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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792468/teamwork-and-collaboration-in-long-duration-space-missions-going-to-extremes
#1
Lauren Blackwell Landon, Kelley J Slack, Jamie D Barrett
The scientific study of teamwork in the context of spaceflight has uncovered a considerable amount of knowledge over the past 20 years. Although much is known about the underlying factors and processes of teamwork, much is left to be discovered for teams who will be operating in extreme isolation and confinement during a future Mars mission. Special considerations must be made to enhance teamwork and team well-being for multi-year missions during which the small team will live and work together. We discuss the unique challenges of effective teamwork in a Mars mission scenario, and the difficulties of studying teamwork using analogs of the space environment...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792451/the-science-of-teams-in-the-military-contributions-from-over-60-years-of-research
#2
Gerald F Goodwin, Nikki Blacksmith, Meredith R Coats
Teams are the foundational building blocks of the military, which uses a hierarchical structure built on and around teams to form larger units. Consequently, team effectiveness has been a substantial focus of research within the military for decades to ensure military teams have the human capabilities to complete their missions and address future challenges successfully. This research has contributed greatly to broader team theory and informed the development of evidence-based interventions. Team-focused research supported or executed by the military has yielded major insights into the nature of team performance, advanced the methods for measuring and improving team performance, and broken new ground in understanding the assembly of effective teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792218/sudden-cardiac-arrest-under-spinal-anesthesia-in-a-mission-hospital-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Bamidele Johnson Alegbeleye
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest following spinal anesthesia is relatively uncommon and a matter of grave concern for any anesthesiologist as well as clinicians in general. There have been, however, several reports of such cases in the literature. Careful patient selection, appropriate dosing of the local anesthetic, volume loading, close monitoring, and prompt intervention at the first sign of cardiovascular instability should improve outcomes. The rarity of occurrence and clinical curiosity of this entity suggest reporting of this unusual and possibly avoidable clinical event...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791736/program-to-improve-private-early-education-pipe-a-case-study-of-a-systems-approach-for-scaling-quality-early-education-solutions
#4
Vikram Jain, Ahmed Irfan, Gauri Kirtane Vanikar
FSG is a mission-driven nonprofit organization supporting leaders in creating large-scale, lasting social change. A survey conducted by FSG in 2015 across 4407 low-income families in urban India showed that 95% of them send their children to preschools, a majority of choosing affordable private preschools (APSs), as parents perceive the quality of government schools to be poor. Parents use and value rote-based methods (e.g., reciting poems) to assess their children's learning in school; however, these methods fail to measure conceptual understanding...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791367/improved-space-object-detection-using-short-exposure-image-data-with-daylight-background
#5
David Becker, Stephen Cain
Space object detection is of great importance in the highly dependent yet competitive and congested space domain. The detection algorithms employed play a crucial role in fulfilling the detection component in the space situational awareness mission to detect, track, characterize, and catalog unknown space objects. Many current space detection algorithms use a matched filter or a spatial correlator on long-exposure data to make a detection decision at a single pixel point of a spatial image based on the assumption that the data follow a Gaussian distribution...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790174/an-update-of-nih-research-funding-of-aapm-members-from-1985-to-2017
#6
Brendan Whelan
Excellence in scientific research is one of the three pillars of the AAPMs mission to advance medicine, along with excellence in education and professional practice. The primary funder of medical research in the USA is the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which in 2017 had a budget of $33 billion USD. The Working Group for a Research Database (WGRD) previously published a special report into the development and testing of an algorithm to create a database of NIH funding of AAPM members [1]. The published data covered the years 1985 to 2015...
