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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145626/twelve-month-outcomes-of-a-group-randomized-community-health-advocate-led-smoking-cessation-intervention-in-public-housing
#1
Daniel R Brooks, Joanna L Burtner, Belinda Borrelli, Timothy C Heeren, Tegan Evans, Jessica A Davine, Jonathan Greenbaum, Matthew Scarpaci, John Kane, Vaughan W Rees, Alan C Geller
Background: Lower rates of smoking cessation are a major reason for the higher prevalence of smoking among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults. Because barriers to quitting are both more numerous and severe, socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers may benefit from more intensive intervention. We sought to determine whether a smoking cessation intervention delivered by public housing residents trained as Tobacco Treatment Advocates (TTAs) could increase utilization of cessation resources and increase abstinence...
November 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145588/the-perspectives-of-pre-frail-and-frail-older-people-on-being-advised-about-exercise-a-qualitative-study
#2
Agathe Daria Jadczak, Joanne Dollard, Neha Mahajan, Renuka Visvanathan
Background: Exercise is considered to be the most effective strategy to treat, prevent and delay frailty, a prevalent geriatric syndrome observed in clinical practice. Encouraging frail older people to take up exercise is crucial in the management of this condition. The study aimed to explore pre-frail and frail older peoples' perspectives in relation to being advised about exercise and their perceptions of the general practitioners' (GPs) role in promoting exercise for older people. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 community-dwelling older (median age 83 years) participants screened pre-frail or frail using the FRAIL Screen...
November 14, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#3
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145207/determinants-prevalence-and-trajectory-of-long-term-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-results-from-a-4-year-follow-up-of-the-auckland-stroke-regional-outcomes-study-iv-study
#4
Susan Mahon, Priya Parmar, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Rita Krishnamurthi, Kelly Jones, Alice Theadom, Valery Feigin
BACKGROUND: The long-term (>12 months) prevalence, predictors, and trajectory of post-stroke cognitive deficits are not well established, especially at a community level. This study investigated the longitudinal course and prevalence of cognitive impairment in an incidence cohort, identifying factors associated with declining cognition. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-seven participants (mean age = 67.93 ± 13.59) of first-ever stroke survivors, completed cognitive assessments within 2 weeks post stroke, and/or 1, 6, 12, and 48-month...
November 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145079/microbial-transcript-and-metabolome-analysis-uncover-discrepant-metabolic-pathways-in-autotrophic-and-mixotrophic-anammox-consortia
#5
Ying Feng, Yunpeng Zhao, Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu
The ability of anammox bacteria to utilize organic matter has drawn extensive attention. However, the metabolic discrepancies between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia need to be further explored. Here, microbial transcript and metabolomic analysis were conducted for the samples harvested in the reactors and batch assays to investigate the phenotype discrepancies and intrinsic causes in autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia. Results showed that metabolically active community structures did not show significant difference between autotrophic and mixotrophic anammox consortia (C/N = 0...
October 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144787/lessons-learned-from-a-food-environment-intervention-study-recruitment-and-retention-of-participants-in-disadvantaged-urban-inner-city-neighborhoods
#6
Rachel Engler-Stringer, Joelle Schaefer, Tracy Ridalls, Nazeem Muhajarine
Growing health inequities have led to calls for population health intervention research that can contribute to improving the health of marginalized populations, but conducting research with these communities can be challenging. When research aims to examine and understand an aspect of health in a population characterized as hard-to-reach or marginalized, recruitment techniques appear to have a significant impact on participation and sample retention in longitudinal studies. We examine and comment on the recruitment and retention techniques used in the Good Food, Healthy Families study conducted in low-income, inner-city neighborhoods in a midsized Canadian city; we hope that this will inform recruitment and retention approaches for population health intervention studies in similar populations...
November 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144186/-the-whole-is-greater-than-the-sum-of-the-parts-prison-staff-perceptions-of-domestic-violence-rehabilitation-programs
#7
Efrat Shoham, Anat Zelig, Badi Hasisi, David Weisburd, Noam Haviv
This qualitative study is part of a mixed methods research project that examined the effectiveness of the primary rehabilitation program for domestic violence offenders in the Israeli Prison Services-the "House of Hope." The quantitative part of the study showed that the "House of Hope" program was effective in reducing recidivism among participating inmates. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the rehabilitation program according to the perspectives of the program staff. For this purpose, semistructured interviews were conducted with the department staff during the study as well as with past directors...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144172/disruptions-in-sleep-wake-cycles-in-community-dwelling-cancer-patients-receiving-palliative-care-and-their-correlates
#8
Marie Solange Bernatchez, Josée Savard, Hans Ivers
Significant disruptions in sleep-wake cycles have been found in advanced cancer patients in prior research. However, much remains to be known about specific sleep-wake cycle variables that are impaired in patients with a significantly altered performance status. More studies are also needed to explore the extent to which disrupted sleep-wake cycles are related to physical and psychological symptoms, time to death, maladaptive sleep behaviors, quality of life and 24-h light exposure. This study conducted in palliative cancer patients was aimed at characterizing patients' sleep-wake cycles using various circadian parameters (i...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143609/survey-of-programmatic-experiences-and-challenges-in-delivery-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Azumi Ishizaki, Julie Bouscaillou, Niklas Luhmann, Stephanie Liu, Raissa Chua, Nick Walsh, Sarah Hess, Elena Ivanova, Teri Roberts, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: There have been few reports on programmatic experience of viral hepatitis testing and treatment in resource-limited settings. To inform the development of the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) viral hepatitis testing guidance and in particular the feasibility of proposed recommendations, we undertook a survey across a range of organisations engaged with hepatitis testing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our objective was to describe current hepatitis B and C testing practices across a range of settings in different countries, as well as key barriers or challenges encountered and proposed solutions to promote testing scale-up...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143435/risk-factors-for-falls-among-older-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people-in-urban-and-regional-communities
#10
Caroline Lukaszyk, Kylie Radford, Kim Delbaere, Rebecca Ivers, Kris Rogers, Catherine Sherrington, Anne Tiedemann, Julieann Coombes, Gail Daylight, Brian Draper, Tony Broe
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between fall risk factors identified previously in other populations and falls among Aboriginal people aged 60 years and older, living in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with older Aboriginal people in five urban and regional communities. Associations between past falls and 22 fall predictor variables were examined using linear and multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 336 participants, 80 people (24%) reported at least one fall in the past year, and 34 (10%) reported two or more falls...
