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Occipital seizures

Chia-Ju Liu, Hsin-Hsi Tsai, Kuan-Yin Ko, Ching-Chu Lu, Ruoh-Fang Yen
A 68-year-old man with diabetes mellitus type 2 presented himself with visual distortion and apraxia. Nonketotic hyperglycemic seizure with both motor and sensory components was suspected. Tc-ECD perfusion SPECT demonstrated hyperperfusion at right parieto-occipital lobe during ictal phase. Normalization of hyperperfused area was noted on follow-up perfusion SPECT after intense glucose control. In nonketotic hyperglycemic state, the depletion of GABA in cerebral neurons lowers the seizure threshold. We demonstrated that ictal phase perfusion SPECT contributed to not only diagnosis but also served as a follow-up tool...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Tamar M van Veenendaal, Dominique M IJff, Albert P Aldenkamp, Richard H C Lazeron, Nicolaas A J Puts, Richard A E Edden, Paul A M Hofman, Anton J A de Louw, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Although antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are effective in suppressing epileptic seizures, they also induce (cognitive) side effects, with mental slowing as a general effect. This study aimed to assess whether concentrations of MR detectable neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, are associated with mental slowing in patients with epilepsy taking AEDs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from patients with localization-related epilepsy using a variety of AEDs from three risk categories, i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Marina V Sysoeva, Lyudmila V Vinogradova, Galina D Kuznetsova, Ilya V Sysoev, Clementina M van Rijn
PURPOSE: Spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) recorded in the cortical EEGs of WAG/Rij rats are the hallmark for absence epilepsy in this model. Although this type of epilepsy was long regarded as a form of primary generalized epilepsy, it is now recognized that there is an initiation zone - the perioral region of the somatosensory cortex. However, networks involved in spreading the seizure are not yet fully known. Previously, the dynamics of coupling between different layers of the perioral cortical region and between these zones and different thalamic nuclei was studied in time windows around the SWDs, using nonlinear Granger causality...
October 8, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Elaine Wyllie, Ahsan Nv Moosa
We report four children who highlight the potentially under-recognized EEG pattern of bilaterally synchronous occipito-frontal sharp waves, which may occur in children with Panayiotopoulos-type self-limited childhood epilepsy but may be easily confused with the patterns of symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Our patients were young, healthy children who had infrequent, predominantly nocturnal, fairly prolonged seizures characterized by altered consciousness, vomiting, and autonomic features, or in one case nocturnal secondary generalized tonic clonic convulsion...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
René Andrade-Machado, Vanessa Benjumea-Cuartas
Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a remediable epileptic syndrome. About 40% of patients continue to have seizures after standard temporal lobectomy. It has been suggested that some of these patients could actually suffer from a more complex epileptogenic network. Because a few papers have been dedicated to this topic, we decided to write an article updating this theme. Methods: We performed a literature search using the following terminology: "temporal plus epilepsy and networks," "temporal plus epilepsy," "orbito-temporal epilepsy," "temporo-insular epilepsy," "temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) epilepsy," "parieto-temporal epilepsy," "intracortical evoked potential and temporal plus epilepsy," "temporal lobe connectivity and epilepsy," "intracortical evoked potential and epilepsy surgery," "role of extratemporal structures in TLE," "surgical failure after temporal lobectomy," "Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and temporal epilepsy," and "positron emission tomography (PET) in temporal plus lobe epilepsy" in the existing PubMed databases...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Sarah A Vinette, Shahleen Premji, Craig A Beers, Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Daniel J Pittman, Edward G Slone, Bradley G Goodyear, Paolo Federico
The pre-ictal state is of interest for better understanding pathophysiological processes leading up to seizures and for identifying potential biomarkers for the prediction of these events. We present two cases of patients with focal epilepsy (occipital, insular) who had seizures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Interictal (>30min pre-seizure) control data was available for one participant. The location and timing of pre-ictal blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal alterations were examined along with changes in pre-ictal functional connectivity...
