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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043071/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-peptic-ulcer-bleeding
#1
REVIEW
Ian Beales
Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to peptic ulcer bleeding remains an important cause of emergency presentation and hospital admission. Despite advances in many aspects of management, peptic ulcer bleeding is still associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Comprehensive international guidelines have been published, but advances as well as controversies continue to evolve. Important recent advances include the evidence supporting a more restrictive transfusion strategy aiming for a target haemoglobin of 70-90 g/l...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993219/involvement-of-posterior-cingulate-cortex-in-ketamine-induced-psychosis-relevant-behaviors-in-rats
#2
Jingyi Ma, L Stan Leung
The involvement of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) on ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors was investigated in rats. Bilateral infusion of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, into the PCC significantly antagonized ketamine-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of a startle reflex (PPI), deficit in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials, and behavioral hyperlocomotion in a dose dependent manner. Local infusion of ketamine directly into the PCC also induced a PPI deficit. Systemic injection of ketamine (3mg/kg,s...
October 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756462/effects-of-gaba-b-receptor-positive-modulator-on-ketamine-induced-psychosis-relevant-behaviors-and-hippocampal-electrical-activity-in-freely-moving-rats
#3
Jingyi Ma, L Stan Leung
RATIONALE: Decreased GABAB receptor function is proposed to mediate some symptoms of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested the effect of CGP7930, a GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator, on ketamine-induced psychosis-relevant behaviors and hippocampal electrical activity in behaving rats. METHODS: Electrodes were bilaterally implanted into the hippocampus, and cannulae were placed into the lateral ventricles of Long-Evans rats...
July 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714072/survival-of-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-acute-peptic-ulcer-bleeding-compared-with-variceal-bleeding-using-current-first-line-therapies
#4
Alba Ardevol, Gemma Ibañez-Sanz, Joaquim Profitos, Carles Aracil, Josep M Castellvi, Edilmar Alvarado, Alba Cachero, Diana Horta, Josep Miñana, Bárbara Gomez-Pastrana, Oana Pavel, Eva Dueñas, Meritxell Casas, Montserrat Planella, Jose Castellote J, Candid Villanueva
The presence of cirrhosis increases the mortality of patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). Both acute variceal bleeding (AVB) and PUB are associated with substantial mortality in cirrhosis. This multicenter cohort study was performed to assess whether the mortality of cirrhotic patients with PUB is different from that of those with AVB. Patients with cirrhosis and acute gastrointestinal bleeding were consecutively included and treated with somatostatin and PPI infusion from admission and with antibiotic prophylaxis...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255142/upper-gastrointestinal-haemorrhage-in-severe-dengue-to-scope-or-not-to-scope
#5
C H Lim, N H S Benjamin, F K Kan
Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH) in severe dengue represents a clinical dilemma in term of management. The recommended treatment in dengue with UGIH involves blood product transfusion support and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. Despite being the mainstay of treatment in non-dengue UGIH, the role of endoscopic haemostatic intervention in severe dengue remains controversial. In the present report, we present a case of severe dengue complicated with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage successfully underwent early therapeutic endoscopic intervention in a district hospital...
February 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122752/optimizing-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy-for-treatment-of-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#6
REVIEW
Jarett C Worden, Kirollos S Hanna
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, rationale, and dosing optimization strategies of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) are discussed. SUMMARY: In combination with endoscopic therapy, PPIs are the treatment of choice for UGIB. While the advent of PPIs has improved patient outcomes, controversy still exists over optimal PPI therapy for UGIB. Pharmacologic treatment in combination with endoscopic therapy has demonstrated improved outcomes in patients with nonvariceal UGIB...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114835/dorsal-striatum-d1-expressing-neurons-are-involved-with-sensorimotor-gating-on-prepulse-inhibition-test
#7
Samanta Rodrigues, Cristiane Salum, Tatiana L Ferreira
