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Sex difference

A Gupta, M Aslam, S Rathi, B K Mishra, S Bhardwaj, R Jhamb, S V Madhu
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India are non-obese. Asian-Indian subjects with diabetes have been shown to have low vitamin D levels. Whether low vitamin D levels and T2DM in Asian-Indians is attributable to the associated obesity as in caucasians is unclear. Hence we studied the association of vitamin D levels and T2DM in Asian-Indians with or without obesity. METHODS: Total of 213 subjects were recruited in four groups, group 1-Non-obese diabetic, group 2-Non-obese non-diabetic, group 3-Obese diabetic and group 4-Obese non-diabetic...
March 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Celine Guidoux, Jean-Jacques Hauw, Isabelle F Klein, Julien Labreuche, Claudine Berr, Charles Duyckaerts, Pierre Amarenco
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) include hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The objective of this study was to determine the autopsy prevalence of CAA and the potential overlap with other risk factors among patients who died from ICH and also the correlation of CAA with cerebral microbleeds. METHODS: We analyzed 81 consecutive autopsy brains from patients with ICH. Staining for CAA detection was performed. We used an age- and sex-matched control group of routine brain autopsies of nonneurological patients to determine the frequencies of CAA and hypertension...
March 20, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
Chandra L Jackson, Symielle A Gaston, Rui Liu, Kenneth Mukamal, Eric B Rimm
In the United States, racial minorities generally experience poorer cardiovascular health compared to whites, and differences in alcohol consumption and sleep could contribute to these disparities. With a nationally representative sample of 187,950 adults in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004 to 2015, we examined the relationship between alcohol-drinking patterns and sleep duration/quality by race and sex. Using Poisson regression models with robust variance, we estimated sex-specific prevalence ratios for each sleep duration/quality category among blacks compared to whites within categories of alcohol-drinking pattern, adjusting for socioeconomic status and other potential confounders...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Gerard K Nguyen, Vincent M Mellnick, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Amber Salter, Joseph E Ippolito
Purpose To determine if sex differences in abdominal visceral fat composition, measured by using computed tomography (CT), and tumor glucose metabolism, measured by gene expression, can help predict outcomes in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 222 patients with clear cell RCC from The Cancer Imaging Atlas. By using CT, body fat was segmented into subcutaneous fat and visceral fat areas (VFAs) and normalized to total fat to obtain the relative VFA (rVFA) and relative subcutaneous fat area...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Sarah Landis, Robert Suruki, Joe Maskell, Kerina Bonar, Emma Hilton, Chris Compton
Blood eosinophil count may be a useful biomarker for predicting response to inhaled corticosteroids and exacerbation risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The optimal cut point for categorizing blood eosinophil counts in these contexts remains unclear. We aimed to determine the distribution of blood eosinophil count in COPD patients and matched non-COPD controls, and to describe demographic and clinical characteristics at different cut points. We identified COPD patients within the UK Clinical Practice Research Database aged ≥40 years with a FEV1 /FVC <0...
March 20, 2018: COPD
Jing Wang, Mingshui Fu, Kun Liu, Ning Wang, Zhihua Zhang, Minwen Zhou, Xun Xu
PURPOSE: To quantify levels of matricellular proteins in aqueous humor samples from acute primary angle closure (APAC) and non-glaucomatous cataract eyes and investigate their correlation with intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous humor samples were collected from 63 eyes including 29 current APAC eyes, 12 previous APAC eyes, and 22 cataract eyes. Concentrations of four main matricellular proteins (SPARC, tenascin-C, thrombospondin-2, and osteopontin) were measured using multiplexed immunoassay kits...
