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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750342/the-role-of-public-and-private-natural-space-in-children-s-social-emotional-and-behavioural-development-in-scotland-a-longitudinal-study
#1
Elizabeth A Richardson, Jamie Pearce, Niamh K Shortt, Richard Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: Poor mental health in childhood has implications for health and wellbeing in later life. Natural space may benefit children's social, emotional and behavioural development. We investigated whether neighbourhood natural space and private garden access were related to children's developmental change over time. We asked whether relationships differed between boys and girls, or by household educational status. METHODS: We analysed longitudinal data for 2909 urban-dwelling children (aged 4 at 2008/9 baseline) from the Growing Up in Scotland (GUS) survey...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750238/highly-reversible-lithium-storage-in-cobalt-2-5-dioxido-1-4-benzenedicarboxylate-metal-organic-frameworks-boosted-by-pseudocapacitance
#2
Yuxing Liao, Chao Li, Xiaobing Lou, Peng Wang, Qi Yang, Ming Shen, Bingwen Hu
Exploiting novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as electrode materials with superior rate capabilities and understanding their electrochemical behaviour in detail are crucial for boosting the application of MOFs in the field of energy storage. Herein, we prepared Co2(DOBDC) (DOBDC=2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) via a hydrothermal method and explored its electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared Co2(DOBDC) MOF exhibits a reversible capacity of 526.1mAhg(-1) after 200 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 500mAg(-1) and also demonstrates an impressive rate capability, with a high capacity of 408...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750231/settlement-patterns-of-the-coral-acropora-millepora-on-sediment-laden-surfaces
#3
Gerard F Ricardo, Ross J Jones, Mikaela Nordborg, Andrew P Negri
Successful recruitment in corals is important for the sustenance of coral reefs, and is considered a demographic bottleneck in the recovery of reef populations following disturbance events. Yet several factors influence larval settlement behaviour, and here we quantified thresholds associated with light attenuation and accumulated sediments on settlement substrates. Sediments deposited on calcareous red algae (CRA) directly and indirectly impacted coral settlement patterns. Although not avoiding direct contact, Acropora millepora larvae were very reluctant to settle on surfaces layered with sediments, progressively shifting their settlement preference from upward to downward facing (sediment-free) surfaces under increasing levels of deposited sediment...
July 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750178/modifying-an-evidence-based-lifestyle-programme-for-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Simon Driver, Megan Reynolds, Kaye Kramer
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at a risk of obesity-related chronic diseases; yet, no evidence-based strategies exist to support weight management in this population. The purpose of this study was to use participatory action research to modify the Diabetes Prevention Program Group Lifestyle Balance (DPP-GLB) programme for overweight/obese people with TBI. The DPP-GLB programme provides education and self-management skills for individuals to reach their lifestyle goals through healthy eating and physical activity...
July 27, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750073/a-preliminary-study-to-estimate-contact-rates-between-free-roaming-domestic-dogs-using-novel-miniature-cameras
#5
Courtenay B Bombara, Salome Dürr, Gabriel E Machovsky-Capuska, Peter W Jones, Michael P Ward
Information on contacts between individuals within a population is crucial to inform disease control strategies, via parameterisation of disease spread models. In this study we investigated the use of dog-borne video cameras-in conjunction with global positioning systems (GPS) loggers-to both characterise dog-to-dog contacts and to estimate contact rates. We customized miniaturised video cameras, enclosed within 3D-printed plastic cases, and attached these to nylon dog collars. Using two 3400 mAh NCR lithium Li-ion batteries, cameras could record a maximum of 22 hr of continuous video footage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750027/differential-metabolic-profiles-associated-to-movement-behaviour-of-stream-resident-brown-trout-salmo-trutta
#6
Neus Oromi, Mariona Jové, Mariona Pascual-Pons, Jose Luis Royo, Rafel Rocaspana, Enric Aparicio, Reinald Pamplona, Antoni Palau, Delfi Sanuy, Joan Fibla, Manuel Portero-Otin
The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta), in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain). The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749933/participation-of-women-and-children-in-hunting-activities-in-sierra-leone-and-implications-for-control-of-zoonotic-infections
#7
Jesse Bonwitt, Martin Kandeh, Michael Dawson, Rashid Ansumana, Foday Sahr, Ann H Kelly, Hannah Brown
The emergence of infectious diseases of zoonotic origin highlights the need to understand social practices at the animal-human interface. This study provides a qualitative account of interactions between humans and wild animals in predominantly Mende villages of southern Sierra Leone. We conducted fieldwork over 4 months including participant and direct observations, semi-structured interviews (n = 47), spontaneously occurring focus group discussions (n = 12), school essays and informal interviews to describe behaviours that may serve as pathways for zoonotic infection...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749696/the-influence-of-physiological-gastrointestinal-surfactant-ratio-on-the-equilibrium-solubility-of-bcs-class-ii-drugs-investigated-using-a-four-component-mixture-design
#8
Zhou Zhou, Claire Dunn, Ibrahim Khadra, Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert