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a behavioral test in which the startle reflex response to a high-intensity stimulus (pulse) is inhibited by the prior presentation of a weak stimulus (prepulse). The classic neural circuitry that mediates startle response is localized in the brainstem; however, recent studies point to the contribution of structures involved in higher cognitive functions in regulating the sensorimotor gating, particularly forebrain regions innervated by dopaminergic nuclei. The aim of the present study was to verify the role of dorsal striatum (DS) and dopaminergic transmitting mediated by D1 and D2 receptors on PPI test in rats...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927738/altered-acoustic-startle-reflex-prepulse-inhibition-and-peripheral-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-morphine-self-administered-rats
#8
Bong Hyo Lee, Thomas Y Park, Erica Lin, He Li, Chae Ha Yang, Kwang H Choi
Background: Previous studies suggested that opiate withdrawal may increase anxiety and disrupt brain-derived neurotrophic factor function, but the effects of i.v. morphine self-administration on these measures remain unclear. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with a catheter in the jugular vein. After 1 week of recovery, the animals were allowed to self-administer either i.v. morphine (0.5 mg/kg per infusion, 4 h/d) or saline in the operant conditioning chambers...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550864/hippocampal-neural-disinhibition-causes-attentional-and-memory-deficits
#9
Stephanie McGarrity, Rob Mason, Kevin C Fone, Marie Pezze, Tobias Bast
Subconvulsive hippocampal neural disinhibition, that is reduced GABAergic inhibition, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by attentional and memory deficits, including schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Considering that neural disinhibition may disrupt both intra-hippocampal processing and processing in hippocampal projection sites, we hypothesized that hippocampal disinhibition disrupts hippocampus-dependent memory performance and, based on strong hippocampo-prefrontal connectivity, also prefrontal-dependent attention...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330059/bdnf-rescues-prefrontal-dysfunction-elicited-by-pyramidal-neuron-specific-dtnbp1-deletion-in-vivo
#10
Wen Zhang, Kathryn M Daly, Bo Liang, Lifeng Zhang, Xuan Li, Yun Li, Da-Ting Lin
Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (Dtnbp1) is one of the earliest identified schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Reduced expression of DTNBP1 is commonly found in brain areas of schizophrenic patients. Dtnbp1-null mutant mice exhibit abnormalities in behaviors and impairments in neuronal activities. However, how diminished DTNBP1 expression contributes to clinical relevant features of schizophrenia remains to be illustrated. Here, using a conditional Dtnbp1 knockout mouse line, we identified an in vivo schizophrenia-relevant function of DTNBP1 in pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275859/high-dose-omeprazole-infusion-compared-with-scheduled-second-look-endoscopy-for-prevention-of-peptic-ulcer-rebleeding-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Henry Kin Ming Joeng, Catherine Lai Yin Choi, Kelvin Kam Fai Tsoi, Kwok Hung Kwong, Siu Ho Lam, Joseph Jao Yiu Sung
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Previous studies have shown that both scheduled second-look endoscopy and high-dose continuous omeprazole infusion are effective in preventing peptic ulcer rebleeding. The aim of this noninferiority trial was to compare the efficacy of these two strategies for the prevention of rebleeding following primary endoscopic hemostasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who received endoscopic treatment for bleeding peptic ulcers (actively bleeding, with nonbleeding visible vessels) were randomized to two treatment groups following hemostasis...
August 2016: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140030/timing-or-dosing-of-intravenous-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-acute-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-has-low-impact-on-costs
#12
Yidan Lu, Viviane Adam, Vanessa Teich, Alan Barkun
OBJECTIVES: High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) post endoscopy are recommended in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), as they improve outcomes of patients with high-risk lesions. Determine the budget impact of using different PPI regimens in treating non-variceal UGIB, including pre- and post-endoscopic use, continuous infusion (high dose), and intermittent bolus (twice daily) dosing. METHODS: A budget impact analysis using a decision model informed with data from the literature adopting a US third party payer's perspective with a 30-day time horizon was used to determine the total cost per patient (US$2014) presenting with acute UGIB...
October 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004241/risk-factors-determining-the-need-for-second-look-endoscopy-for-peptic-ulcer-bleeding-after-endoscopic-hemostasis-and-proton-pump-inhibitor-infusion
#13
Hsiu-Chi Cheng, Chung-Tai Wu, Wei-Ying Chen, Er-Hsiang Yang, Po-Jun Chen, Bor-Shyang Sheu
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The need for routine second-look endoscopy in cases of peptic ulcer bleeding remains uncertain. We investigated risk factors related to the need for second-look endoscopy after endoscopic hemostasis and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 316 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis. Second-look endoscopy was scheduled after 72-hour PPI infusion (Day-3 subgroup) or one day early (Day-2 subgroup)...
