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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#1
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334689/-stick-with-your-own-kind-or-hang-with-the-locals-implications-of-shoaling-strategy-for-tropical-reef-fish-on-a-range-expansion-frontline
#2
Shannen M Smith, Rebecca J Fox, David J Booth, Jennifer M Donelson
Range shifts of tropical marine species to temperate latitudes are predicted to increase as a consequence of climate change. To date, the research focus on climate-mediated range shifts has been predominately dealt with the physiological capacity of tropical species to cope with the thermal challenges imposed by temperate latitudes. Behavioural traits of individuals in the novel temperate environment have not previously been investigated, however, they are also likely to play a key role in determining the establishment success of individual species at the range-expansion forefront...
January 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334641/do-clinically-anxious-children-cluster-according-to-their-expression-of-factors-that-maintain-child-anxiety
#3
Samantha Pearcey, Anna Alkozei, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Helen Dodd, Kou Murayama, Suzannah Stuijfzand, Cathy Creswell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, yet a significant proportion of children do not benefit from it. CBT for child anxiety disorders typically includes a range of strategies that may not all be applicable for all affected children. This study explored whether there are distinct subgroups of children with anxiety disorders who are characterized by their responses to measures of the key mechanisms that are targeted in CBT (i...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334393/facile-fabrication-and-characterization-of-two-dimensional-bismuth-iii-sulfide-nanosheets-for-high-performance-photodetector-applications-under-ambient-conditions
#4
Weichun Huang, Chenyang Xing, Yunzheng Wang, Zhongjun Li, Leiming Wu, Dingtao Ma, Xiaoyu Dai, Yuanjiang Xiang, Jianqing Li, Dianyuan Fan, Han Zhang
Two-dimensional (2D) bismuth(iii) sulfide (Bi2S3) nanosheets as non-toxic graphene-like nanomaterials were successfully fabricated by a facile liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method. A robust photodetector employing a Bi2S3 nanosheet film has been fabricated for the first time via a facile fabrication process on an ITO-coated glass. UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy techniques were carried out and they confirmed the inherent optical and physical properties of Bi2S3 nanosheets. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements demonstrate that a significantly higher photocurrent density (42 μA cm-2) and enhanced photoresponsivity (210 μA W-1), at a lower bias potential in alkaline solution, of the Bi2S3 nanosheet-based photodetector are achieved, compared with those of other 2D nanomaterial-based photodetectors under light irradiation...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334392/control-of-collagen-gel-mechanical-properties-through-manipulation-of-gelation-conditions-near-the-sol-gel-transition
#5
A J Holder, N Badiei, K Hawkins, C Wright, P R Williams, D J Curtis
The ability to control the mechanical properties of cell culture environments is known to influence cell morphology, motility, invasion and differentiation. The present work shows that it is possible to control the mechanical properties of collagen gels by manipulating gelation conditions near the sol gel transition. This manipulation is accomplished by performing gelation in two stages at different temperatures. The mechanical properties of the gel are found to be strongly dependent on the duration and temperature of the first stage...
January 15, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334317/fluctuation-a-common-but-neglected-pattern-of-physical-activity-behaviour-an-exploratory-review-of-studies-in-recent-20-years
#6
Borui Shang, Yanping Duan, Wendy Yajun Huang, Walter Brehm
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) is beneficial for physical and psychological well-being, yet many people do not achieve these health benefits due to irregular PA participation which is also known as fluctuation. Limited attention has been given to the phenomenon of fluctuation in the PA behaviour literature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to explore and to map definitions, measurements, behavioural evidence, and factors related to PA fluctuation...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334308/neuromuscular-degenerative-effects-of-ankaferd-blood-stopper%C3%A2-in-mouse-sciatic-nerve-model
#7
Ramazan Üstün, Elif Kaval Oğuz, Çağrı Delilbaşı, Ayşe Şeker, Filiz Taşpınar, Mehmet Reşit Öncü, Ahmet Regaip Oğuz
Purpose Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS), a licenced medicinal herbal extract, is commonly used as an effective topical haemostatic agent. This study is designed to investigate whether topical ABS application may cause peripheral nerve degeneration and neuromuscular dysfunction in a mouse sciatic nerve model. Methods Twenty mice were randomly divided into two groups; an ABS treated experimental group and a saline-treated control group. Left sciatic nerves were treated with 0.3 ml of ABS in the experimental group and 0...
