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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786974/embryonic-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-a-brominated-flame-retardant-reduces-the-size-of-song-control-nuclei-in-a-songbird
#1
Margaret L Eng, Viktoria Winter, John E Elliott, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Tony D Williams
Environmental contaminants have the potential to act as developmental stressors and impair development of song and the brain of songbirds, but they have been largely unstudied in this context. 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) is a brominated flame retardant congener that has demonstrated endocrine disrupting effects, and has pervaded the global environment. We assessed the effects of in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 on the neuroanatomy of the song-control system in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786909/a-new-composite-electrode-applied-for-studying-the-electrochemistry-of-insoluble-particles-%C3%AE-hgs
#2
Minjun Yang, Richard G Compton
The redox chemistry of solid α-HgS particles is revealed using a carbon/PVDF composite containing α-HgS, carbon black, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The electrochemical behaviour of the carbon/PVDF composite is first characterised with three water insoluble organic solids. Then the reduction of solid α-HgS particles is investigated and found to occur at a high negative potential, -1.82V vs saturated mercury sulphate reference electrode, to form metallic mercury and sulphide ions. The subsequent oxidation of metallic mercury and sulphide occurs at +0...
May 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786873/in-vivo-profiling-of-four-centrally-administered-opioids-for-antinociception-constipation-and-respiratory-depression-between-colony-differences-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
A Kuo, M T Smith
Outbred rodent stocks including Sprague Dawley rats, are known for their genetic diversity and so they are often used to develop animal models of human disease. Although between-colony differences in pharmaco-behavioural studies have been published previously, a direct head-to-head comparison study, whereby all research was performed in the same laboratory by the same experimenter utilising the supraspinal route of drug administration in the same strain of rat, is lacking. Herein, we report our head-to-head comparison study, involving assessment of antinociception, constipation and respiratory depression evoked by single bolus intracerebroventricular (ICV) doses of morphine, buprenorphine, DPDPE and U69,593 using male Sprague Dawley rats sourced from a different breeding colony (BC2) from that (BC1) used by us previously...
May 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786736/phase-behaviour-and-applications-of-a-binary-liquid-mixture-of-methanol-and-a-thermotropic-liquid-crystal
#4
Luis A Serrano, Maximiliano J Fornerod, Ye Yang, Simon Gaisford, Francesco Stellacci, Stefan Guldin
Herein, we report on the phase behaviour of a binary liquid mixture composed of methanol (MeOH) and the thermotropic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). The corresponding phase diagram combines features of a conventional liquid-liquid mixture with characteristics that are particular to the nematic liquid crystal. We observe four arrangements as a function of composition and temperature, namely monophasic isotropic, monophasic nematic, biphasic isotropic-isotropic and biphasic isotropic-nematic, with an upper critical solution temperature of 24...
May 22, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786729/application-of-a-constant-hole-volume-sanchez-lacombe-equation-of-state-to-mixtures-relevant-to-polymeric-foaming
#5
Kier von Konigslow, Chul B Park, Russell B Thompson
A variant of the Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state is applied to several polymers, blowing agents, and saturated mixtures of interest to the polymer foaming industry. These are low-density polyethylene-carbon dioxide and polylactide-carbon dioxide saturated mixtures as well as polystyrene-carbon dioxide-dimethyl ether and polystyrene-carbon dioxide-nitrogen ternary saturated mixtures. Good agreement is achieved between theoretically predicted and experimentally determined solubilities, both for binary and ternary mixtures...