March 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26490866/predator-stress-induced-crf-release-causes-enduring-sensitization-of-basolateral-amygdala-norepinephrine-systems-that-promote-ptsd-like-startle-abnormalities
#14
Abha K Rajbhandari, Brian A Baldo, Vaishali P Bakshi
UNLABELLED: The neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. Intense stress promotes PTSD, which has been associated with exaggerated startle and deficient sensorimotor gating. Here, we examined the long-term sequelae of a rodent model of traumatic stress (repeated predator exposure) on amygdala systems that modulate startle and prepulse inhibition (PPI), an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. We show in rodents that repeated psychogenic stress (predator) induces long-lasting sensitization of basolateral amygdala (BLA) noradrenergic (NE) receptors (α1) via a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF-R1)-dependent mechanism, and that these CRF1 and NE α1 receptors are highly colocalized on presumptive excitatory output projection neurons of the BLA...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417980/diagnosis-and-management-of-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-guideline
#15
Ian M Gralnek, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Ernst J Kuipers, Angel Lanas, David S Sanders, Matthew Kurien, Gianluca Rotondano, Tomas Hucl, Mario Dinis-Ribeiro, Riccardo Marmo, Istvan Racz, Alberto Arezzo, Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann, Gilles Lesur, Roberto de Franchis, Lars Aabakken, Andrew Veitch, Franco Radaelli, Paulo Salgueiro, Ricardo Cardoso, Luís Maia, Angelo Zullo, Livio Cipolletta, Cesare Hassan
This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH). Main Recommendations MR1. ESGE recommends immediate assessment of hemodynamic status in patients who present with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH), with prompt intravascular volume replacement initially using crystalloid fluids if hemodynamic instability exists (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence)...
October 2015: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165736/factors-influencing-development-of-pain-after-gastric-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Da Hyun Jung, Young Hoon Youn, Jie-Hyun Kim, Hyojin Park
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely used for local treatment of gastric neoplasms. Although ESD-related complications such as bleeding and perforation have been reported, data are currently lacking on the development of pain, which is one of the most common adverse events after ESD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the incidence and clinicopathologic risk factors of pain after ESD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate 156 patients with gastric neoplasms treated by ESD at Gangnam Severance Hospital between April 2011 and August 2013...
December 2015: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26081874/determination-of-lansoprazole-enantiomers-in-dog-plasma-by-column-switching-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-a-preclinical-pharmacokinetic-study
#17
Hao Wang, Yantong Sun, Xiangjun Meng, Bo Yang, Jian Wang, Yan Yang, Jingkai Gu
Lansoprazole, a selective proton pump inhibitor, has a chiral benzimidazole sulfoxide structure and is used for the treatment of gastric acid hypersecretory related diseases. To investigate its stereoselective pharmacokinetics, a column-switching liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of lansoprazole enantiomers in dog plasma using (+)-pantoprazole as an internal standard. After a simple protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile, matrix components left behind after sample preparation were further eliminated from the sample by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column...
September 2015: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25912180/role-of-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-lateral-habenula-in-the-attenuation-of-amphetamine-induced-prepulse-inhibition-deficits-of-the-acoustic-startle-response-in-rats
#18
José A Larrauri, Dennis A Burke, Brandon J Hall, Edward D Levin
RATIONALE: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to the reduction of the startle response magnitude when a startling stimulus is closely preceded by a weak stimulus. PPI is commonly used to measure sensorimotor gating. In rats, the PPI reduction induced by the dopamine agonist apomorphine can be reversed by systemic administration of nicotine. A high concentration of nicotinic receptors is found in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure with efferent projections to brain regions involved in the modulation of PPI, which has been shown to regulate the activity of midbrain dopamine neurons...
August 2015: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25859195/neural-circuits-containing-olfactory-neurons-are-involved-in-the-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-startle-reflex-in-rats
#19
Haichen Niu, Xiaobin He, Ting Zhou, Xi Shi, Qiang Zhang, Zhijian Zhang, Yuehua Qiao, Fuqiang Xu, Min Hu
Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, have been associated with olfactory dysfunction and abnormalities in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) response to a startle reflex. However, whether these two abnormalities could be related is unclear. The present investigations were designed to determine whether theblockage of olfactory sensory input by zinc sulfate infusion in the olfactory naris (0.5 ml, 0.17 M, ZnE) can disturb the PPI response. Furthermore, a bilateral microinjection of lidocaine/MK801 in the olfactory bulb (OB) was administered to examine whether the blockage of olfactory sensory input could impair the PPI response...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25841789/hyperactivity-and-disruption-of-prepulse-inhibition-induced-by-nmda-infusion-of-the-rat-ventral-hippocampus-comparison-of-uni-and-bilateral-stimulation
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jia Wang, Guohai Li, Yan Xu, Wei-Ning Zhang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that NMDA stimulation of the rat ventral hippocampus induces hyperactivity and disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) and some reports have provided insights into the different neural substrates of these two effects. Bilateral or unilateral NMDA stimulation have been applied in these studies, but have never been compared directly. Thus, results of these studies can be related to each other only with reservations. Therefore - given the substantial interest in the behavioral effects of hippocampal overactivity and the neural substrates underlying PPI with respect to schizophrenia - the present experiments compared hyperactivity and PPI disruption following uni- or bilateral NMDA stimulation of the ventral hippocampus...
May 6, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
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