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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642136/a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-derived-cis-acting-sequence-that-enhances-expression-of-transgenes-delivered-by-plasmid-vectors-in-eukaryote-cell-culture-systems
#1
Seoung-Ae Lee, Hong Kim, So-Young Lee, Bum-Joon Kim
We tested the effectiveness of a novel 13-bp hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived cis-acting element (CAE) (ACCTCGACAAGGC), called the DT2 CAE, in augmenting transgene expression delivered by plasmid vectors in eukaryotic cells. The addition of the DT2 CAE just upstream of the start codon of several different target proteins (luciferase, EGFP, LHB, HBsAg, and MIF) in DNA plasmid constructs enhanced their translation in a posttranscriptional manner, irrespective of cell type (cell lines or primary cells) or promoter (CMV or HBV preS1 promoters), suggesting its feasibility for enhanced protein production in eukaryotic cell systems...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638836/detecting-the-candidate-gender-determinants-by-bioinformatic-prediction-of-mirnas-and-their-targets-from-transcriptome-sequences-of-the-male-and-female-flowers-in-salix-suchowensis
#2
Suyun Wei, Ning Ye, Tongming Yin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small, noncoding, and endogenous single-stranded RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Potential miRNAs can be identified based on sequence homology since miRNAs are highly conserved in plants. In this study, we aligned the expressed sequence tags derived from flower buds of male and female S. suchowensis to miRNAs in the miRBase, which enable us to identify 34 potential miRNAs from flower buds of the alternate sexes. Among them, 11 were from the female and 23 were from the male...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638414/an-examination-of-the-role-of-transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-rhabdomyosarcoma
#3
REVIEW
Alexander J Hron, Atsushi Asakura
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive family of soft tissue tumors that most commonly manifests in children. RMS variants express several skeletal muscle markers, suggesting myogenic stem or progenitor cell origin of RMS. In this review, the roles of both recently identified and well-established microRNAs in RMS are discussed and summarized in a succinct, tabulated format. Additionally, the subtypes of RMS are reviewed along with the involvement of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, Pax proteins, and microRNAs in normal and pathologic myogenesis...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633390/investigating-microrna-mediated-regulation-of-the-nascent-nuclear-transcripts-in-plants-a-bioinformatics-workflow
#4
Dongliang Yu, Zhonghai Tang, Chaogang Shao, Xiaoxia Ma, Taihe Xiang, Zhihong Fan, Huizhong Wang, Yijun Meng
Most of the microRNAs (miRNAs) play their regulatory roles through posttranscriptional target decay or translational inhibition. For both plants and animals, these regulatory events were previously considered to take place in cytoplasm, as mature miRNAs were observed to be exported to the cytoplasm for Argonaute (AGO) loading and subsequent target binding. Recently, this notion was challenged by increasing pieces of evidence in the animal cells that uncovered the nuclear importation and action of the AGO-associated miRNAs...
June 14, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629521/erythropoietin-promotes-glioblastoma-via-mir-451-suppression
#5
Begum Alural, Zeynep O Ayyildiz, Kemal U Tufekci, Sermin Genc, Kursad Genc
Erythropoietin (EPO) is an erythropoiesis stimulating growth factor and hormone. EPO has been widely used in the treatment of chronic renal failure, cancer, and chemotherapy-related anemia for three decades. However, many clinical trials showed that EPO treatment may be associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. EPO is able to cross blood-brain barriers, and this may lead to an increased possibility of central nervous system tumors such as glioblastoma. Indeed, EPO promotes glioblastoma growth and invasion in animal studies...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626163/lower-serum-levels-of-mir-29c-3p-and-mir-19b-3p-as-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Yuquan Wu, Juan Xu, Jing Xu, Jun Cheng, Demin Jiao, Chun Zhou, Yi Dai, Qingyong Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA that participate in posttranscriptional gene regulation. However, little is understood about the roles of miRNAs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used next-generation sequencing on RNA extracted from the serum samples of 20 AD patients and 20 controls, yielding a total of 72 miRNAs with significantly changed expression levels. Among these candidates, we selected 9 miRNAs with most significant alteration in disease, and validated their expression levels using RT-qPCR analysis on serum samples from 45 AD patients and 40 control subjects...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624440/bag3-promotes-proliferation-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-skp2-expression
#7
Jing Yan, Chuan Liu, Jing-Yi Jiang, Hans Liu, Chao Li, Xin-Yu Li, Ye Yuan, Zhi-Hong Zong, Hua-Qin Wang
Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) contains modular structure, through which BAG3 interacts with a wide range of proteins, thereby affording its capacity to regulate multifaceted biological processes. BAG3 is often highly expressed and functions as a pro-survival factor in many cancers. However, the oncogenic potential of BAG3 remains not fully understood. The cell cycle regulator, S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2) is increased in various cancers and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. The current study demonstrated that BAG3 promoted proliferation of ovarian cancer cells via upregulation of Skp2...
