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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915347/role-of-microrna-in-the-lung-s-innate-immune-response
#1
Taylor S Cohen
The immune response to respiratory pathogens must be robust enough to defend the host yet properly constrained such that inflammation-induced tissue damage is avoided. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA which posttranscriptionally influence gene expression. In this review, we discuss recent experimental evidence of the contribution of miRNA to the lung's response to bacterial and viral pathogens.
December 3, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914101/tuc-338-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Chenghai Wang, Zheng Wang, Jie Zhou, Shuang Liu, Cong Wu, Caihong Huang, Yongling Ding
Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) are non-protein coding gene sequences that are strictly conserved across among different species. Emerging evidence demonstrates that transcribed ultraconserved regions (TUCRs) encoding noncoding RNAs serve as regulators of gene expression. In recent decades, increasing evidence implicates the involvement of UCRs in carcinogenesis. The role of TUC.338 in cervical cancers was an oncogene in previous studies. Until now, the role of TUC.338 in colorectal cancers remains undefined...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909009/association-of-protein-distribution-and-gene-expression-revealed-by-pet-and-post-mortem-quantification-in-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-human-brain
#3
A Komorowski, G M James, C Philippe, G Gryglewski, A Bauer, M Hienert, M Spies, A Kautzky, T Vanicek, A Hahn, T Traub-Weidinger, D Winkler, W Wadsak, M Mitterhauser, M Hacker, S Kasper, R Lanzenberger
Regional differences in posttranscriptional mechanisms may influence in vivo protein densities. The association of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data from 112 healthy controls and gene expression values from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, based on post-mortem brains, was investigated for key serotonergic proteins. PET binding values and gene expression intensities were correlated for the main inhibitory (5-HT1A) and excitatory (5-HT2A) serotonin receptor, the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), using Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) in a voxel-wise and region-wise analysis...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908235/pentatricopeptide-motifs-in-the-n-terminal-extension-domain-of-yeast-mitochondrial-rna-polymerase-rpo41p-are-not-essential-for-its-function
#4
J Kruszewski, P Golik
The core mitochondrial RNA polymerase is a single-subunit enzyme that in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the nuclear RPO41 gene. It is an evolutionary descendant of the bacteriophage RNA polymerases, but it includes an additional unconserved N-terminal extension (NTE) domain that is unique to the organellar enzymes. This domain mediates interactions between the polymerase and accessory regulatory factors, such as yeast Sls1p and Nam1p. Previous studies demonstrated that deletion of the entire NTE domain results only in a temperature-dependent respiratory deficiency...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905558/microrna-mir-34-provides-robustness-to-environmental-stress-response-via-the-daf-16-network-in-c-elegans
#5
Meltem Isik, T Keith Blackwell, Eugene Berezikov
Diverse stresses and aging alter expression levels of microRNAs, suggesting a role for these posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in stress modulation and longevity. Earlier studies demonstrated a central role for the miR-34 family in promoting cell cycle arrest and cell death following stress in human cells. However, the biological significance of this response was unclear. Here we show that in C. elegans mir-34 upregulation is necessary for developmental arrest, correct morphogenesis, and adaptation to a lower metabolic state to protect animals against stress-related damage...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905005/microrna-128-3p-protects-mouse-against-cerebral-ischemia-through-reducing-p38%C3%AE-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activity
#6
Guochao Mao, Pengyu Ren, Gang Wang, Feng Yan, Yuelin Zhang
The p38α, also named Mapk14, is a pro-apoptotic protein, which is reported to be downregulated 2 h after cerebral ischemia. However, little is known what causes the downregulation of p38α protein level. Here, we studied the effect of cerebral ischemia on p38α mRNA expression and p38α protein level in brain of mice. We found that p38α protein level is reduced after middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, at the meantime, p38α mRNA expression has no detectable changes, suggesting that the possible posttranscription is regulated by ischemia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#7
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904698/microrna-665-suppressed-the-invasion-and-metastasis-of-osteosarcoma-by-directly-inhibiting-rab23
#8
Chenhui Dong, Quanyin Du, Zimin Wang, Yu Wang, Siyu Wu, Aimin Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, short and noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. Increasing evidences have demonstrated that deregulated expression of miRNAs is found in osteosarcoma. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-665 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared to non-tumorous tissues. The overall survival (OS) of osteosarcoma patients with low miR-665 expression was lower than that of these patients with high miR-665 expression. Ectopic expression of miR-665 suppressed the osteosarcoma cell proliferation, EMT and invasion...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903241/abundant-rna-editing-sites-of-chloroplast-protein-coding-genes-in-ginkgo-biloba-and-an-evolutionary-pattern-analysis
#9
Peng He, Sheng Huang, Guanghui Xiao, Yuzhou Zhang, Jianing Yu
BACKGROUND: RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. Why and how RNA editing systems evolved remains a mystery. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest seed plants and has an important evolutionary position. Determining the patterns and distribution of RNA editing in the ancient plant provides insights into the evolutionary trend of RNA editing, and helping us to further understand their biological significance...