March 20, 2018: Current Eye Research
Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Emily Shava, Lauren E Lipira, Geetha G Beauchamp, Deborah J Donnell, Shahin Lockman, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the role of opiate dependency treatment in risky sexual behavior could help optimize interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether long-term medication-assisted treatment (LT-MAT) of opiate dependency with buprenorphine/naloxone influenced risky sexual behavior among HIV-uninfected PWID and identified predictors of risky sexual behavior. METHODS: We used data from HPTN058, a randomized controlled trial of LT-MAT vs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Edilberto Díaz Bonilla, Claudia L Torres Galvis, Rossana Gómez Campos, Miguel de Arruda, Jaime Pacheco Carrillo, Marco Cossio Bolaños
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing concern over the study of physical growth in different regions of the world, although altitude is not considered an adjustment factor. OBJECTIVES: Compare physical growth variables and body mass index (BMI) patterns with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2012 reference data and develop percentiles for children and adolescents. METHODOLOGY: School children living at moderate altitude in Bogotá (Colombia) were studied...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Gonzalo Agüero, Soledad Salmain, Belén Manzur, Enrique Berner
INTRODUCTION: The most common painful syndromes (headache, abdominal pain and musculoskeletal pain) develop or worsen during adolescence and are a common reason for consultation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association of age, sex, obesity, pubertal development, schooling level, employment and family structure with consultation for pain in adolescents. POPULATION AND METHODS: Case-control study conducted between February 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2015...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Y H Lee, G G Song
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the all-cause and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: We surveyed studies examining all-cause and/or cause-specific SMRs in patients with GCA compared to the general population, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and manual searches. We then performed a meta-analysis of all-cause, sex-specific, region-specific, and cause-specific SMRs in patients with GCA...
March 20, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Suresh Mohan, Neil Bhattacharyya
Objectives To recognize current opioid prescription patterns in otolaryngology and determine changes in rates of outpatient opioid prescribing over time. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of national survey database. Setting Ambulatory care settings in the United States. Subjects and Methods The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2006 to 2013 was analyzed for outpatient otolaryngology visits. The rate of opioid medication prescribing was determined with patient and visit characteristics associated with an opioid prescription, including corresponding diagnoses...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Thijs T Wingelaar, Paul Clarijs, Pieter-Jan Am van Ooij, Dave Aa Koch, Rob A van Hulst
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is an important part of dive medical examinations. Depending on the standard used to assess fitness to dive, different reference sets and fixed cut-off points are used. Reference values are part of an ongoing debate regarding the validity and accuracy related to different age groups, sex and ethnic backgrounds. The Global Lung Initiative (GLI) has provided an all-age reference set which corrects for sex and ethnicity (GLI-2012); this has had substantial impact on pulmonary medicine...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Petter Bjornstad, David Z Cherney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Compared to adult-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D), youth with T2D have a more aggressive phenotype with greater insulin resistance (IR), more rapid β cell decline, and higher prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Hyperfiltration is common in youth with T2D and predicts progressive DKD. Hyperfiltration is a consequence of early changes in intrarenal hemodynamic function, including increased renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular pressure...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Fernanda Nunes, Daniela Pochmann, Amanda Staldoni Almeida, Daniela Melo Marques, Lisiane de Oliveira Porciúncula
Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ida Robertsen, Jean Debord, Anders Åsberg, Pierre Marquet, Jean-Baptiste Woillard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intracellular exposure of everolimus may be a better marker of therapeutic effect than trough whole blood concentrations. We aimed to develop pharmacokinetic population models and Bayesian estimators based on a limited sampling strategy for estimation of dose interval exposures of everolimus in whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Full whole blood and PBMC concentration-time profiles of everolimus were obtained from 12 stable renal transplant recipients on two different occasions, 4 weeks apart...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Laura Vandenbosch, Johanna M F van Oosten
Despite increasing interest in the implications of adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM), we still know little about the relationship between SEIM use and adolescents' casual sexual activities. Based on a three-wave online panel survey study among Dutch adolescents (N = 1079; 53.1% boys; 93.5% with an exclusively heterosexual orientation; Mage  = 15.11; SD = 1.39), we found that watching SEIM predicted engagement in casual sex over time. In turn, casual sexual activities partially predicted adolescents' use of SEIM...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Tyrel J Starks, Jeffrey T Parsons
The Young Men's Health Project (YMHP) has shown efficacy in reducing drug use and condomless anal sex (CAS) with casual partners among young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (YGBMSM). The study examined whether relationship status at the time of intervention predicted response to YMHP by comparing baseline (pre-intervention) and follow-up (3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-intervention) data from the original trial. A group of 13 partnered YGBMSM who received YMHP was compared to a matched subsample of single YGBMSM...
March 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
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