June 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623575/from-genes-to-networks-characterizing-gene-regulatory-interactions-in-plants
#8
Kerstin Kaufmann, Dijun Chen
Plants, like other eukaryotes, have evolved complex mechanisms to coordinate gene expression during development, environmental response, and cellular homeostasis. Transcription factors (TFs), accompanied by basic cofactors and posttranscriptional regulators, are key players in gene-regulatory networks (GRNs). The coordinated control of gene activity is achieved by the interplay of these factors and by physical interactions between TFs and DNA. Here, we will briefly outline recent technological progress made to elucidate GRNs in plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623126/crystal-structure-of-trna-his-guanylyltransferase-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Kitaik Lee, Eun Hye Lee, Jonghyeon Son, Kwang Yeon Hwang
tRNA maturation involves several steps, including processing, splicing, CCA addition, and posttranscriptional modifications. tRNA(His) guanylyltransferase (Thg1) is the only enzyme known to catalyze templated nucleotide addition in the 3'-5' direction, unlike other DNA and RNA polymerases. For a better understanding of its unique catalytic mechanism at the molecular level, we determined the crystal structure of GTP-bound Thg1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the maximum resolution of 3.0 Å. The structure revealed the enzyme to have a tetrameric conformation that is well conserved among different species, and the GTP molecule was clearly bound at the active site, coordinating with two magnesium ions...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618749/serum-ischemic-modified-albumin-ima-concentration-and-ima-albumin-ratio-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-related-chronic-liver-diseases
#10
Fatma Yavuz, Murat Biyik, Mehmet Asil, Ramazan Dertli, Ali Demir, Hakkı Polat, Saliha Uysal, Hüseyin Ataseven
BACKGROUND/AIM: Albumin is the most important protein synthesized by the liver. Posttranscriptional changes occur in the molecular structure of albumin due to various factors and isoforms arise. Ischemic modified albumin (IMA) is one such isoform. This study was conducted to evaluate serum IMA concentrations in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronic liver diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 74 treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients, 25 patients with HBV-related cirrhosis, and 49 healthy controls...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612031/microrna-29b-contributes-to-collagens-imbalance-in-human-osteoarthritic-and-dedifferentiated-articular-chondrocytes
#11
David Moulin, Véronique Salone, Meriem Koufany, Thomas Clément, Isabelle Behm-Ansmant, Christiane Branlant, Bruno Charpentier, Jean-Yves Jouzeau
OBJECTIVE: Decreased expression of collagen type II in favour of collagen type I or X is one hallmark of chondrocyte phenotype changes in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. MicroRNA- (miR-) 29b was previously shown to target collagens in several tissues. We studied whether it could contribute to collagen imbalance in chondrocytes with an impaired phenotype. METHODS: After preliminary microarrays screening, miR-29b levels were measured by RT- quantitative PCR in in vitro models of chondrocyte phenotype changes (IL-1β challenge or serial subculturing) and in chondrocytes from OA and non-OA patients...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611824/posttranscriptional-regulation-controls-calretinin-expression-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#12
Jelena Kresoja-Rakic, Merve Sulemani, Michaela B Kirschner, Manuel Ronner, Glen Reid, Steven Kao, Beat Schwaller, Walter Weder, Rolf A Stahel, Emanuela Felley-Bosco
Calretinin (CALB2) is a diagnostic and prognostic marker in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We previously reported that calretinin expression is regulated at the mRNA level. The presence of a medium-sized (573 nucleotide) 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) predicted to contain binding sites for miR-30a/b/c/d/e and miR-9 as well as an adenine/uridine-rich element (ARE) in all three transcripts arising from the CALB2 gene, suggests that calretinin expression is regulated via posttranscriptional mechanisms. Our aim was to investigate the role of the CALB2-3'UTR in the posttranscriptional regulation of calretinin expression in MPM...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608345/nonradioactive-plant-small-rna-detection-using-biotin-labeled-probes
#13
Jun Hu, Yingguo Zhu
Small noncoding RNAs are essential for gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Northern blot is the most used method for small RNA detection in tissues. Here we present an improved protocol for the Northern blot-based small RNA detection from plant tissues by using biotin-labeled probes. MicroRNAs and small interfering RNAs derived from Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa, respectively, have been detected with this methodology. Results suggest that this method is sensitive and efficient enough to detect small RNAs from plant tissues by using as low as 5 μg of total RNA...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608343/cloning-and-characterization-of-argonaute-genes-in-tomato
#14
Zhiqiang Xian, Fang Yan, Zhengguo Li
