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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550864/hippocampal-neural-disinhibition-causes-attentional-and-memory-deficits
#1
Stephanie McGarrity, Rob Mason, Kevin C Fone, Marie Pezze, Tobias Bast
Subconvulsive hippocampal neural disinhibition, that is reduced GABAergic inhibition, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by attentional and memory deficits, including schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Considering that neural disinhibition may disrupt both intra-hippocampal processing and processing in hippocampal projection sites, we hypothesized that hippocampal disinhibition disrupts hippocampus-dependent memory performance and, based on strong hippocampo-prefrontal connectivity, also prefrontal-dependent attention...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330059/bdnf-rescues-prefrontal-dysfunction-elicited-by-pyramidal-neuron-specific-dtnbp1-deletion-in-vivo
#2
Wen Zhang, Kathryn M Daly, Bo Liang, Lifeng Zhang, Xuan Li, Yun Li, Da-Ting Lin
Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (Dtnbp1) is one of the earliest identified schizophrenia susceptibility genes. Reduced expression of DTNBP1 is commonly found in brain areas of schizophrenic patients. Dtnbp1-null mutant mice exhibit abnormalities in behaviors and impairments in neuronal activities. However, how diminished DTNBP1 expression contributes to clinical relevant features of schizophrenia remains to be illustrated. Here, using a conditional Dtnbp1 knockout mouse line, we identified an in vivo schizophrenia-relevant function of DTNBP1 in pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275859/high-dose-omeprazole-infusion-compared-with-scheduled-second-look-endoscopy-for-prevention-of-peptic-ulcer-rebleeding-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Henry Kin Ming Joeng, Catherine Lai Yin Choi, Kelvin Kam Fai Tsoi, Kwok Hung Kwong, Siu Ho Lam, Joseph Jao Yiu Sung
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Previous studies have shown that both scheduled second-look endoscopy and high-dose continuous omeprazole infusion are effective in preventing peptic ulcer rebleeding. The aim of this noninferiority trial was to compare the efficacy of these two strategies for the prevention of rebleeding following primary endoscopic hemostasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who received endoscopic treatment for bleeding peptic ulcers (actively bleeding, with nonbleeding visible vessels) were randomized to two treatment groups following hemostasis...
August 2016: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140030/timing-or-dosing-of-intravenous-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-acute-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-has-low-impact-on-costs
#4
Yidan Lu, Viviane Adam, Vanessa Teich, Alan Barkun
OBJECTIVES: High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) post endoscopy are recommended in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), as they improve outcomes of patients with high-risk lesions. Determine the budget impact of using different PPI regimens in treating non-variceal UGIB, including pre- and post-endoscopic use, continuous infusion (high dose), and intermittent bolus (twice daily) dosing. METHODS: A budget impact analysis using a decision model informed with data from the literature adopting a US third party payer's perspective with a 30-day time horizon was used to determine the total cost per patient (US$2014) presenting with acute UGIB...
October 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004241/risk-factors-determining-the-need-for-second-look-endoscopy-for-peptic-ulcer-bleeding-after-endoscopic-hemostasis-and-proton-pump-inhibitor-infusion
#5
Hsiu-Chi Cheng, Chung-Tai Wu, Wei-Ying Chen, Er-Hsiang Yang, Po-Jun Chen, Bor-Shyang Sheu
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The need for routine second-look endoscopy in cases of peptic ulcer bleeding remains uncertain. We investigated risk factors related to the need for second-look endoscopy after endoscopic hemostasis and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) infusion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 316 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis. Second-look endoscopy was scheduled after 72-hour PPI infusion (Day-3 subgroup) or one day early (Day-2 subgroup)...
March 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26490866/predator-stress-induced-crf-release-causes-enduring-sensitization-of-basolateral-amygdala-norepinephrine-systems-that-promote-ptsd-like-startle-abnormalities
#6
Abha K Rajbhandari, Brian A Baldo, Vaishali P Bakshi
UNLABELLED: The neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. Intense stress promotes PTSD, which has been associated with exaggerated startle and deficient sensorimotor gating. Here, we examined the long-term sequelae of a rodent model of traumatic stress (repeated predator exposure) on amygdala systems that modulate startle and prepulse inhibition (PPI), an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. We show in rodents that repeated psychogenic stress (predator) induces long-lasting sensitization of basolateral amygdala (BLA) noradrenergic (NE) receptors (α1) via a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF-R1)-dependent mechanism, and that these CRF1 and NE α1 receptors are highly colocalized on presumptive excitatory output projection neurons of the BLA...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417980/diagnosis-and-management-of-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-guideline
#7
Ian M Gralnek, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Ernst J Kuipers, Angel Lanas, David S Sanders, Matthew Kurien, Gianluca Rotondano, Tomas Hucl, Mario Dinis-Ribeiro, Riccardo Marmo, Istvan Racz, Alberto Arezzo, Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann, Gilles Lesur, Roberto de Franchis, Lars Aabakken, Andrew Veitch, Franco Radaelli, Paulo Salgueiro, Ricardo Cardoso, Luís Maia, Angelo Zullo, Livio Cipolletta, Cesare Hassan
This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH). Main Recommendations MR1. ESGE recommends immediate assessment of hemodynamic status in patients who present with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH), with prompt intravascular volume replacement initially using crystalloid fluids if hemodynamic instability exists (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence)...