The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs is influenced by the luminal gastrointestinal fluid content and composition which controls solubility. Simulated intestinal fluids have been introduced into dissolution testing including endogenous amphiphiles and digested lipids at physiological levels; however, in vivo individual variation exists in the concentrations of these components, which will alter drug absorption through an effect on solubility. The use of a factorial design of experiment and varying media by introducing different levels of bile, lecithin and digested lipids has been previously reported, but here we investigate the solubility variation of poorly-soluble drugs through more complex biorelevant amphiphile interactions...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749589/precisely-assembled-cyclic-gold-nanoparticle-frames-via-2d-polymer-single-crystal-templating
#9
Christopher Yuren Li, Shan Mei, Hao Qi, Tian Zhou
In recent decades, extensive studies have been devoted to assembling nanoparticles (NPs) into various ordered structures to achieve novel optical properties. It however still remains a challenging task to assemble NPs into cyclic one-dimensional (1D) shapes such as rings and frames. In this work, we report a directed assembly method to precisely assemble NPs into well-defined, free-standing frames using polymer single crystals (PSCs) as the template. Preformed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) single crystals were used as the template to direct the crystallization of block copolymer (BCP) poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PEO-b-P4VP), which directed gold NPs (AuNPs) to form AuNP frames...
July 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749572/new-zealand-adolescents-discouragement-of-smoking-among-their-peers
#10
Louise Marsh, Ella Iosua, Rob McGee, Joanna White
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the extent to which young people are acting as 'agents of change' in discouraging smoking among their peers. METHODS: This study used data from a survey of 2,919 New Zealand secondary school students who participated in the 2014 national Youth In-depth Survey. Relevant questions were used to assess the extent to which students engaged in behaviours to discourage or promote smoking among their peers. RESULTS: About half of all students reported some form of behaviour discouraging others from smoking, while only one in ten reported encouraging smoking...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749562/school-based-systems-change-for-obesity-prevention-in-adolescents-outcomes-of-the-australian-capital-territory-it-s-your-move
#11
Mary Malakellis, Erin Hoare, Andrew Sanigorski, Nicholas Crooks, Steven Allender, Melanie Nichols, Boyd Swinburn, Cal Chikwendu, Paul M Kelly, Solveig Petersen, Lynne Millar
OBJECTIVE: The Australian Capital Territory 'It's Your Move!' (ACT-IYM) was a three-year (2012-2014) systems intervention to prevent obesity among adolescents. METHODS: The ACT-IYM project involved three intervention schools and three comparison schools and targeted secondary students aged 12-16 years. The intervention consisted of multiple initiatives at individual, community, and school policy level to support healthier nutrition and physical activity. Intervention school-specific objectives related to increasing active transport, increasing time spent physically active at school, and supporting mental wellbeing...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749540/declining-prevalence-of-undiagnosed-hiv-in-melbourne-results-from-community-based-bio-behavioural-studies-of-gay-and-bisexual-men
#12
Mark Stoové, Jason Asselin, Alisa Pedrana, Toby Lea, Margaret Hellard, David Wilson, Garrett Prestage, John de Wit, Martin Holt
OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in undiagnosed HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Melbourne. METHODS: Undiagnosed HIV was compared between GBM recruited anonymously in 2008 in gay venues only and GBM anonymously or confidentially (results delivery) recruited in 2014 at gay venues and a community festival. Surveys were completed and oral fluid specimens collected for HIV testing; positive tests among GBM reporting being HIV-negative or unknown/untested were classified as undiagnosed...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749232/behavioural-and-cognitive-sex-gender-differences-in-autism-spectrum-condition-and-typically-developing-males-and-females
#13
Laura Hull, William Mandy, K V Petrides
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749083/evidence-of-bone-marrow-downregulation-in-brain-dead-rats
#14
Laura Menegat, Rafael Simas, Julia M Caliman, Fernando L Zanoni, Jacqueline F Jacysyn, Luiz Fernando F da Silva, Primavera Borelli, Luiz Felipe P Moreira, Paulina Sannomiya
Experimental findings support the evidence of a persistent leucopenia triggered by brain death (BD). This study aimed to investigate leucocyte behaviour in bone marrow and blood after BD in rats. BD was induced using intracranial balloon catheter inflation. Sham-operated (SH) rats were trepanned only. Thereafter bone marrow cells were harvested every six hours from the femoral cavity and used for total and differential counts. They were analysed further by flow cytometry to characterize lymphocyte subsets, granulocyte adhesion molecules expression and apoptosis/necrosis [annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) protocol]...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748976/syntheses-structures-and-magnetic-properties-of-the-lanthanide-complexes-of-the-pyrimidyl-substituted-nitronyl-nitroxide-radical
#15
Jian Wang, Hao Miao, Zhao-Xin Xiao, Yan Zhou, Lin-Dan Deng, Yi-Quan Zhang, Xin-Yi Wang
Four 2p-4f Ln(III)-radical complexes, [(NIT-2-Pm)Ln(hfac)3]·0.5C7H16 (NIT-2-Pm = 2-pyrimidyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-1-oxy-3-oxide, hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonato, Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3) and Er (4)), and four 4f-2p-4f Ln(III)-radical-Ln(III) complexes, [(μ-NIT-2-Pm)Ln2(hfac)6(H2O)2]·0.5C7H16 (Ln = Tb (5), Dy (6), Ho (7) and Er (8)) have been synthesized and characterized structurally and magnetically. These compounds can be selectively obtained by controlling the reaction ratio of Ln(hfac)3·2H2O to the radical ligand NIT-2-Pm...