Argonaute (AGO) proteins are core elements in plant posttranscriptional RNA silencing pathways. The identification and functional characterization of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) AGOs will help to better understand RNA silencing-based posttranscriptional regulation in fleshy fruits. Here we describe how to identify and clone SlAGO genes, as well as the methodology for their functional characterization.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608336/immunoprecipitation-and-high-throughput-sequencing-of-argonaute-bound-target-rnas-from-plants
#15
Alberto Carbonell
ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins function in small RNA (sRNA)-based RNA silencing pathways to regulate gene expression and control invading nucleic acids. In posttranscriptional RNA silencing pathways, plant AGOs associate with sRNAs to interact with highly sequence-complementary target RNAs. Once the AGO-sRNA-target RNA ternary complex is formed, target RNA is typically repressed through AGO-mediated cleavage or through other cleavage-independent mechanisms. The universe of sRNAs associating with diverse plant AGOs has been determined though AGO immunoprecipitation (IP) and high-throughput sequencing of co-immunoprecipitated sRNAs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608333/in-vitro-formation-of-plant-rna-induced-silencing-complexes-using-an-extract-of-evacuolated-tobacco-protoplasts
#16
Taichiro Iki, Masayuki Ishikawa, Manabu Yoshikawa
Small RNA-mediated gene silencing is involved in a variety of biological processes among many eukaryotic organisms. The silencing effector, generally referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), comprises an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein and a small single-stranded guide RNA in its core. RISCs recognize target genes containing sequences complementary to the guide RNA and repress their expression transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally. In vitro systems that recapitulate RISC assembly are useful not only to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly process itself but also to dissect the downstream silencing pathways mediated by RISCs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607538/phylogenetic-analysis-of-nuclear-encoded-rna-maturases
#17
Sunita Malik, K C Upadhyaya, Sm Paul Khurana
Posttranscriptional processes, such as splicing, play a crucial role in gene expression and are prevalent not only in nuclear genes but also in plant mitochondria where splicing of group II introns is catalyzed by a class of proteins termed maturases. In plant mitochondria, there are 22 mitochondrial group II introns. matR, nMAT1, nMAT2, nMAT3, and nMAT4 proteins have been shown to be required for efficient splicing of several group II introns in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nuclear maturases (nMATs) are necessary for splicing of mitochondrial genes, leading to normal oxidative phosphorylation...
2017: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601222/synthesis-function-and-heterogeneity-of-snorna-guided-posttranscriptional-nucleoside-modifications-in-eukaryotic-ribosomal-rnas
#18
Anthony K Henras, Célia Plisson-Chastang, Odile Humbert, Yves Romeo, Yves Henry
Ribosomal RNAs contain numerous 2'-O-methylated nucleosides and pseudouridines. Methylation of the 2' oxygen of ribose moieties and isomerization of uridines into pseudouridines are catalyzed by C/D and H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles, respectively. We review the composition, structure, and mode of action of archaeal and eukaryotic C/D and H/ACA particles. Most rRNA modifications cluster in functionally crucial regions of the rRNAs, suggesting they play important roles in translation. Some of these modifications promote global translation efficiency or modulate translation fidelity...
2017: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601221/posttranscriptional-rna-pseudouridylation
#19
Meemanage D De Zoysa, Yi-Tao Yu
Pseudouridine (Ψ) is the most abundant posttranscriptional modification in noncoding RNAs. Pseudouridines are often clustered in important regions of rRNAs (ribosomal RNAs), snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs), and tRNAs (transfer RNAs), contributing to RNA function. Pseudouridylation is governed by two independent mechanisms. The first involves single protein enzymes called pseudouridine synthases (PUSs) that alone recognize the substrate and catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine (RNA-independent pseudouridylation)...
2017: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601219/the-importance-of-being-modified-the-role-of-rna-modifications-in-translational-fidelity
#20
Paul F Agris, Amithi Narendran, Kathryn Sarachan, Ville Y P Väre, Emily Eruysal
The posttranscriptional modifications of tRNA's anticodon stem and loop (ASL) domain represent a third level, a third code, to the accuracy and efficiency of translating mRNA codons into the correct amino acid sequence of proteins. Modifications of tRNA's ASL domain are enzymatically synthesized and site specifically located at the anticodon wobble position-34 and 3'-adjacent to the anticodon at position-37. Degeneracy of the 64 Universal Genetic Codes and the limitation in the number of tRNA species require some tRNAs to decode more than one codon...
2017: Enzymes
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