-based cloning and molecular characterization of a defective kernel mutant dek6 in maize. Loss of Dek6 function leads to delayed embryogenesis and endosperm development, reduced kernel size, and seedling lethality. Dek6 encodes an E sub-class PPR protein that targets to both mitochondria and chloroplasts, and is involved in RNA editing in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase3 (nad3) at nad3-247 and nad3-275...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979765/micrornas-in-the-development-and-neoplasia-of-the-mammary-gland
#9
REVIEW
Manoj Kumar Jena
Study on the role of microRNAs (miRs) as regulators of gene expression through posttranscriptional gene silencing is currently gaining much interest,due to their wide involvement in different physiological processes. Understanding mammary gland development, lactation, and neoplasia in relation to miRs is essential. miR expression profiling of the mammary gland from different species in various developmental stages shows their role as critical regulators of development. miRs such as miR-126, miR-150, and miR-145 have been shown to be involved in lipid metabolism during lactation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977865/a-functional-variant-in-grem1-confers-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-by-disrupting-a-hsa-mir-185-3p-binding-site
#10
Jiaoyuan Li, Hui Liu, Li Zou, Juntao Ke, Yi Zhang, Ying Zhu, Yang Yang, Yajie Gong, Jianbo Tian, Danyi Zou, Xiating Peng, Jing Gong, Rong Zhong, Kun Huang, Jiang Chang, Xiaoping Miao
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway has been implicated in carcinogenesis of intestinal canal. Except for common variants indentified by genome-wide association studies, variants with lower frequency can also explain a part of the disease heritability, especially those in gene regulatory regions. In this study, we searched for colorectal cancer (CRC) related functional low-frequency variants (minor allele frequency 1-5%) in untranslated regions (UTR) involved in the TGF-β signaling using a next-generation sequencing based approach...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971605/17%C3%AE-estradiol-reduces-cav-1-2-channel-abundance-and-attenuates-ca-2-dependent-contractions-in-coronary-arteries
#11
Brent J F Hill, Robin J Dalton, Biny K Joseph, Keshari M Thakali, Nancy J Rusch
One mechanism by which the female sex may protect against elevated coronary vascular tone is inhibition of Ca(2+) entry into arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). In vitro findings confirm that high estrogen concentrations directly inhibit voltage-dependent Cav 1.2 channels in coronary ASMCs. For this study, we hypothesized that the nonacute, in vitro exposure of coronary arteries to a low concentration of 17β-estradiol (17βE) reduces the expression of Cav 1.2 channel proteins in coronary ASMCs. Segments of the right coronary artery obtained from sexually mature female pigs were mounted for isometric tension recording...
October 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970726/ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-regulates-colon-cancer-proliferation-and-migration-via-erk1-2-and-p38-pathways
#12
Wei Chen, Ping An, Xiao-Jing Quan, Jun Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhou, Li-Ping Zou, He-Sheng Luo
AIM: To investigate the role of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in colon cancer growth, migration and invasion. METHODS: CaMKII expression in colon cancer and paracancerous tissues was evaluated via immunochemistry. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels of CaMKIIin tissue samples and MMP2, MMP9 and TIMP-1 expression in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116 were assessed by qRT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation was detected with the MTT assay...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968471/modulation-of-the-mrna-binding-protein-hur-as-a-novel-reversal-mechanism-of-epirubicin-triggered-multidrug-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#13
Guan-Liang Lin, Huei-Ju Ting, Ta-Chien Tseng, Vivian Juang, Yu-Li Lo
HuR (ELAVL1), a RNA-binding protein, plays a key role in posttranscriptional regulation of multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes. Among various HuR-regulated oncogenic transcripts, the activation of galectin-3/β-catenin survival pathway is critical to induce transcription of cyclin D1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and/or multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). In this study, we aim to elucidate the HuR-regulating pathways related to epirubicin-mediated resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cells. The effects and mechanisms of epirubicin treatment on the expressions of upstream survival signals (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968025/-the-role-of-interactions-of-transposons-with-epigenetic-factors-in-the-aging-process
#14
R N Mustafin, E K Khusnutdinova
The review considers modern theories of aging mechanisms and data on epigenetic regulation of ontogenesis. Transposons may be the material bases of the epigenetic control system, their movements affect the differentiation of cells and can cause genomic instability. Control systems aimed at protecting against foreign DNA (splicing machine, microRNA processing) became the basis of regulatory networks of genomes underlying cell differentiation. Transposon sequences are the basis for non-coding RNAs that suppress the expression of the transposons themselves and protein-coding genes at the posttranscriptional level, as well as by altering the activity of methyltransferases and modifying the histone modification...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965817/p-body-purification-reveals-the-condensation-of-repressed-mrna-regulons