January 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334244/evolving-concepts-and-use-of-immunohistochemical-biomarkers-in-flat-non-neoplastic-urothelial-lesions-who-2016-classification-update-with-diagnostic-algorithm
#8
Francesca Sanguedolce, Matteo Brunelli, Alessandro D'Amuri, Beppe Calò, Vito Mancini, Giuseppe Carrieri, Luigi Cormio
CONTEXT: The classification of flat non-neoplastic urothelial lesions has been evolved through the years in the attempt to better define a spectrum of morphologic entities with somewhat overlapping features. Differentiating these lesions is important because of differences in patient management and clinical outcome. Materials and methods and objective: A systematic review of the literature has been carried out in order to (1) assess the most striking clinical features of each lesion, and (2) identify those morphological traits and immunophenotypical markers which may aid in the differential diagnosis...
January 15, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334178/factors-associated-with-perceived-accuracy-of-the-undetectable%C3%A2-%C3%A2-untransmittable-slogan-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-implications-for-messaging-scale-up-and-implementation
#9
H Jonathon Rendina, Jeffrey T Parsons
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has shown high efficacy of HIV treatment for reducing the risk of HIV transmission to sexual partners. As the efficacy of treatment as prevention (TasP) has proliferated, a new messaging campaign, Undetectable = Untransmittable, has been gaining popularity. The purpose of this paper was to assess factors associated with the perceived accuracy of this TasP messaging strategy among a large and diverse sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in order to inform subsequent efforts at large-scale and implementation of the HIV prevention message...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333939/parents-attitude-awareness-and-behaviour-towards-influenza-vaccination-in-pakistan
#10
Allah Bukhsh, Habib-Ur Rehman, Inayat Ur Rehman, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
National immunization program of Pakistan does not include Influenza vaccines. The low rate of immunization might be attributed to the poor knowledge of influenza vaccination in Pakistan. Current study was aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of influenza vaccination among parents. A questionnaire-based cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected parents with at least one child aged >6 months. The responses were recorded against 27 items questionnaire assessing knowledge, perception, attitude and behaviours of parents...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333898/the-physical-health-of-individuals-receiving-antipsychotic-medication-a-qualitative-inquiry-on-experiences-and-needs
#11
Angela M Cocoman, Mary Casey
Individuals with a mental illness are reported to have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. This inquiry sought to identify the physical health beliefs, experiences and needs of individuals with mental health problems in receipt of antipsychotic medication who live in the community. A qualitative inquiry was undertaken using three focus groups in a community mental health service in Ireland with 21 participants with mental health problems who were treated with antipsychotic medication...
January 15, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333886/anaemia-worsens-early-functional-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-preliminary-study
#12
N Scott Litofsky, Douglas C Miller, Zhenzhou Chen, Agnes Simonyi, Diana Klakotskaia, Andrew Giritharan, Qi Feng, Diane McConnell, Jiankun Cui, Zezong Gu
OBJECTIVE: To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. HYPOTHESIS: Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. METHODS: CCI was induced with electromagnetic impaction in four groups of C57BL/6J mice: sham, sham+anaemia; TBI; and TBI+anaemia. Anaemia was created by withdrawal of 30% of calculated intravascular blood volume and saline replacement of equal volume...
