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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156647/effects-of-nutritional-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-infant-and-child-cognitive-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Rachael M Taylor, Shanna M Fealy, Alessandra Bisquera, Roger Smith, Clare E Collins, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Alexis J Hure
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156435/more-than-a-to-b-understanding-and-managing-visitor-spatial-behaviour-in-urban-forests-using-public-participation-gis
#2
Silviya Korpilo, Tarmo Virtanen, Tiina Saukkonen, Susanna Lehvävirta
Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156419/segmentation-of-the-hippocampus-by-transferring-algorithmic-knowledge-for-large-cohort-processing
#3
Benjamin Thyreau, Kazunori Sato, Hiroshi Fukuda, Yasuyuki Taki
The hippocampus is a particularly interesting target for neuroscience research studies due to its essential role within the human brain. In large human cohort studies, bilateral hippocampal structures are frequently identified and measured to gain insight into human behaviour or genomic variability in neuropsychiatric disorders of interest. Automatic segmentation is performed using various algorithms, with FreeSurfer being a popular option. In this manuscript, we present a method to segment the bilateral hippocampus using a deep-learned appearance model...
November 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156400/-i-have-it-just-in-case-naloxone-access-and-changes-in-opioid-use-behaviours
#4
Sarah Cercone Heavey, Yu-Ping Chang, Bonnie M Vest, R Lorraine Collins, William Wieczorek, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: The past decade has seen over a four-fold increase in deaths from opioid overdose in the United States. To address this growing epidemic, many localities initiated policies to expand access to naloxone (a drug that reverses the effects of opioids); however, little is known how naloxone access affects opioid use behaviours. METHODS: The present qualitative study used semi-structured, in-depth interviews with inpatients at a substance use treatment centre...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156388/the-relationship-of-parental-expressed-emotion-to-co-occurring-psychopathology-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Marina Romero-Gonzalez, Susie Chandler, Emily Simonoff
Expressed emotion is a construct of the affective relationship between two people, with domains measuring criticism, hostility, warmth, relationship and emotional over-involvement. This review focuses on studies of Expressed Emotion in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and its association with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. A systematic search used the Psych-Info and Medline databases to identify articles available at or before September 2016. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria...
November 17, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156367/action-strategies-for-walking-through-multiple-misaligned-apertures
#6
Amy L Hackney, Michael E Cinelli, James S Frank
When avoiding obstacles, path selection is thought to be determined by the attraction of the end-goal. However for aperture crossing, it is unclear whether the attraction point originates in the center of the aperture or at the end-goal, as previous experiments align the aperture with the end-goal. The purpose of the current study was to decipher the possible location of the attraction point, by evaluating crossing behaviour for multiple, misaligned apertures. Participants were instructed to walk through three separate apertures while en route to an end-goal...
November 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156295/components-of-schizophrenia-liability-are-not-uniformly-associated-with-stress-sensitivity-resilience-and-coping
#7
Christian Ruzibiza, Rebecca E Grattan, Rebekah Eder, Richard J Linscott
Stress sensitization is a candidate final common pathway for the development of schizophrenia. In other psychopathologies, resilience attenuates the stressor-outcome relationships. Therefore, we sought to determine whether resilience moderates the association between stress sensitivity and schizophrenia liability. Undergraduates (n = 230) self-reported cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganisation attributes of schizophrenia liability as well as ratings of sensitivity to stress, resilience, and dispositional coping behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156246/the-activation-of-shame-following-dissociation-in-the-context-of-relationships-a-vignette-study
#8
Kate McKeogh, Martin J Dorahy, Kumar Yogeeswaran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies show experiences of negative affective states, such as shame, elevate dissociation. Using vignettes, this study aimed to investigate the reverse, whether experiences of dissociation in the context of varied interpersonal relationships elevate shame. METHODS: 269 adults completed online questionnaires (Dissociative Experiences Scale; Experiences of Shame Scale) and were randomly allocated to vignettes describing either dissociation or sadness in three different relationship contexts: (1) with an acquaintance, (2) with a close friend, or (3) when alone...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155959/the-discovery-potential-of-rna-processing-profiles
#9
Amadís Pagès, Ivan Dotu, Joan Pallarès-Albanell, Eulàlia Martí, Roderic Guigó, Eduardo Eyras
Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are highly abundant molecules that regulate essential cellular processes and are classified according to sequence and structure. Here we argue that read profiles from size-selected RNA sequencing capture the post-transcriptional processing specific to each RNA family, thereby providing functional information independently of sequence and structure. We developed SeRPeNT, a new computational method that exploits reproducibility across replicates and uses dynamic time-warping and density-based clustering algorithms to identify, characterize and compare sncRNAs by harnessing the power of read profiles...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155855/iron-status-and-anaemia-in-sri-lankan-secondary-school-children-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Angela Allen, Stephen Allen, Rexan Rodrigo, Lakshman Perera, Wei Shao, Chao Li, Duolao Wang, Nancy Olivieri, David J Weatherall, Anuja Premawardhena
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency, the most common micronutrient disorder and cause of anaemia globally, impairs growth, cognition, behaviour and resistance to infection. METHODS/RESULTS: As part of a national survey of inherited haemoglobin variants in 7526 students from 72 secondary schools purposefully selected from the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, we studied 5912 students with a normal haemoglobin genotype. Median age was 16.0 (IQR 15.0-17.0) years and 3189 (53.9%) students were males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155839/performance-of-thigh-mounted-triaxial-accelerometer-algorithms-in-objective-quantification-of-sedentary-behaviour-and-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#11
Jorgen A Wullems, Sabine M P Verschueren, Hans Degens, Christopher I Morse, Gladys L Onambélé
Accurate monitoring of sedentary behaviour and physical activity is key to investigate their exact role in healthy ageing. To date, accelerometers using cut-off point models are most preferred for this, however, machine learning seems a highly promising future alternative. Hence, the current study compared between cut-off point and machine learning algorithms, for optimal quantification of sedentary behaviour and physical activity intensities in the elderly. Thus, in a heterogeneous sample of forty participants (aged ≥60 years, 50% female) energy expenditure during laboratory-based activities (ranging from sedentary behaviour through to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) was estimated by indirect calorimetry, whilst wearing triaxial thigh-mounted accelerometers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155712/minimum-burning-pressures-of-water-based-emulsion-explosives
#12
Richard Turcotte, Christopher M Badeen, Sandra Goldthorp
This manuscript describes a protocol to measure the minimum pressure required for sustained burning of water-based emulsion explosives. Pumping water-based emulsion explosives for blasting applications can be very hazardous, as demonstrated by a number of pump accidents around the globe in the last decades, including some that resulted in fatalities. In Canada, the recognition of this hazard has led to the development of pumping guidelines that were endorsed by both the explosives industry and the Explosive Regulatory Division of the Canadian government...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155604/modelling-evolutionary-algorithms-with-stochastic-differential-equations
#13
Jorge Pérez Heredia
There has been renewed interest in modelling the behaviour of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) by more traditional mathematical objects, such as ordinary differential equations or Markov chains. The advantage is that the analysis becomes greatly facilitated due to the existence of well established methods. However, this typically comes at the cost of disregarding information about the process. Here, we introduce the use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the study of EAs. SDEs can produce simple analytical results for the dynamics of stochastic processes, unlike Markov chains which can produce rigorous but unwieldy expressions about the dynamics...
November 20, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155467/synthesis-characterisation-and-reactions-of-truly-cationic-ni-i-phosphine-complexes
#14
Ingo Krossing, Miriam Mareen Schwab, Daniel Himmel, Sylwia Kacprzak, Valentin Radtke, Daniel Kratzert, Philippe Weis, Melanie Wernet, Andreas Peter, Zeinab Yassine, Dominik Schmitz, Ernst-Wilhelm Scheidt, Wolfgang Scherer, Stefan Weber, Wolfram Feuerstein, Frank Breher, Alexander Higelin
The recently published purely metalorganic NiI salt [Ni(cod)2][Al(ORF)4] (1, cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, RF = C(CF3)3) provides a starting point for a new synthesis strategy leading to NiI phosphine complexes, replacing cod ligands by phosphines. Clearly visible colour changes indicate reactions within minutes, while quantum chemical calculations (PBE0-D3(BJ)/def2-TZVPP) approve exergonic reaction enthalpies in all performed ligand exchange reactions. Hence, [Ni(dppp)2][Al(ORF)4] (2, dppp = 1,3-Bis(diphenylphosphino)propane), [Ni(dppe)2][Al(ORF)4] (3, dppe = 1,3-Bis(diphenyl-phosphino)ethane), three-coordinate [Ni(PPh3)3][Al(ORF)4] (4) and a remarkable two-coordinate NiI phosphine complex [Ni(PtBu3)2][Al(ORF)4] (5) were characterised via single crystal X-ray structure analysis...