September 8, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Takuya Matsuda, Shuichi Shimakawa, Hiromitsu Toshikawa, Mari Hatanaka, Miho Fukui, Atsushi Mori, Hiroshi Tamai
We report a 13-month-old girl who developed acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) with transient reduced diffusion in the hippocampus and anterior commissure on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which was performed on the first day after febrile status epilepticus (FSE) as the initial neurological symptom of AESD. DWI just after late seizures showed high signal intensity lesions in both left hippocampus and anterior commissure, and left extratemporal and occipital subcortical white matter...
November 2016: Brain & Development
Rahul Ojha, Asuri N Prasad
Disorders of copper homeostasis are currently recognized across the life span. Their recognition and links to human disease have spanned several decades, beginning with the recognition of a degenerative disorder in the offspring of sheep grazing in copper-deficient pastures, through to the description of infants suffering from a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, developmental regression, failure to thrive, and an unusual hair quality (giving the condition its distinctive label of "kinky hair disease")...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Maria-Eleni Anagnostou, Yi Shiau Ng, Robert W Taylor, Robert McFarland
We performed a systematic review of the clinical, molecular, and biochemical features of polymerase gamma (POLG)-related epilepsy and current evidence on seizure management. Patients were identified from a combined electronic search of articles using Ovid Medline and Scopus databases, published from January 2000 to January 2015. Only patients with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of POLG mutations were considered. Seventy-two articles were included for analysis. We identified 128 pathogenic variants in 372 patients who had POLG-related epilepsy...
October 2016: Epilepsia
Jing Liu, Jiong Qin
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological entity affecting the posterior brain, i.e. occipital and parietal lobes. The syndrome are characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, and visual disturbances. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, endothelial dysfunction may be a key factor. The basic disease may play a crucial role in the incidence of PRES. In most cases, PRES resolves spontaneously and patients show both clinical and radiological improvements...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Fuyuko Sasaki, Sumihiro Kawajiri, Sho Nakajima, Ai Yamaguchi, Yuji Tomizawa, Kazuyuki Noda, Nobutaka Hattori, Yasuyuki Okuma
BACKGROUND: Nonketotic hyperglycemia often causes seizures. Recently, seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia have been found to be associated with subcortical T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance imaging, especially in the occipital lobes. However, the mechanism remains unclear, although iron accumulation is suggested. We present a case of occipital lobe seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of subcortical T2 hypointensity is iron accumulation using gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Vikas Shashikant Kavishwar, Kirti G Chadha, Shaikhali Moiz Barodawala, Anuradha Krishna Murthy
Ganglioglioma is a slow-growing relatively low-grade mixed glioneuronal tumor with most cases corresponding to the WHO Grade I category. It frequently presents with seizures. The temporal lobe is the most common location followed by frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. These generally behave in a benign fashion and have a favorable prognosis. We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting with convulsions and a calcified parieto-occipital mass. This mass removed from the parietal lobe showed neoplastic glial and dysplastic neuronal tissue amidst extensive areas of calcification and foci of ossification...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Pl Bozhinov, S Bojinova
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and the course of hypertensive disorders in pregnant women with epilepsy (PWWE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey is prospective and covers 206 PWWE during the period 1997-2012 year, monitored and treated in Risk Pregnancy Clinic of University Hospital - Pleven. All the patients (PWWE) are with clinically established etiology and prescription of epilepsy, type of seizures and their frequency. EEG records, ultrasound of fetus and cardiotocograph monitoring were conducted...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
L Chaput, N Rabot, N Limousin, J-P Cottier, B Lioger, M Samimi
BACKGROUND: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is characterised by clinical neurological features of sudden onset and brain MRI findings such as T2/Flair white matter hyperintensities. RPLS can occur in autoimmune diseases, and rarely in systemic vasculitis. We report a case of RPLS in a woman presenting granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 22-year-old female patient was treated with methylprednisolone pulses for granulomatosis with polyangiitis and neurological impairment...