May 23, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789746/chinese-satellite-launch-kicks-off-ambitious-mission-to-moon-s-far-side
#7
Davide Castelvecchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789484/nursing-intervention-practices-for-smoking-cessation-a-large-survey-in-hong-kong
#8
Yim Wah Mak, Alice Yuen Loke, Frances K Y Wong
Previous studies have shown that nursing interventions are effective in helping people to stop smoking, but that the participation of nurses in tobacco control activities has been far from satisfactory. The primary objective of this study is to identify factors that encourage or discourage nurses from participating in providing smoking-cessation interventions to their clients, based on the 5 A's (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) framework. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4413 nurses in Hong Kong from different clinical specialties...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789089/-gz-exposure-and-spinal-injury-induced-flight-duty-limitations
#9
Tuomas Honkanen, Roope Sovelius, Matti Mäntysaari, Heikki Kyröläinen, Janne Avela, Tuomo K Leino
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to find out if possible differences in early military flight career +Gz exposure level could predict permanent flight duty limitations (FDL) due to spinal disorders during a pilot's career. METHODS: The study population consisted of 23 pilots flying with Gz limitation (max limitation ranging from +2 Gz to +5 Gz) due to spinal disorders and 50 experienced (+1000 flight hours) symptomless controls flying actively in operative missions in the Finnish Air Force...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789087/individual-differences-in-adaptability-to-isolated-confined-and-extreme-environments
#10
Paul T Bartone, Gerald P Krueger, Jocelyn V Bartone
INTRODUCTION: Future deep space missions will expose astronauts to more intense stressors than previously encountered. Isolation will be greater and more prolonged, living and work areas more confined, and communications and resupply channels to Earth longer and less reliable. Astronauts will need to function more autonomously, with less guidance and support from Earth. Thus, it is important to select and train astronauts who can adapt and function effectively under extreme and variable conditions...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789085/acute-exposure-to-low-to-moderate-carbon-dioxide-levels-and-submariner-decision-making
#11
Christopher D Rodeheffer, Sarah Chabal, John M Clarke, David M Fothergill
BACKGROUND: Submarines routinely operate with higher levels of ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., 2000 - 5000 ppm) than what is typically considered normal (i.e., 400 - 600 ppm). Although significant cognitive impairments are rarely reported at these elevated CO2 levels, recent studies using the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) test have found impairments in decision-making performance during acute CO2 exposure at levels as low as 1000 ppm. This is a potential concern for submarine operations, as personnel regularly make mission-critical decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the vessel and its crew while exposed to similar levels of CO2...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788956/building-bridges-paediatric-palliative-care-in-belgium-a-secondary-data-analysis-of-annual-paediatric-liaison-team-reports-from-2010-to-2014
#12
Marie Friedel, Bénédicte Brichard, Christine Fonteyne, Marleen Renard, Jean-Paul Misson, Els Vandecruys, Corinne Tonon, Françoise Verfaillie, Georgette Hendrijckx, Nathalie Andersson, Ilse Ruysseveldt, Katrien Moens, Jean-Marie Degryse, Isabelle Aujoulat
BACKGROUND: Although continuity of care in paediatric palliative care (PPC) is considered to be an essential element of quality of care, it's implementation is challenging. In Belgium, five paediatric liaison teams (PLTs) deliver palliative care. A Royal Decree issued in 2010 provides the legal framework that defines the PLTs' missions, as ensuring continuity of curative and palliative care between the hospital and home for children diagnosed with life-limiting conditions. This national study describes how PLTs ensure continuity of care by describing their activities and the characteristics of the children they cared for from 2010 to 2014...
May 22, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785751/the-american-society-for-preventive-cardiology-aspc-has-started-2018-with-noteworthy-initiatives-a-recap-of-just-a-few-will-be-beneficial-for-members-as-well-as-non-members-who-will-hopefully-be-inspired-to-join-our-burgeoning-society
#13
Seth J Baum
First, we have continued and augmented our Town Hall Series exploring and solving medication access problems in the US. The 2016 and 2017 meetings were an extraordinary success as we led the nation in the mission to help appropriate patients gain access to PCSK9i, while simultaneously creating methods to ease the massive burdens on our offices. Continuing such advocacy efforts, the ASPC organized five 2018 programs to convene at the ACC, PriMed California, ASPC, CMHC, and the AHA. This article is protected by copyright...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783977/effective-coverage-of-essential-inpatient-care-for-small-and-sick-newborns-in-a-high-mortality-urban-setting-a-cross-sectional-study-in-nairobi-city-county-kenya
#14
Georgina A V Murphy, David Gathara, Jacintah Mwachiro, Nancy Abuya, Jalemba Aluvaala, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Effective coverage requires that those in need can access skilled care supported by adequate resources. There are, however, few studies of effective coverage of facility-based neonatal care in low-income settings, despite the recognition that improving newborn survival is a global priority. METHODS: We used a detailed retrospective review of medical records for neonatal admissions to public, private not-for-profit (mission) and private-for-profit (private) sector facilities providing 24×7 inpatient neonatal care in Nairobi City County to estimate the proportion of small and sick newborns receiving nationally recommended care across six process domains...