May 22, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786608/microscopic-aspects-of-wetting-using-classical-density-functional-theory
#6
Peter Yatsyshin, Miguel A Duran-Olivencia, Serafim Kalliadasis
Wetting is a rather efficient mechanism for nucleation of a phase (typically liquid) on the interface
 between two other phases (typically solid and gas). In many experimentally
 accessible cases of wetting, the interplay between the substrate structure,
 and the fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate intermolecular interactions brings
 about an entire ``zoo" of possible fluid configurations, such as liquid
 films with a thickness of a few nanometers, liquid nanodrops and liquid
 bridges...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786526/application-of-multiple-behaviour-change-models-to-identify-determinants-of-farmers-biosecurity-attitudes-and-behaviours
#7
I F Richens, J Houdmont, W Wapenaar, O Shortall, J Kaler, H O'Connor, M L Brennan
It has been recognised that few cattle farmers undertake biosecurity practices on their farms. Approaches that take into consideration individuals' preparedness for change, alongside beliefs thought to motivate the enactment of certain behaviours, may provide a framework for actuating tangible change. The aim of this study was to use a combination of behaviour change models to link beliefs with behaviour and identify possible key interventions to improve the uptake of biosecurity measures by dairy cattle farmers in Great Britain (GB)...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786515/research-brief-persistent-social-inequality-in-medicine-use-for-headache-among-adolescents-in-denmark-1991-2014
#8
Bjørn Evald Holstein, Anne Maj Denbæk, Anette Andersen, Pernille Due
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic variation in adolescents' medicine use behaviour is an understudied issue. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between socioeconomic background and medicine use for headache among adolescents, and how this association changes over time. METHODS: Data stem from the Danish part of the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 1991-2014 with data about parents' occupational social class (OSC) and self-reported medicine use for headache, n = 26,685...
May 18, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786495/occupational-moral-injury-and-mental-health-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Victoria Williamson, Sharon A M Stevelink, Neil Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Many people confront potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs) in the course of their work which can violate deeply held moral values or beliefs, putting them at risk for psychological difficulties (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, etc.).AimsWe aimed to assess the effect of moral injury on mental health outcomes. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between work-related PMIEs and mental health disorders...
June 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786470/direct-cortical-stimulation-of-inferior-frontal-cortex-disrupts-both-speech-and-music-production-in-highly-trained-musicians
#10
Matthew K Leonard, Maansi Desai, Dylan Hungate, Ruofan Cai, Nilika S Singhal, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang
Music and speech are human-specific behaviours that share numerous properties, including the fine motor skills required to produce them. Given these similarities, previous work has suggested that music and speech may at least partially share neural substrates. To date, much of this work has focused on perception, and has not investigated the neural basis of production, particularly in trained musicians. Here, we report two rare cases of musicians undergoing neurosurgical procedures, where it was possible to directly stimulate the left hemisphere cortex during speech and piano/guitar music production tasks...
May 22, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786148/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-immersion-samples-from-fa%C3%A3-ade-render-containing-free-or-encapsulated-biocides
#11
Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Sophie Campiche, Conrad Dietschweiler, Inge Werner, Michael Burkhardt
To protect house façades from fouling by microorganisms, biocides can be added to a render or paint before it is applied. During driving rain events, these biocides gradually leach out and have the potential to pollute soil or aquatic ecosystems. We studied the leaching behaviour of biocides and toxicity of leachates from renders with either free or encapsulated biocides. Both render types contained equal amounts of terbutryn, 2-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolinone (OIT) and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolino-3-one (DCOIT)...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786140/gender-differences-in-the-association-of-periodontitis-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Ying Liu, Yang Yu, Jeffrey C Nickel, Laura R Iwasaki, Peipei Duan, Melanie Simmer-Beck, Laura Brown
AIMS: THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO INVESTIGATE IF GENDER DIFFERENCES EXIST IN THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PERIODONTITIS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES. DISPROPORTIONATE DISPARITIES BY GENDER WERE FOUND TO EXIST IN RATES OF BOTH PERIODONTITIS AND DIABETES WITH RESPECT TO DEMOGRAPHICS AND BEHAVIOURAL PREDICTORS THAT CANNOT BE EXPLAINED SOLELY BY THE WELL-ESTABLISHED ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THESE TWO DISEASES. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MULTIPLE DATASETS WERE EXTRACTED FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY (NHANES) 2009-2014, WHICH USED A STRATIFIED MULTISTAGE PROBABILITY SAMPLING TO OBTAIN SAMPLES FROM ALL CIVILIAN NON-INSTITUTIONALISED PEOPLE IN THE USA...
