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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229426/assessment-of-mirna-regulation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mediated-angiogenesis
#1
Darukeshwara Joladarashi, Prasanna Krishnamurthy
Organ outgrowth, embryonic development, wound healing, and many such processes require the process of angiogenesis, whereby new blood vessels are developed from the preexisting vessels. microRNAs (miRs) are 18-24 nucleotide-containing endogenous RNAs that, via a posttranscriptional mechanism, exert substantial gene regulatory effects. It was discovered by recent advances that, through direct targeting of certain critical secretory factors and transcription factors, miRs exert potent angiogenic control in a cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous manner...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229250/role-of-mirnas-in-human-disease-and-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#2
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Belén Pérez, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). They are estimated to target ∼60% of all human protein-coding genes and are involved in regulating key physiological processes and intracellular signaling pathways. They also exhibit tissue specificity, and their dysregulation is linked to the progression of pathology. Identifying disease associated miRNAs and their respective targets provides novel molecular insight into disease, enabling the design of new therapeutic strategies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223695/the-mirnaome-of-catharanthus-roseus-identification-expression-analysis-and-potential-roles-of-micrornas-in-regulation-of-terpenoid-indole-alkaloid-biosynthesis
#3
Ethan M Shen, Sanjay K Singh, Jayadri S Ghosh, Barunava Patra, Priyanka Paul, Ling Yuan, Sitakanta Pattanaik
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous crucial biological processes in plants. However, information is limited on their involvement in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites in plants, including Catharanthus roseus that produces a number of pharmaceutically valuable, bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Using small RNA-sequencing, we identified 181 conserved and 173 novel miRNAs (cro-miRNAs) in C. roseus seedlings. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that a set of cro-miRNAs are differentially regulated in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220845/heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-a1-regulates-rhythmic-synthesis-of-mouse-nfil3-protein-via-ires-mediated-translation
#4
Hyo-Jin Kim, Hwa-Rim Lee, Ji-Young Seo, Hye Guk Ryu, Kyung-Ha Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Kyong-Tai Kim
Nuclear factor, interleukin 3, regulated (Nfil3, also known as E4 Promoter-Binding Protein 4 (E4BP4)) protein is a transcription factor that binds to DNA and generally represses target gene expression. In the circadian clock system, Nfil3 binds to a D-box element residing in the promoter of clock genes and contributes to their robust oscillation. Here, we show that the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of Nfil3 mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and that IRES-mediated translation occurs in a phase-dependent manner...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219890/local-tnfr1-signaling-licenses-murine-neutrophils-for-increased-tlr-dependent-cytokine-and-eicosanoid-production
#5
Jacques Deguine, Jessica Wei, Roman Barbalat, Karsten Gronert, Gregory M Barton
Neutrophils are generally the first immune cells recruited during the development of sterile or microbial inflammation. As these cells express many innate immune receptors with the potential to directly recognize microbial or endogenous signals, we set out to assess whether their functions are locally influenced by the signals present at the onset of inflammation. Using a mouse model of peritonitis, we demonstrate that neutrophils elicited in the presence of C-type lectin receptor ligands have an increased ability to produce cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators in response to subsequent TLR stimulation...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217004/rna-silencing-in-plants-mechanisms-technologies-and-applications-in-horticultural-crops
#6
Qigao Guo, Qing Liu, Neil A Smith, Guolu Liang, Ming-Bo Wang
Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA, intrinsic direct repeat, 3' UTR inverted repeat, artificial trans-acting siRNA, and virus-induced gene silencing technologies...
December 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215631/posttranscriptional-chemical-labeling-of-rna-by-using-bioorthogonal-chemistry
#7
REVIEW
Jerrin Thomas George, Seergazhi G Srivatsan
Recent developments in RNA labeling technology have provided viable tools to analyze RNA synthesis, processing and function in cell-free and cellular environments. Notably, emerging methodologies based on posttranscriptional chemical labeling by using bioorthogonal chemistry have enabled the visualization and profiling of exogenous and endogenous RNA transcripts. In this review, we first give an overview of different RNA labeling strategies based on chemical as well as genetically encoded systems. Subsequently, we provided a detailed discussion on methodologies that have been developed to introduce various bioorthogonal reactive groups into RNA transcripts, which are compatible for posttranscriptional functionalization...