May 22, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783878/adolescent-fertility-rates-in-a-rural-community-in-north-western-zambia-a-retrospective-study
#15
Mwansa Jere
Adolescent fertility rate is defined as the number of births per 1000 in women aged 15-19 years. These rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa. National data from Zambia suggest the rate has declined from 179.6 in 1960 to 87.9 in 2015. A retrospective study was performed at Chitokoloki Mission Hospital using the hospital delivery registers during January 2008 to December 2015. In this period, 945 (20.81%) births were to adolescent mothers. As morbidity is significant in this vulnerable group, strategies to reduce pregnancy rates among these young girls is much-needed...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782373/compliance-and-high-reliability-in-a-complex-healthcare-organization
#16
Maxine dellaBadia Simon
When considering the impact of regulation on healthcare, visualize a spider's web. The spider weaves sections together to create the whole, with each fiber adding to the structure to support its success or lead to its failure. Each section is dependent on the others, and all must be aligned to maintain the structure. Outside forces can cause a shift in the web's fragile equilibrium.The interdependence of the sections of the spider's web is similar to the way hospital departments and services work together. An organization's structure must be shaped to support its mission and vision...
2018: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780678/meteoric-metal-chemistry-in-the-martian-atmosphere
#17
J M C Plane, J D Carrillo-Sanchez, T P Mangan, M M J Crismani, N M Schneider, A Määttänen
Recent measurements by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission show that a persistent layer of Mg+ ions occurs around 90 km in the Martian atmosphere but that neutral Mg atoms are not detectable. These observations can be satisfactorily modeled with a global meteoric ablation rate of 0.06 t sol-1 , out of a cosmic dust input of 2.7 ± 1.6 t sol-1 . The absence of detectable Mg at 90 km requires that at least 50% of the ablating Mg atoms ionize through hyperthermal collisions with CO2 molecules...
March 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780279/relativistic-dynamics-and-extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals
#18
Pau Amaro-Seoane
It is now well-established that a dark, compact object, very likely a massive black hole (MBH) of around four million solar masses is lurking at the centre of the Milky Way. While a consensus is emerging about the origin and growth of supermassive black holes (with masses larger than a billion solar masses), MBHs with smaller masses, such as the one in our galactic centre, remain understudied and enigmatic. The key to understanding these holes-how some of them grow by orders of magnitude in mass-lies in understanding the dynamics of the stars in the galactic neighbourhood...
2018: Living Reviews in Relativity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780200/growing-fresh-food-on-future-space-missions-environmental-conditions-and-crop-management
#19
Esther Meinen, Tom Dueck, Frank Kempkes, Cecilia Stanghellini
This paper deals with vegetable cultivation that could be faced in a space mission. This paper focusses on optimization, light, temperature and the harvesting process, while other factors concerning cultivation in space missions, i.e. gravity, radiation, were not addressed. It describes the work done in preparation of the deployment of a mobile test facility for vegetable production of fresh food at the Neumayer III Antarctic research station. A selection of vegetable crops was grown under varying light and temperature conditions to quantify crop yield response to climate factors that determine resource requirement of the production system...
May 17, 2018: Scientia Horticulturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775210/the-effect-of-simulated-space-radiation-on-the-n-glycosylation-of-human-immunoglobulin-g1
#20
Mate Szarka, Szabolcs Szilasi, Boglarka Donczo, Daniel Sarkozy, Istvan Rajta, Andras Guttman
On a roundtrip to Mars, astronauts are expectedly exposed to an approximate amount of radiation that exceeds the lifetime limits on Earth. This elevated radiation dose is mainly due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE). Specific patterns of the N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulins have already been associated with various ailments such as autoimmune diseases, malignant transformation, chronic inflammation and ageing. The focus of our work was to investigate the effect of low-energy proton irradiation on the IgG N-glycosylation profile with the goal if disease associated changes could be detected during space travel and not altered by space radiation...
May 18, 2018: Electrophoresis
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