October 2015: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165736/factors-influencing-development-of-pain-after-gastric-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Da Hyun Jung, Young Hoon Youn, Jie-Hyun Kim, Hyojin Park
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely used for local treatment of gastric neoplasms. Although ESD-related complications such as bleeding and perforation have been reported, data are currently lacking on the development of pain, which is one of the most common adverse events after ESD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the incidence and clinicopathologic risk factors of pain after ESD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate 156 patients with gastric neoplasms treated by ESD at Gangnam Severance Hospital between April 2011 and August 2013...
December 2015: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26081874/determination-of-lansoprazole-enantiomers-in-dog-plasma-by-column-switching-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-a-preclinical-pharmacokinetic-study
#9
Hao Wang, Yantong Sun, Xiangjun Meng, Bo Yang, Jian Wang, Yan Yang, Jingkai Gu
Lansoprazole, a selective proton pump inhibitor, has a chiral benzimidazole sulfoxide structure and is used for the treatment of gastric acid hypersecretory related diseases. To investigate its stereoselective pharmacokinetics, a column-switching liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of lansoprazole enantiomers in dog plasma using (+)-pantoprazole as an internal standard. After a simple protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile, matrix components left behind after sample preparation were further eliminated from the sample by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column...
September 2015: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25912180/role-of-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-lateral-habenula-in-the-attenuation-of-amphetamine-induced-prepulse-inhibition-deficits-of-the-acoustic-startle-response-in-rats
#10
José A Larrauri, Dennis A Burke, Brandon J Hall, Edward D Levin
RATIONALE: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to the reduction of the startle response magnitude when a startling stimulus is closely preceded by a weak stimulus. PPI is commonly used to measure sensorimotor gating. In rats, the PPI reduction induced by the dopamine agonist apomorphine can be reversed by systemic administration of nicotine. A high concentration of nicotinic receptors is found in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure with efferent projections to brain regions involved in the modulation of PPI, which has been shown to regulate the activity of midbrain dopamine neurons...
August 2015: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25859195/neural-circuits-containing-olfactory-neurons-are-involved-in-the-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-startle-reflex-in-rats
#11
Haichen Niu, Xiaobin He, Ting Zhou, Xi Shi, Qiang Zhang, Zhijian Zhang, Yuehua Qiao, Fuqiang Xu, Min Hu
Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, have been associated with olfactory dysfunction and abnormalities in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) response to a startle reflex. However, whether these two abnormalities could be related is unclear. The present investigations were designed to determine whether theblockage of olfactory sensory input by zinc sulfate infusion in the olfactory naris (0.5 ml, 0.17 M, ZnE) can disturb the PPI response. Furthermore, a bilateral microinjection of lidocaine/MK801 in the olfactory bulb (OB) was administered to examine whether the blockage of olfactory sensory input could impair the PPI response...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25841789/hyperactivity-and-disruption-of-prepulse-inhibition-induced-by-nmda-infusion-of-the-rat-ventral-hippocampus-comparison-of-uni-and-bilateral-stimulation
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jia Wang, Guohai Li, Yan Xu, Wei-Ning Zhang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that NMDA stimulation of the rat ventral hippocampus induces hyperactivity and disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) and some reports have provided insights into the different neural substrates of these two effects. Bilateral or unilateral NMDA stimulation have been applied in these studies, but have never been compared directly. Thus, results of these studies can be related to each other only with reservations. Therefore - given the substantial interest in the behavioral effects of hippocampal overactivity and the neural substrates underlying PPI with respect to schizophrenia - the present experiments compared hyperactivity and PPI disruption following uni- or bilateral NMDA stimulation of the ventral hippocampus...
