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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727810/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-modulates-the-accumulation-of-2b-protein-and-antiviral-silencing-that-causes-symptom-recovery-in-planta
#1
Xiao-Peng Zhang, De-Shui Liu, Teng Yan, Xiao-Dong Fang, Kai Dong, Jin Xu, Ying Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang
Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are resistant to most plant viruses due to RNA silencing, which is restrained by viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to facilitate transient viral invasion of the SAM. In many cases chronic symptoms and long-term virus recovery occur, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that wild-type Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVWT) invaded the SAM transiently, but was subsequently eliminated from the meristems. Unexpectedly, a CMV mutant, designated CMVRA that harbors an alanine substitution in the N-terminal arginine-rich region of the coat protein (CP) persistently invaded the SAM and resulted in visible reductions in apical dominance...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724593/less-is-more-independent-loss-of-function-ocimene-synthase-alleles-parallel-pollination-syndrome-diversification-in-monkeyflowers-mimulus
#2
Foen Peng, Kelsey J R P Byers, Harvey D Bradshaw
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pollinator-mediated selection on flower phenotypes (e.g., shape, color, scent) is key to understanding the adaptive radiation of angiosperms, many of which have evolved specialized relationships with a particular guild of animal pollinators (e.g., birds, bats, moths, bees). E-β-Ocimene, a monoterpene produced by OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS) in Mimulus lewisii, is a floral scent important in attracting the species' bumblebee pollinators. The taxa closely related to M. lewisii have evolved several different pollination syndromes, including hummingbird pollination and self pollination (autogamy)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722813/knockdown-of-long-non-coding-rna-malat1-inhibits-growth-and-motility-of-human-hepatoma-cells-via-modulation-of-mir-195
#3
Dingli Liu, Yun Zhu, Jinke Pang, Xie Weng, Xiaorong Feng, Yabing Guo
The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcription 1 (Malat1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), exerts oncogenic role in multiple cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was aimed to investigate its posttranscriptional regulation in HCC cells. RT-PCR was performed to monitor the expression levels of Malat1 in normal liver and HCC cell lines. The expression of Malat1, microRNA (miR)-195 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in HepG2 and MHCC97 cells was respectively or synchronously altered by transfection...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716948/cooperative-repression-of-igf2r-translation-by-mir-195-and-rna-binding-protein-cugbp1
#4
Yuan Zhang, Yun Zhang, Lan Xiao, Ting-Xi Yu, Jun-Zhe Li, Jaladanki N Rao, Douglas J Turner, Myriam Gorospe, Jian-Ying Wang
Insulin-like growth factor type-2 (IGF2) receptor (IGF2R) recognizes mannose 6-phosphate-containing molecules and IGF2 and plays an important role in many pathophysiological processes including gut mucosal adaptation. However, the mechanisms that control cellular IGF2R abundance are poorly known. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBP) critically regulate gene expression programs in mammalian cells by modulating the stability and translation of target mRNAs. Here we report that miRNA-195 (miR-195) and the RBP CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) jointly regulate IGF2R expression at the posttranscriptional level in intestinal epithelial cells...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716136/up-regulation-of-cdk16-by-multiple-mechanisms-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-promotes-tumor-progression
#5
Yitao Wang, Xian Qin, Tao Guo, Pengpeng Liu, Ping Wu, Zhisu Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains difficult to cure due to lack of effective treatment and the molecular mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. In this study, We investigated the role of CDK16 in tumor progression of HCC. METHODS: We interrogated the expression level of CDK16 by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry(IHC) and studied its clinical significance. The functional role of CDK16 on HCC was studied via gain and loss of function in vitro and in vivo...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713594/small-molecule-big-prospects-microrna-in-pregnancy-and-its-complications
#6
REVIEW
Meng Cai, Gopi K Kolluru, Asif Ahmed
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression in the posttranscriptional level. Unlike siRNA, microRNAs are "fine-tuners" rather than "switches" in the regulation of gene expression; thus they play key roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis. The aberrant microRNA expression is implicated in the disease process. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the regulatory roles of microRNAs in various pathophysiological conditions. In contrast, the study of microRNA in pregnancy and its associated complications, such as preeclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and preterm labor, is a young field...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713485/micrornas-and-autophagy-fine-players-in-the-control-of-chondrocyte-homeostatic-activities-in-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
Stefania D'Adamo, Silvia Cetrullo, Manuela Minguzzi, Ylenia Silvestri, Rosa Maria Borzì, Flavio Flamigni
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating degenerative disease of the articular cartilage with a multifactorial etiology. Aging, the main risk factor for OA development, is associated with a systemic oxidative and inflammatory phenotype. Autophagy is a central housekeeping system that plays an antiaging role by supporting the clearance of senescence-associated alterations of macromolecules and organelles. Autophagy deficiency has been related to OA pathogenesis because of the accumulation of cellular defects in chondrocytes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712054/alcohol-exposure-promotes-dna-methyltransferase-dnmt3a-upregulation-through-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-mechanisms
#8
Federico Miozzo, Hélène Arnould, Aurélie de Thonel, Anne-Laure Schang, Délara Sabéran-Djoneidi, Anne Baudry, Benoît Schneider, Valérie Mezger
Abundant evidence has accumulated showing that fetal alcohol exposure broadly modifies DNA methylation profiles in the brain. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation, are likely implicated in this process. However, their regulation by ethanol exposure has been poorly addressed. Here, we show that alcohol exposure modulates DNMT protein levels through multiple mechanisms. Using a neural precursor cell line and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found that ethanol exposure augments the levels of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, and Dnmt3l transcripts...