August 5, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Rebecca Martin, Paul Cirino, Merrill Hiscock, Rebecca Schultz, Robert Collins, Lynn Chapieski
We examined benefits and risks for memory and academic functioning associated with epilepsy surgery in a pediatric population. A total of 46 patients with intractable seizures and a single seizure focus were divided into four groups according to focus localization: right temporal, left temporal, frontal, and parietal/occipital region. Pre- and postsurgery performance measures were compared across groups and with a fifth group of patients that had intractable seizures but did not undergo surgery. Both groups with temporal lobe epilepsy showed significant declines in memory test scores, while performance of the group with frontal lobe epilepsy improved...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sumaira Nabi, Haris Majid Rajput, Mazhar Badshah, Shahzad Ahmed
A 17-year-old Pakistani female patient presented with acute onset flaccid quadriparesis with nerve conduction studies showing demyelinating polyneuropathy consistent with Guillain-Barre' syndrome. She was treated with 4 plasmapheresis sessions. She developed raised blood pressure, headache, visual loss and generalised seizures on the 13th day of admission. MRI of the brain on contrast showed findings of altered signals low on T1-weighted image, high on T2-weighted image and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in the white matter of bilateral occipital, parietal and right frontal lobe consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Dong Wook Kim, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Sang Kun Lee
Vertigo and dizziness are common neurological complaints that have long been associated with epilepsy. However, studies of patients with epileptic vertigo or dizziness with concurrent EEG monitoring are scarce. We performed the present study to investigate the incidence and localizing value of vertigo and dizziness in patients with epilepsy who had confirmation of EEG changes via video-EEG monitoring. Data of aura and clinical seizure episodes of 831 consecutive patients who underwent video-EEG monitoring were analyzed retrospectively...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Angela Marchi, Francesca Bonini, Stanislas Lagarde, Aileen McGonigal, Martine Gavaret, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Sandrine Aubert, Nathalie Villeneuve, Samuel Médina Villalon, Christian Bénar, Agnes Trebuchon, Fabrice Bartolomei
Compared with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsies, the occipital lobe epilepsies (OLE) remain poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed at classifying the ictal networks involving OLE and investigated clinical features of the OLE network subtypes. We studied 194 seizures from 29 consecutive patients presenting with OLE and investigated by stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). Epileptogenicity of occipital and extraoccipital regions was quantified according to the 'epileptogenicity index' (EI) method. We found that 79% of patients showed widespread epileptogenic zone organization, involving parietal or temporal regions in addition to the occipital lobe...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Prakriti Gaba, Christopher V DeSimone, Benhur D Henz, Paul A Friedman, Charles J Bruce, David R Holmes, Malini Madhavan, Krithika Vasudevan, Douglas Wahnschaffe, Steven Berhow, Andrew J Danielsen, Dorothy J Ladewig, Susan B Mikell, Susan B Johnson, Scott H Suddendorf, Tomas Kara, Gregory A Worrell, Samuel J Asirvatham
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacotherapy for epilepsy is limited with 30% of patients refractory to this approach of suppressing seizures. Current surgical options are invasive and carry significant morbidities including infection, bleeding, and the potential for deleterious neurocognitive effects. As a result, there is a burgeoning need for innovation to develop safer and efficacious interventions. METHODS: Four distinct catheters (2 existing: Cardima catheter, Standard EPT Blazer catheter; 2 new prototypes: balloon catheter, basket catheters) were tested in 12 baboons (21-30 kg, 100% male)...
June 2016: Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
Jeong Sik Kim, Dae Lim Koo, Eun Yeon Joo, Sung Tae Kim, Dae Won Seo, Seung Bong Hong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the changes in gray matter volume (GMV) and their hemispheric difference in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology, and to determine whether GMV changes are correlated with clinical features. METHODS: VBM analysis of brain MRI using statistical parametric mapping 8 (SPM8) was performed for 30 left MTLE (LMTLE) and 30 right MTLE (RMTLE) patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurology
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