May 6, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25821098/high-dose-proton-pump-inhibitor-infusion-versus-bolus-injection-for-the-prevention-of-bleeding-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Cheol Woong Choi, Dae Hwan Kang, Hyung Wook Kim, Joung Boom Hong, Su Bum Park, Su Jin Kim, Mong Cho
BACKGROUND: A high dose of continuous intravenous infusion of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is the standard treatment for peptic ulcer bleeding. The optimal dose for the prevention of bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is unclear. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine whether stronger acid suppression more effectively prevents bleeding and high risk ulcer stigma (HRS) after gastric ESD. METHODS: A total of 273 patients who underwent ESD were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: the continuous infusion group and the bolus injection group...
July 2015: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25730565/intermittent-bolus-or-continuous-infusion-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-for-ulcer-bleeding
#14
LETTER
Yao-Chun Hsu, Hwai-Jeng Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25583938/use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-varices-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Elaine A G Lo, Kyle J Wilby, Mary H H Ensom
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in gastroesophageal varices (GEVs). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1946 to September 2014), EMBASE (1974 to September 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to September 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991 to September 2014), Google, and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms: esophageal varices, gastroesophageal varices, variceal hemorrhage, variceal bleeding, banding ligation, endoscopic variceal ligation, sclerotherapy, proton pump inhibitor, PPI, omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, and esomeprazole...
February 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25479939/correlation-between-hypersensitivity-induced-by-esophageal-acid-infusion-and-the-baseline-impedance-level-in-patients-with-suspected-gastroesophageal-reflux
#16
A Young Seo, Cheol Min Shin, Nayoung Kim, Hyuk Yoon, Young Soo Park, Dong Ho Lee
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relevance between the pH parameters and baseline impedance level or esophageal hypomotility in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux. METHOD: The recordings of 51 patients with heartburn, acid regurgitation, globus or noncardiac chest pain were analyzed. Evaluation included a 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH test while on off-proton pump inhibitor therapy over 1 week, high-resolution manometry and Bernstein test...
July 2015: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25409944/effect-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-gastric-ph-in-patients-exposed-to-severe-stress
#17
Kurt Lenz, Robert Buder, Fritz Firlinger, Gerald Lohr, Martin Voglmayr
BACKGROUND: The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from stress ulcers has decreased within the last 30 years. Improvements in intensive care medicine including advanced equipment for artificial ventilation, better sedoanalgesic therapies, and the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis are credited for the decline. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on gastric pH in patients exposed to a defined severe stress situation during a specified time period...
January 2015: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25390616/timing-of-rebleeding-in-high-risk-peptic-ulcer-bleeding-after-successful-hemostasis-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Sara El Ouali, Alan Barkun, Myriam Martel, Davide Maggio
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer rebleeding (PUR) usually occurs within three days following endoscopic hemostasis. However, recent data have increasingly suggested delayed rebleeding. 
 OBJECTIVE: To better characterize the timing of PUR (Forrest Ia to IIb) following initially successful endoscopic hemostasis. 
 METHODS: An exhaustive literature search (1989 to 2013), with cross-referencing, was performed to identify pertinent randomized controlled trial (RCT) arms...
November 2014: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25349566/refractory-duodenal-crohn-s-disease-successfully-treated-with-infliximab
#19
You Lim Kim, Young Sook Park, Eun Kyoung Park, Dae Rim Park, Gyu Sik Choi, Sang Bong Ahn, Seong Hwan Kim, Yun Ju Jo
Crohn's disease (CD) may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. Approximately >90% of cases occur in the small bowel and colon. Upper gastrointestinal involvement, especially duodenal manifestation, is relatively rare. Therefore, adequate medical treatment for duodenal CD has not yet been established. We report a case of CD with duodenal involvement. A 46-year-old man with Crohn's ileocolitis presented to our hospital with right upper quadrant pain. An endoscopy showed a deep excavated ulcer with deformity at the duodenal bulb, and he was initially treated with azathioprine (1 mg/kg), Pentasa (3...
January 2014: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25201154/intermittent-vs-continuous-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy-for-high-risk-bleeding-ulcers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Hamita Sachar, Keta Vaidya, Loren Laine
IMPORTANCE: Current guidelines recommend an intravenous bolus dose of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) followed by continuous PPI infusion after endoscopic therapy in patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers. Substitution of intermittent PPI therapy, if similarly effective as bolus plus continuous-infusion PPI therapy, would decrease the PPI dose, costs, and resource use. OBJECTIVE: To compare intermittent PPI therapy with the currently recommended bolus plus continuous-infusion PPI regimen for reduction of ulcer rebleeding...
November 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
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