January 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333743/dyadic-coping-and-marital-adjustment-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study-of-italian-couples-expecting-their-first-child
#13
Sara Molgora, Chiara Acquati, Valentina Fenaroli, Emanuela Saita
Although the transition to parenthood is currently defined as a normative event, it can be potentially stressful for the couple relationship as it may contribute to psychological distress and reduced marital satisfaction. Using the systemic-transactional conceptualisation of stress and coping as a theoretical framework, we claimed that the ability of the parents-to-be to adjust to their new roles and identity is influenced by dyadic coping strategies. This study examined the effects of dyadic coping on marital adjustment in a sample of 78 primiparous couples...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333730/day-to-day-mastery-and-self-efficacy-changes-during-a-smoking-quit-attempt-two-studies
#14
Lisa M Warner, Gertraud Stadler, Janina Lüscher, Nina Knoll, Sibylle Ochsner, Rainer Hornung, Urte Scholz
OBJECTIVE: In social-cognitive theory, it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design. DESIGN: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention)...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333681/myotropic-activity-and-immuno-localization-of-selected-neuropeptides-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-coleoptera-silphidae
#15
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333660/interventions-to-increase-attendance-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#16
REVIEW
John G Lawrenson, Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jennifer Burr, Catey Bunce, Jillian J Francis, Patricia Aluko, Stephen Rice, Luke Vale, Tunde Peto, Justin Presseau, Noah Ivers, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) in reducing the risk of sight loss, attendance for screening is consistently below recommended levels. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions that seek to increase attendance for DRS in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Secondary objectives were:To use validated taxonomies of QI intervention strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to code the description of interventions in the included studies and determine whether interventions that include particular QI strategies or component BCTs are more effective in increasing screening attendance;To explore heterogeneity in effect size within and between studies to identify potential explanatory factors for variability in effect size;To explore differential effects in subgroups to provide information on how equity of screening attendance could be improved;To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, costs and cost effectiveness...
January 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333613/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-clinical-use-of-trazodone-and-its-active-metabolite-m-chlorophenylpiperazine-in-the-horse
#17
J L Davis, J Schirmer, E Medlin
Trazodone is a serotonin receptor antagonist and reuptake inhibitor used extensively as an anxiolytic in human and small animal veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetics of oral trazodone in experimental horses and to evaluate the effect of oral trazodone in clinical horses. Six experimental horses were administered trazodone at 7.5 or 10 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations of trazodone and its metabolite (m-CPP) were determined via UPLC-MS/MS. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis, sedation and ataxia scores were determined...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333542/acceleration-of-bursty-multiprotein-target-search-kinetics-on-dna-by-colocalisation
#18
Prathitha Kar, Andrey G Cherstvy, Ralf Metzler
Proteins are capable of locating specific targets on DNA by employing a facilitated diffusion process with intermittent 1D and 3D search steps. Gene colocalisation and coregulation-i.e. the spatial proximity of two communicating genes-is one factor capable of accelerating the target search process along the DNA. We perform Monte Carlo computer simulations and demonstrate the benefits of gene colocalisation for minimising the search time in a model DNA-protein system. We use a simple diffusion model to mimic the search for targets by proteins, produced initially in bursts of multiple proteins and performing the first-passage search on the DNA chain...
January 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333493/a-quality-improvement-project-aimed-at-adapting-primary-care-to-ensure-the-delivery-of-evidence-based-psychotherapy-for-adult-anxiety
#19
Mark D Williams, Craig N Sawchuk, Nathan D Shippee, Kristin J Somers, Summer L Berg, Jay D Mitchell, Angela B Mattson, David J Katzelnick
Primary care patients frequently present with anxiety with prevalence ratios up to 30%. Brief cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown in meta-analytic studies to have a strong effect size in the treatment of anxiety. However, in surveys of anxious primary care patients, nearly 80% indicated that they had not received CBT. In 2010, a model of CBT (Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM)) adapted to primary care for adult anxiety was published based on results of a randomised controlled trial...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333196/brief-report-reduced-anxiety-following-pivotal-response-treatment-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Jiedi Lei, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Megan L Braconnier, Pamela Ventola
Up to 40% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit co-occurring anxiety symptoms. Despite recent success in mitigating anxiety symptoms in school-aged children with ASD (mean age >9 years) using adapted versions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, little is known about potential treatment outcomes for younger children. To address the gap in the literature, this open-label study evaluated change in anxiety following a 16-week open-label trial of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) in children with ASD aged 4-8 years...
November 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
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