November 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155457/impact-of-the-substituent-variation-on-the-presence-of-thermal-spin-crossover-in-the-series-of-mononuclear-iron-iii-schiff-base-complexes-with-terminal-pseudohalido-coligands
#15
Ivan Salitros, Lukáš Pogány, Barbora Brachňaková, Jan Moncol, Jan Pavlik, Ivan Nemec, Zdeněk Trávniček, Milan Mazúr, Lukáš Bučinský, Ľubomír Suchánek
A series of novel iron(III) complexes of the general formula [Fe(L)X] (where L stands for a dianion of pentadentate Schiff base ligand N,N'-bis((2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)phenyl)methylidene-1,6-diamino-3-azapentane=H2L1 for 1 and 2; N,N'-bis((2-hydroxy-3-ethoxyphenyl)methylidene)-1,6-diamino-3-azapentane=H2L2 for 3 and 3·C3H6O) and X is terminal pseudohalido ligand (X=N3 for 1, X=NCS for 2, and X=NCSe for 3 and 3·C3H6O) has been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. Magnetic measurements revealed the above room temperature spin crossover for isomorphic complexes 1 and 2 (T1/2 = 441 K and T1/2 = 435 K, respectively), while the solvent-free complex 3 showed a half complete spin crossover (T1/2 = 250 K), which was detected by a variable temperature crystallography as well...
November 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155308/play-and-optimal-welfare-does-play-behaviour-indicate-the-presence-of-positive-affective-states
#16
Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Julia Espinosa, Georgia Mason
Play is commonly used to assess affective states in both humans and non-human animals. Play appears to be most common when animals are well-fed and not under any direct threats to fitness. Could play and playfulness therefore indicate pre-existing positive emotions, and thence optimal animal welfare? We examine this question by surveying the internal and external conditions that promote or suppress play in a variety of species, starting with humans. We find that negative affective states and poor welfare usually do suppress play (although there are notable exceptions where the opposite occurs)...
November 16, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155248/a-biphasic-reduction-in-a-measure-of-palatability-following-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#17
Jasmin A Strickland, Joseph M Austen, David J Sanderson
Consumption of foods results in a transient reduction in hedonic value that influences the extent and nature of feeding behavior. The time course of this effect, however, is poorly specified. In an initial experiment, using an analysis of the microstructure of licking in mice we found that consumption of sucrose led to a rapid reduction in lick cluster size, a measure of palatability, which recovered after ten minutes, but reemerged 60min after initial consumption. We then replicated the finding that lick cluster size is reduced after 60min, but not 10min, under conditions in which a number of potential behavioural confounds were removed...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155230/the-association-of-monoamine-related-gene-polymorphisms-with-behavioural-correlates-of-response-inhibition-a-meta-analytic-review
#18
REVIEW
Irene Rincón-Pérez, Alberto J Sánchez-Carmona, Jacobo Albert, José A Hinojosa
Response inhibition has been shown to be associated with monoamine-related gene polymorphisms, although evidence is inconclusive. To comprehensively examine these genotype effects on behavioural correlates of response inhibition in non-clinical adult populations, we performed a two-step approach. A systematic review of studies using Go/No-Go and/or Stop-Signal paradigms was first carried out. Thirty-eight eligible research articles were identified, which examined over 15 candidate genes. Remarkably, no firm conclusions could be drawn from these studies...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155172/navigating-motherhood-and-maternal-transitional-infant-feeding-learnings-for-health-professionals
#19
Michelle Harrison, Julie Hepworth, Wendy Brodribb
Given the lifelong associations between infant diet and weight, understanding maternal transitional infant feeding decisions can assist efforts to establish healthy eating habits early in life. Feeding experiences were explored using semi-structured interviews with 15 first-time mothers who were selected based on their concerns about their infants' weight in an infant feeding survey. Thematic synthesis of the interview transcripts identified three main themes: Theme 1. Expectations of a "responsible mother", (2) Trusting oneself and trust in others, and (3) From stress to successful feeding...
November 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155155/green-carboxymethyl-cellulose-silver-complex-versus-cellulose-origins-in-biological-activity-applications
#20
Altaf H Basta, Houssni El-Saied, Mohamed S Hasanin, Mervat M El-Deftar
This article deals with evaluating the role of cellulose origin, from wood and non-wood, on preparing green CMC-Ag complex as biological active agent. Viscose pulp as well as bagasse and rice straw pulps were used in preparation of CMCs, followed by complexation with AgNO3. The complex structure (free-Ag, IR-spectra and TGA), morphology (TEM), antibiological and anti-tumor activities were studied. The data revealed that, the main interaction between CMC and silver is occurred via carboxylate groups and ether link of 1ry alcohol, with formation stable 5-membered ring structure...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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