July 15, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706757/biological-involvement-of-micrornas-in-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy
#9
REVIEW
Hiroki Kaneko, Hiroko Terasaki
Even with a high surgical success rate for retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) supported by the robust improvement in vitrectomy surgery and its related devices, certain questions still remain for the pathogenesis and treatment of PVR. One of the important biological events in PVR is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. MicroRNAs are noncoding, small, single-strand RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and have essential roles in homeostasis and pathogenesis in many diseases...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706206/identification-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-two-anthozoan-species-and-their-possible-implications-for-coral-bleaching
#10
Chen Huang, Jean-Étienne R L Morlighem, Jing Cai, Qiwen Liao, Carlos Daniel Perez, Paula Braga Gomes, Min Guo, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play regulatory roles in a diverse range of biological processes and are associated with the outcomes of various diseases. The majority of studies about lncRNAs focus on model organisms, with lessened investigation in non-model organisms to date. Herein, we have undertaken an investigation on lncRNA in two zoanthids (cnidarian): Protolpalythoa varibilis and Palythoa caribaeorum. A total of 11,206 and 13,240 lncRNAs were detected in P. variabilis and P. caribaeorum transcriptome, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705193/spatial-regulation-of-monolignol-biosynthesis-and-laccase-genes-control-developmental-and-stress-related-lignin-in-flax
#11
Julien Le Roy, Anne-Sophie Blervacq, Anne Créach, Brigitte Huss, Simon Hawkins, Godfrey Neutelings
BACKGROUND: Bast fibres are characterized by very thick secondary cell walls containing high amounts of cellulose and low lignin contents in contrast to the heavily lignified cell walls typically found in the xylem tissues. To improve the quality of the fiber-based products in the future, a thorough understanding of the main cell wall polymer biosynthetic pathways is required. In this study we have carried out a characterization of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in flax along with some of their regulation mechanisms...
July 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704371/genetic-compensation-a-phenomenon-in-search-of-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Mohamed A El-Brolosy, Didier Y R Stainier
Several recent studies in a number of model systems including zebrafish, Arabidopsis, and mouse have revealed phenotypic differences between knockouts (i.e., mutants) and knockdowns (e.g., antisense-treated animals). These differences have been attributed to a number of reasons including off-target effects of the antisense reagents. An alternative explanation was recently proposed based on a zebrafish study reporting that genetic compensation was observed in egfl7 mutant but not knockdown animals. Dosage compensation was first reported in Drosophila in 1932, and genetic compensation in response to a gene knockout was first reported in yeast in 1969...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703431/a-matter-of-hierarchy-activation-of-orfamide-production-by-the-posttranscriptional-gac-rsm-cascade-of-pseudomonas-protegens-cha0-through-expression-upregulation-of-the-two-dedicated-transcriptional-regulators
#13
Patricio Martín Sobrero, Andrés Muzlera, Julieta Frescura, Edgardo Jofré, Claudio Valverde
In this work, we surveyed the genome of P. protegens CHA0 in order to identify novel mRNAs possibly under the control of the Gac-Rsm cascade that might, for their part, serve to elucidate as-yet-unknown functions involved in the biocontrol of plant pathogens and/or in cellular processes required for fitness in natural environments. In view of the experimental evidence from former studies on the Gac-Rsm cascade, we developed a computational screen supported by a combination of sequence, structural, and evolutionary constraints that led to a dataset of 43 potential novel mRNA targets...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702276/radiation-induced-translational-control-of-gene-expression
#14
REVIEW
Amy Wahba, Stacey L Lehman, Philip J Tofilon
Radiation-induced gene expression has long been hypothesized to protect against cell death. Defining this process would provide not only insight into the mechanisms mediating cell survival after radiation exposure, but also a novel source of targets for radiosensitization. However, whereas the radiation-induced gene expression profiles using total cellular mRNA have been generated for cell lines as well as normal tissues, with few exception, the changes in mRNA do not correlate with changes in the corresponding protein...