February 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212593/micrornas-and-endometriosis-distinguishing-drivers-from-passengers-in-disease-pathogenesis
#8
Warren B Nothnick
Endometriosis is a disease common in women of reproductive age, characterized by pelvic pain and infertility. Despite its prevalence, the factors and mechanisms which contribute to the development and survival of ectopic lesions remain uncertain. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate posttranscriptional gene regulation which have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases including that of endometriosis. This review summarizes the results of initial studies describing differentially expressed miRNAs between endometriotic lesion tissue and eutopic endometrium...
February 17, 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211947/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-and-collagen-i-alpha-2-synthesis-via-induction-of-mrna-binding-protein-larp6-expression
#9
Yue Guo, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Hao-Neng Tang, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Shu-Wen Tan, Min Wang, Yun-Zhi Feng, Hou-De Zhou
This study explored the mechanism underlying the stimulation of collagen synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in primary mouse osteoblasts. Primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts were cultured and treated with various doses of IGF1 before transfection with siRNA targeting the collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2) or La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (Larp6) genes. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin staining, alizarin red quantification and the expression level of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were performed to assess the differentiation of pre-osteoblasts...
February 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209897/host-cell-attachment-elicits-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-infecting-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#10
Naama Katsowich, Netanel Elbaz, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Erez Mills, Simi Kobi, Tamar Kahan, Ilan Rosenshine
The mechanisms by which pathogens sense the host and respond by remodeling gene expression are poorly understood. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the cause of severe intestinal infection, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells. These effectors subvert host cell processes to promote bacterial colonization. We show that the T3SS also functions to sense the host cell and to trigger in response posttranscriptional remodeling of gene expression in the bacteria...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202819/-melas-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#11
Hidetomo Murakami, Kenjiro Ono
Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199728/altered-mir-155-expression-in-allergic-asthmatic-airways
#12
Carina Malmhäll, Kristina Johansson, Carla Winkler, Sahar Alawieh, Linda Ekerljung, Madeleine Rådinger
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. We and others have previously identified miRNAs with pathological roles in animal models of asthma. To date, few studies have investigated miRNA expression in human asthmatics and miRNA expression in specific cellular subtypes in asthmatics is largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess miR-146a and miR-155 expression in airways- and blood-derived samples, two miRNA candidates which have previously been described to play important roles in inflammatory processes...
February 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196909/when-silencing-mrna-position-matters
#13
Alexandra A Mushegian
The mechanism of posttranscriptional silencing by an RNA-binding protein depends on the position of the protein-binding sequence in the mRNA.
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192372/rna-binding-protein-pspc1-promotes-the-differentiation-dependent-nuclear-export-of-adipocyte-rnas
#14
Jiexin Wang, Prashant Rajbhandari, Andrey Damianov, Areum Han, Tamer Sallam, Hironori Waki, Claudio J Villanueva, Stephen D Lee, Ronni Nielsen, Susanne Mandrup, Karen Reue, Stephen G Young, Julian Whitelegge, Enrique Saez, Douglas L Black, Peter Tontonoz
A highly orchestrated gene expression program establishes the properties that define mature adipocytes, but the contribution of posttranscriptional factors to the adipocyte phenotype is poorly understood. Here we have shown that the RNA-binding protein PSPC1, a component of the paraspeckle complex, promotes adipogenesis in vitro and is important for mature adipocyte function in vivo. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed that PSPC1 binds to intronic and 3'-untranslated regions of a number of adipocyte RNAs, including the RNA encoding the transcriptional regulator EBF1...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188211/cluh-regulates-mitochondrial-metabolism-by-controlling-translation-and-decay-of-target-mrnas
#15
Désirée Schatton, David Pla-Martin, Marie-Charlotte Marx, Henriette Hansen, Arnaud Mourier, Ivan Nemazanyy, Alberto Pessia, Peter Zentis, Teresa Corona, Vangelis Kondylis, Esther Barth, Astrid C Schauss, Vidya Velagapudi, Elena I Rugarli
Mitochondria are essential organelles that host crucial metabolic pathways and produce adenosine triphosphate. The mitochondrial proteome is heterogeneous among tissues and can dynamically change in response to different metabolic conditions. Although the transcriptional programs that govern mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function are well known, posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we show that the cytosolic RNA-binding protein clustered mitochondria homologue (CLUH) regulates the expression of a mitochondrial protein network supporting key metabolic programs required under nutrient deprivation...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186499/downregulation-of-lnc-spry1-mediates-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-regulatory-mechanisms
#16
Cristina Rodríguez-Mateo, Belén Torres, Gabriel Gutiérrez, José A Pintor-Toro
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of regulatory genes that participate in a wide range of biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation and development, as well as in a broad spectrum of diseases. Although the role of lncRNAs in TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been well established, little is known about the role of lncRNAs as immediate-early regulators of EMT. Here lnc-Spry1 is identified as an immediate-early regulator of EMT that is downregulated by TGF-β...