December 1, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898837/global-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-differences-in-gene-expression-patterns-between-nonhyperhydric-and-hyperhydric-peach-leaves
#10
Yakup Bakir, Vahap Eldem, Gokmen Zararsiz, Turgay Unver
Hyperhydricity is a morphophysiological disorder of plants in tissue culture characterized morphologically by the presence of translucent, thick, curled, and fragile leaves as a result of excessive water intake. Since clonal propagation is a major in vitro technique for multiplying plants vegetatively, the emergence of hyperhydricity-related symptoms causes significant economic losses to agriculture and horticulture. Although numerous efforts have been hitherto devoted to the morphological and anatomical responses of plants to hyperhydricity, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893611/absence-of-mir-182-augments-cardiac-allograft-survival
#11
Liang Wei, Vandana Kaul, Xiumei Qu, Xiaoxing Xiong, Audrey H Lau, Naoharu Iwai, Olivia M Martinez, Sheri M Krams
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the posttranscriptional expression of target genes and are important regulators in immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated that the miRNA, miR-182 was significantly increased during allograft rejection. Further, the transcription factor Forkhead box (FOX) protein 1, (FOXO1) was shown to be a target of miR-182. The aim of this study is to further examine the role of miR-182 in alloimmune responses. METHODS: Transplantation of BALB/c cardiac allografts was performed in C57BL/6, miR-182, B6...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892771/a-trna-derived-fragment-competes-with-mrna-for-ribosome-binding-and-regulates-translation-during-stress
#12
Jennifer Gebetsberger, Leander Wyss, Anna M Mleczko, Julia Reuther, Norbert Polacek
Posttranscriptional processing of RNA molecules is a common strategy to enlarge the structural and functional repertoire of RNomes observed in all three domains of life. Fragmentation of RNA molecules of basically all functional classes has been reported to yield smaller non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that typically possess different roles compared to their parental transcripts. Here we show that a valine tRNA-derived fragment (Val-tRF) that is produced under certain stress conditions in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii is capable of binding to the small ribosomal subunit...
November 28, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888840/nmr-solution-structure-determination-of-large-rna-protein-complexes
#13
REVIEW
Deepak Kumar Yadav, Peter J Lukavsky
Structure determination of RNA-protein complexes is essential for our understanding of the multiple layers of RNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Over the past 20years, NMR spectroscopy became a key tool for structural studies of RNA-protein interactions. Here, we review the progress being made in NMR structure determination of large ribonucleoprotein assemblies. We discuss approaches for the design of RNA-protein complexes for NMR structural studies, established and emerging isotope and segmental labeling schemes suitable for large RNPs and how to gain distance restraints from NOEs, PREs and EPR and orientational information from RDCs and SAXS/SANS in such systems...