2017: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695513/methodology-to-identify-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-parp1-mrna-targets-by-par-clip
#15
Manana Mekishvili, Elena Matveeva, Yvonne Fondufe-Mittendorf
There is a long list of important RNA-binding proteins (RBP) involved in different steps of gene expression through posttranscriptional modifications: pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stabilization, polyadenylation, mRNA export from nucleus to the cytoplasm, and translation. The critical role of RNA-protein interaction necessitates a continuous identification of proteins involved in this process. Here we describe the identification of Poly-ADP-Ribose Polymerase 1 (PARP1) as an RNA binding protein involved in RNA splicing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695512/approaches-for-investigating-translational-regulation-controlled-by-parp1-biotin-based-uv-cross-linking-and-luciferase-reporter-assay
#16
Yingbiao Ji
The RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a pivotal role in controlling gene expression through posttranscriptional processes. As the trans-acting factors, RBPs interact with the cis-regulatory elements located within mRNAs to regulate mRNA translational efficiency. Adding a new-layer regulation, recent studies suggest that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the RNA-binding proteins often inhibit the RNA-binding ability of RBPs, thus regulating RBP-dependent mRNA metabolism including translational control. Here, we describe a biotin-based UV cross-linking method to determine if excessive accumulation of pADPr in the cell disrupts the interaction between RBPs and their target mRNAs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694807/brucella-omp25-upregulates-mir-155-mir-21-5p-and-mir-23b-to-inhibit-interleukin-12-production-via-modulation-of-programmed-death-1-signaling-in-human-monocyte-macrophages
#17
Beibei Cui, Wenli Liu, Xiaoya Wang, Yu Chen, Qian Du, Xiaomin Zhao, Hai Zhang, Shan-Lu Liu, Dewen Tong, Yong Huang
Brucella spp. infection results in compromised Type1 (Th1) cellular immune response. Several reports have described an immunomodulatory function for Brucella major outer membrane protein Omp25. However, the mechanism by which Omp25 modulates macrophage dysfunction has not been defined. Herein, we reported that Omp25-deficient mutant of Brucella suis exhibited an enhanced ability to induce interleukin (IL)-12 whereas ectopic expression of Omp25 protein inhibited TLR agonists-induced IL-12 p70 production through suppression of both IL-12 p40 and p35 subunit expression in THP-1 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684740/hur-dependent-editing-of-a-new-mineralocorticoid-receptor-splice-variant-reveals-an-osmoregulatory-loop-for-sodium-homeostasis
#18
Ingrid Lema, Larbi Amazit, Khadija Lamribet, Jérôme Fagart, Anne Blanchard, Marc Lombès, Nadia Cherradi, Say Viengchareun
Aldosterone and the Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) control hydroelectrolytic homeostasis and alterations of mineralocorticoid signaling pathway are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, justifying the need to decipher molecular events controlling MR expression level. Here, we show in renal cells that the RNA-Binding Protein, Human antigen R (HuR), plays a central role in the editing of MR transcript as revealed by a RNA interference strategy. We identify a novel Δ6 MR splice variant, which lacks the entire exon 6, following a HuR-dependent exon skipping event...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684423/the-rna-binding-protein-hur-contributes-to-neuroinflammation-by-promoting-c-c-chemokine-receptor-6-ccr6-expression-on-th17-cells
#19
Jing Chen, Jennifer L Martindale, Carole Cramer, Myriam Gorospe, Ulus Atasoy, Paul D Drew, Shiguang Yu
In both multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the C C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) is critical for pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cell migration to the central nervous system (CNS). While many cytokines and their receptors are potently regulated via posttranscriptional mechanisms in response to various stimuli, how CCR6 expression is posttranscriptionally regulated in Th17 cells is unknown. Here, using RNA binding protein HuR conditional knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, we present evidence that HuR posttranscriptionally regulates CCR6 expression by binding to and stabilizing Ccr6 mRNA and by promoting CCR6 translation...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682643/yy1-is-required-for-posttranscriptional-stability-of-sox2-and-oct4-proteins
#20
Mary C Wallingford, Jacob Hiller, Kun Zhang, Jesse Mager
Yinyang1 (YY1) participates in protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-protein interactions and regulates developmental processes and disease mechanisms. YY1 interactions regulate a range of important biological functions, including oocyte maturation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. We tested the hypothesis that YY1 is required for inner cell mass (ICM) lineage commitment during preimplantation development. In this study, we document gene expression patterns and protein localization of key transcription factors in Yy1 global, tissue-specific, and dsRNA-mediated knockout/down embryos...
July 6, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
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