May 22, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786063/induction-of-prolonged-natural-lifespans-in-mice-exposed-to-acoustic-environmental-enrichment
#13
Yuichi Yamashita, Norie Kawai, Osamu Ueno, Yui Matsumoto, Tsutomu Oohashi, Manabu Honda
We investigated the effect of acoustic environmental enrichment (EE) on the lifespans and behaviours of mice to the end of their natural lifespan in different acoustic environments. Acoustic EE induced a significantly prolonged natural lifespan (nearly 17% longer) and was associated with increased voluntary movements. However, no correlation between lifespan and voluntary movements was detected, suggesting that increased voluntary movements are not a primary cause of lifespan prolongation. Analyses of individual differences in lifespan demonstrated that lifespan extension induced by acoustic EE could be related to changes in social relationships (e...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785890/family-networks-and-healthy-behaviour-evidence-from-nepal
#14
Jolene Skordis, Noemi Pace, Marcos Vera-Hernandez, Imran Rasul, Emla Fitzsimons, David Osrin, Dharma Manandhar, Anthony Costello
Models of household decision-making commonly focus on nuclear family members as primary decision-makers. If extended families shape the objectives and constraints of households, then neglecting the role of this network may lead to an incomplete understanding of health-seeking behaviour. Understanding the decision-making processes behind care-seeking may improve behaviour change interventions, better intervention targeting and support health-related development goals. This paper uses data from a cluster randomised trial of a participatory learning and action cycle (PLA) through women's groups, to assess the role of extended family networks as a determinant of gains in health knowledge and health practice...
May 22, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785798/parent-mediated-intervention-training-delivered-remotely-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-has-preliminary-evidence-for-parent-intervention-fidelity-and-improving-parent-knowledge-and-children-s-social-behaviour-and-communication-skills
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785614/cascade-of-care-and-factors-associated-with-virological-suppression-among-hiv-positive-persons-linked-to-care-in-the-test-and-keep-in-care-tak-project
#16
Justyna D Kowalska, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Leah Shepherd, Amanda Mocroft
INTRODUCTION: Early treatment remains the most effective HIV prevention strategy; poor linkage to care after HIV diagnosis may compromise this benefit. We sought to better understand patient characteristics and their association with virological suppression (VS) following cART initiation. METHODS: The TAK project collects pre-linkage to care and clinical data on patients diagnosed with HIV in voluntary testing facilities in central Poland. Data collected for persons diagnosed in 2010-2013 were linked with HIV clinic records...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785594/attitudes-and-behaviour-towards-construction-waste-minimisation-a-comparative-analysis-between-china-and-the-usa
#17
Jingkuang Liu, Enqin Gong, Dong Wang, XiaoHong Lai, Jian Zhu
With the spread of the concept of sustainable development, people have gained awareness about the problem of massive illegal dumping of construction waste. In this research, a questionnaire survey was carried out in the USA and China. The results indicated the following. (1) Workers in both the countries had positive minimisation attitudes, and the attitude of Chinese construction workers was not significantly different from that of American construction workers. Furthermore, their average values were 3.9 and 4...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785429/bimodal-coordination-of-fused-arenes-to-a-pd-3-cluster-site
#18
Tsuyoshi Sugawa, Koji Yamamoto, Tetsuro Murahashi
We report bimodal coordination behaviour of fused arenes at a Pd3 cluster site. A cyclooctatetraene-supported Pd3 cluster accommodates anthracene and tetracene in an oxidative π-addition manner, whereas triphenylene and fluoranthene are accommodated in a π-coordination manner.
May 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785354/geographical-variation-in-colour-of-female-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#19
Connor M French, Travis Ingram, Daniel I Bolnick
The ecological multifunctionality of colour often results in multiple selective pressures operating on a single trait. Most research on colour evolution focuses on males because they are the most conspicuous sex in most species. This bias can limit inferences about the ecological drivers of colour evolution. For example, little is known about population divergence in colour of female threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), which is among the most intensively-studied model vertebrates in evolution, ecology, and behaviour...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785255/feasibility-of-high-intensity-training-in-asthma
#20
L L Toennesen, E D Soerensen, M Hostrup, C Porsbjerg, J Bangsbo, V Backer
Background: High-intensity interval training is an effective and popular training regime but its feasibility in untrained adults with asthma is insufficiently described. Objective: The randomized controlled trial 'EFFORT Asthma' explored the effects of behavioural interventions including high-intensity interval training on clinical outcomes in nonobese sedentary adults with asthma. In this article we present a sub analysis of data aiming to evaluate if patients' pre-intervention levels of asthma control, FEV1, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) predicted their training response to the high-intensity interval training program, measured as increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)...
2018: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
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