November 2016: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886462/loss-of-ppr3-ppr4-ppr6-or-ppr10-perturbs-iron-homeostasis-and-leads-to-apoptotic-cell-death-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#14
Yang Su, Yanmei Yang, Ying Huang
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins characterized by tandem arrays of a degenerate 35-amino-acid repeat belong to a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are involved in posttranscriptional control of organelle gene expression. PPR proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and particularly prevalent in higher plants. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has ten PPR proteins. Among them, ppr3, ppr4, ppr6 and ppr10 participate in mitochondrial posttranscriptional processes and are required for mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882321/micrornas-in-coronary-heart-disease-ready-to-enter-the-clinical-arena
#15
REVIEW
Elena Cavarretta, Giacomo Frati
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its complication remain the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries despite great advances in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, act as posttranscriptional gene expression modulators and have been implicated as key regulators in several physiological and pathological processes linked to CAD. Circulating miRNAs have been evaluated as promising novel biomarkers of CAD, acute coronary syndromes, and acute myocardial infarction, with prognostic implications...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878762/mir-cluster-143-145-directly-targets-nrl-and-regulates-rod-photoreceptor-development
#16
Sreekumaran Sreekanth, Vazhanthodi A Rasheed, Lalitha Soundararajan, Jayesh Antony, Minakshi Saikia, Krishnankutty Chandrika Sivakumar, Ani V Das
Retinal histogenesis requires coordinated and temporal functioning of factors by which different cell types are generated from multipotent progenitors. Development of rod photoreceptors is regulated by multiple transcription factors, and Nrl is one of the major factors involved in their fate specification. Presence or absence of Nrl at the postnatal stages decides the generation of cone photoreceptors or other later retinal cells. This suggests the need for regulated expression of Nrl in order to accelerate the generation of other cell types during retinal development...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878160/chemo-enzymatic-modification-of-eukaryotic-mrna
#17
Fabian Muttach, Nils Muthmann, Andrea Rentmeister
Messenger RNA may not be very abundant in the cell but its central role in gene expression is indisputable. In addition to being the template for translation it can be subject for a variety of regulatory mechanisms affecting gene expression, ranging from simple structural changes to modifications and active transport. To elucidate and potentially control the underlying changes in vitro and in cells, site-specific modification and labeling strategies are required. In this perspective, we introduce chemo-enzymatic concepts for posttranscriptional modification focusing on eukaryotic mRNAs...
November 23, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873272/analysis-of-viral-and-cellular-micrornas-in-ebv-infected-cells
#18
Rebecca L Skalsky
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. The discovery of this relatively new mode of gene regulation as well as studies showing the prognostic value of viral and cellular miRNAs as biomarkers, such as in cancer progression, has stimulated the development of many methods to characterize miRNAs. EBV encodes 25 viral precursor microRNAs within its genome that are expressed during lytic and latent infection. In addition to viral miRNAs, EBV infection induces the expression of specific cellular oncogenic miRNAs, such as miR-155, miR-146a, miR-21, and others, that can contribute to the persistence of latently infected cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870715/posttranscriptional-control-of-pd-l1-expression-by-17%C3%AE-estradiol-via-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-er%C3%AE-positive-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Lingyun Yang, Feng Huang, Jiandong Mei, Xun Wang, Qiuyang Zhang, Hongjing Wang, Mingrong Xi, Zongbing You
OBJECTIVE: Estrogen is a well-known oncogenic driver in endometrial (ECs) and breast cancers (BCs). Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-1 Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 have been shown to mediate immune evasion of the tumor cells. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of estrogen on PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in EC and BC cell lines. METHODS: 17β-Estradiol (E2)-induced expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and possible signaling pathway were investigated in EC and BC cells...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869313/the-role-of-the-mir-17-92-cluster-in-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-adults
#20
REVIEW
Ping Yang, Linghu Cai, Guan Zhang, Zhiqun Bian, Gaofeng Han
It is well known that neurogenesis is not the only concern for the fully functional recovery after brain or spinal cord injury, as it has been shed light on the critical role of angiogenesis in improving neurological functional recovery. Angiogenesis and neurogenesis coordinately interact with each other in the developing and adult brain, during which they may respond to similar mediators and receptors, in which they share a common posttranscriptional regulator: the miR-17-92 cluster. The miR-17-92 cluster was initially described as an oncogene and was later demonstrated to drive key physiological and pathological responses during development and diseases respectively...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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