July 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748933/spontaneous-breaking-of-rotational-symmetry-in-copper-oxide-superconductors
#16
J Wu, A T Bollinger, X He, I Božović
The origin of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides and the nature of the 'normal' state above the critical temperature are widely debated. In underdoped copper oxides, this normal state hosts a pseudogap and other anomalous features; and in the overdoped materials, the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer description fails, challenging the idea that the normal state is a simple Fermi liquid. To investigate these questions, we have studied the behaviour of single-crystal La2-xSrxCuO4 films through which an electrical current is being passed...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748930/neuromorphic-computing-with-nanoscale-spintronic-oscillators
#17
Jacob Torrejon, Mathieu Riou, Flavio Abreu Araujo, Sumito Tsunegi, Guru Khalsa, Damien Querlioz, Paolo Bortolotti, Vincent Cros, Kay Yakushiji, Akio Fukushima, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Mark D Stiles, Julie Grollier
Neurons in the brain behave as nonlinear oscillators, which develop rhythmic activity and interact to process information. Taking inspiration from this behaviour to realize high-density, low-power neuromorphic computing will require very large numbers of nanoscale nonlinear oscillators. A simple estimation indicates that to fit 10(8) oscillators organized in a two-dimensional array inside a chip the size of a thumb, the lateral dimension of each oscillator must be smaller than one micrometre. However, nanoscale devices tend to be noisy and to lack the stability that is required to process data in a reliable way...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748774/exposure-to-parental-psychopathology-and-offspring-s-risk-of-suicide-related-thoughts-and-behaviours-a-systematic-review
#18
S M Goodday, J Shuldiner, S Bondy, A E Rhodes
AIMS: The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise analytic studies examining the association between exposure to parental psychopathology in childhood and the nature of subsequent suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and suicide-related behaviour (SRB) (severity of ideation, planned/unplanned attempts/lethality) and to describe the direction, and magnitude of associations. The secondary objective was to determine if the associations from the primary objective differ by the type(s) and timing of parental psychopathology, sex/gender of the parent and child and is mediated by child psychiatric symptoms and family functioning...
July 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748749/spyridon-magginas-1839-1920-and-one-of-the-first-successful-radical-nephrectomies
#19
Antonis A Kousoulis, Gregory Tsoucalas
Spyridon Magginas was among the Greek doctors of the turn of the century who trained abroad with the hope of returning to their native country to offer their services. He became a professor in the "Othonion University" of Athens to promote surgery among young physicians. He was raised in an upper social class family and, reportedly, had an arrogant behaviour, which occasionally led him to have ineffective patient interactions. His patient, and an important Greek writer, Emmanuel Rhoides, nicknamed him the "surgeon beast" for neglecting his case...
July 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748704/understanding-the-experiences-of-married-southern-african-women-in-protecting-themselves-from-hiv-aids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis
#20
Tabeth Timba-Emmanuel, Thilo Kroll, Mary J Renfrew, Steve MacGillivray
BACKGROUND: Whilst marriage has been repeatedly identified in the literature as an HIV risk factor amongst Southern African women, not much is known about women's perception of their role, experiences and strategies used to address HIV risks in the context of a marriage. AIMS: The aim of the study was to synthesise perceptions, experiences and strategies of married Southern African women in the prevention of HIV. METHODS: A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted...
July 27, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
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