#15
Arnaud Hubstenberger, Maïté Courel, Marianne Bénard, Sylvie Souquere, Michèle Ernoult-Lange, Racha Chouaib, Zhou Yi, Jean-Baptiste Morlot, Annie Munier, Magali Fradet, Maëlle Daunesse, Edouard Bertrand, Gérard Pierron, Julien Mozziconacci, Michel Kress, Dominique Weil
Within cells, soluble RNPs can switch states to coassemble and condense into liquid or solid bodies. Although these phase transitions have been reconstituted in vitro, for endogenous bodies the diversity of the components, the specificity of the interaction networks, and the function of the coassemblies remain to be characterized. Here, by developing a fluorescence-activated particle sorting (FAPS) method to purify cytosolic processing bodies (P-bodies) from human epithelial cells, we identified hundreds of proteins and thousands of mRNAs that structure a dense network of interactions, separating P-body from non-P-body RNPs...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962835/identification-and-validation-of-the-microrna-response-elements-in-the-3-untranslated-region-of-the-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-ugt-2b7-and-2b15-genes-by-a-functional-genomics-approach
#16
Ioannis Papageorgiou, Michael H Court
Posttranscriptional repression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 and 2B15 expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) may be an important mechanism underlying inter-individual variability in drug glucuronidation. Furthermore, the UGT2B15 3'-UTR contains a common SNP (rs3100) that could influence miRNA binding. The aim of this study was to identify the complete complement of miRNAs that could regulate UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 expression through binding to the reference and/or variant 3'-UTRs. Luciferase reporter plasmids containing either the reference or variant 3'-UTRs were screened against a 2,048 human miRNA library to identify those miRNAs that decrease luciferase activity by at least 30% when co-transfected into HEK293 cells...
September 28, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959349/computational-identification-of-micrornas-and-their-transcript-target-s-in-field-mustard-brassica-rapa-l
#17
Behzad Hajieghrari, Naser Farrokhi, Bahram Goliaei, Kaveh Kavousi
BACKGROUND: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a pivotal part of non-protein-coding endogenous small RNA molecules that regulate the genes involved in plant growth and development, and respond to biotic and abiotic environmental stresses posttranscriptionally. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we report the results of a systemic search for identification of new miRNAs in B. rapa using homology-based ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) analysis and considering a series of fi ltration criteria...
March 2017: Iranian journal of biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956260/expression-and-function-of-hsa-mir-6165-in-human-cell-lines-and-during-the-nt2-cell-neural-differentiation-process
#18
Maryam Hassanlou, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Seyed Javad Mowla
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate mRNA expression. hsa-miR-6165 which was previously discovered in our group is located in the forth intron of p75NTR gene and its function is still under investigation. As P75NTR has diverse cellular functions, some of the complexity of its function could be attributed to the internally located microRNA. Our analysis revealed that treatment of HCT116 cells with 5-azacytidine promoted differential expression of hsa-miR-6165 from its host gene which is consistent with the bioinformatic prediction of an independent promoter for hsa-miR-6165...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951438/novel-aspects-of-t3-actions-on-gh-and-tsh-synthesis-and-secretion-physiological-implications
#19
Paula Bargi-Souza, Francemilson Goulart-Silva, Maria Tereza Nunes
Thyroid hormones (TH) classically regulate gene expression by transcriptional mechanisms. In pituitary, the encoding genes for Growth Hormone (GH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are examples of genes regulated by triiodothyronine (T3) in a positive and negative way, respectively. Recent studies have shown a rapid adjustment of GH and TSH synthesis/secretion induced by T3 posttranscriptional actions. In somatotrophs, T3 promotes an increase in Gh mRNA content, poly(A) tail length and binding to the ribosome, associated with a rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947967/mir-33a-is-a-tumor-suppressor-microrna-that-is-decreased-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Omer Faruk Karatas, Jianghua Wang, Longjiang Shao, Mustafa Ozen, Yiqun Zhang, Chad J Creighton, Michael Ittmann
Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms among men worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in numerous important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. They have been found to be aberrantly expressed in many types of human cancers. They can act as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes, and changes in their levels are associated with tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. miR-33a is an intronic miRNA embedded within SREBF2 that has been reported to have tumor suppressive properties in some cancers but has not been examined in prostate cancer...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
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