February 10, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167519/regulation-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-accumulation-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-by-the-trans-encoded-small-rna-mmgr
#17
Antonio Lagares, Germán Ceizel Borella, Uwe Linne, Anke Becker, Claudio Valverde
Riboregulation has a major role in the fine-tuning of multiple bacterial processes. Among the RNA players, trans-encoded untranslated small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate complex metabolic networks by tuning expression from multiple target genes in response to numerous signals. In Sinorhizobium meliloti, over 400 sRNAs are expressed under different stimuli. The sRNA MmgR-standing for Makes more granules Regulator-has been of particular interest to us since its sequence and structure are highly conserved among the α-proteobacteria, and its expression is regulated by the amount and quality of the bacterium's available nitrogen source...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167280/the-mir-599-promotes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-invasion-via-satb2
#18
Wenjun Tian, Guanghai Wang, Yiqing Liu, Zhenglan Huang, Caiqing Zhang, Kang Ning, Cuixiang Yu, Yajuan Shen, Minghui Wang, Yuantang Li, Yong Wang, Bingchang Zhang, Yaoran Zhao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Here, we identified that miR-599 is up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It promoted NSCLC cell proliferation by negatively regulating SATB2. In NSCLC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation is promoted by miR-599 mimics. Transwell assay showed that miR-599 mimics promoted the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells...
February 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164126/the-involvement-of-mir-29b-3p-in-arterial-calcification-by-targeting-matrix-metalloproteinase-2
#19
Wenhong Jiang, Zhanman Zhang, Han Yang, Qiuning Lin, Chuangye Han, Xiao Qin
Vascular calcification is a risk predictor and common pathological change in cardiovascular diseases that are associated with elastin degradation and phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells via gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationships between miR-29b-3p and MMP2, to confirm miR-29b-3p-mediated MMP2 expression at the posttranscriptional level in arterial calcification. In male Sprague Dawley rats, arterial calcification was induced by subcutaneous injection of a toxic dose of cholecalciferol...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163933/analysis-of-argonaute-complex-bound-mrnas-in-du145-prostate-carcinoma-cells-reveals-new-mirna-target-genes
#20
Jaroslaw Szczyrba, Volker Jung, Michaela Beitzinger, Elke Nolte, Sven Wach, Martin Hart, Sandra Sapich, Marc Wiesehöfer, Helge Taubert, Gunther Wennemuth, Norbert Eichner, Thomas Stempfl, Bernd Wullich, Gunter Meister, Friedrich A Grässer
Posttranscriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the induction and maintenance of prostate carcinoma (PCa). To identify mRNAs enriched or removed from Ago2-containing RISC complexes, these complexes were immunoprecipitated from normal prostate fibroblasts (PNFs) and the PCa line DU145 and the bound mRNAs were quantified by microarray. The analysis of Ago complexes derived from PNFs or DU145 confirmed the enrichment or depletion of a variety of mRNAs already known from the literature to be deregulated...
2017: Prostate Cancer
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