November 15, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143347/validation-of-a-tool-for-reporting-pharmacists-interventions-in-everyday-community-pharmacy
#11
T H Vo, J-D Bardet, B Charpiat, C Leyrissoux, J Gravoulet, B Allenet, O Conort, P Bedouch
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The French Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SFPC) asked a group of experts to adapt the SFPC hospital pharmacists' interventions reporting tool for use in community pharmacy practice. This study aimed to develop and validate a tool for the routine reporting of pharmacists' interventions in French community settings. METHODS: Two groups of community pharmacists coded reports of 60 typical pharmacists' interventions. One group was "experts" (n = 4) who had participated in the development of the tool (internal validation) and the other were "external" community pharmacists (n = 6), naïve to the tool (external validation)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143156/social-distance-and-community-attitudes-towards-people-with-psycho-social-disabilities-in-uttarakhand-india
#12
K Mathias, M Kermode, I Goicolea, L Seefeldt, R Shidhaye, M San Sebastian
Stigma is an important contributor to the large treatment gap for people with mental and psycho-social disabilities (PPSD) in India. Social distance as assessed by willingness to engage in relationships with PPSD is a proxy measure of stigma and potential discrimination. In North India, investigations of community attitudes towards PPSD have been limited. To describe attitudes towards people with depression and psychosis, a community sample of 960 adults in Dehradun district, India from 30 randomised clusters, was surveyed using a validated tool to assess social distance, beliefs and attitudes related to mental illness...
November 15, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143095/areca-nut-chewing-is-associated-with-common-mental-disorders-a-population-based-study
#13
Tzu-Yu Lin, Huan-Cheng Chang, Kuang-Hung Hsu
INTRODUCTION: Forms of habitual substance use including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have been documented as risk factors of common mental disorders (CMDs). The effects of areca nut chewing on biophysiological tests, metabolic syndromes, and liver function have been reported previously; however, the relationship between areca nut chewing and CMDs remains unclear. This study examined the association between areca nut chewing and CMDs and explored the relationships between areca nut chewing and biophysiological indicators...
November 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142956/hypertension-control-apparent-treatment-resistance-and-outcomes-in-the-elderly-population-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Jean Kaboré, Marie Metzger, Catherine Helmer, Claudine Berr, Christophe Tzourio, Tilman B Drueke, Ziad A Massy, Bénédicte Stengel
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with poor hypertension control and treatment resistance, but whether CKD modifies the effect of hypertension control on outcomes is unknown. Methods: We studied 10-year mortality and cardiovascular events according to hypertension control status and CKD (glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73m(2)) in 4262 community-dwelling individuals (40% men) more than 65 years of age. Results: At baseline, 19% had CKD, and 31...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142759/forced-migrants-involved-in-setting-the-agenda-and-designing-research-to-reduce-impacts-of-complex-emergencies-combining-swarm-with-patient-and-public-involvement
#15
Julii Suzanne Brainard, Enana Al Assaf, Judith Omasete, Steve Leach, Charlotte C Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Plain English summary: The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research...
2017: Res Involv Engagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142650/early-childhood-development-and-iranian-parents-knowledge-a-qualitative-study
#16
Elham Habibi, Firouzeh Sajedi, Hosein Malek Afzali, Nikta Hatamizadeh, Soheila Shahshahanipour, Frances Page Glascoe
Background: Early childhood is the most important step throughout the lifespan and it is a critical period continuing to the end of 8-year-old. Mothers' knowledge is one of the important aspects of child development. The goals of this study were to determine the situation of knowledge in Iranian parents about the concept and the importance of early childhood development (ECD) and determining the sources of parental knowledge about ECD from the perspective of parents and grandparents. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on the directional content analysis in 2016...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142244/body-size-phenotypes-comprehensively-assess-cardiometabolic-risk-and-refine-the-association-between-obesity-and-gut-microbiota
#17
J de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, V Corrales-Agudelo, J A Carmona, J M Abad, J S Escobar
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota associates with obesity and related disorders, but recent meta-analyses have found that this association is, at best, of small effect. We argue that such analyses are flawed by the use of BMI as sole proxy for disease, and explore a classification method that distinguishes the cardiometabolic health status of individuals to look for more comprehensive associations between gut microbes and health. METHODS: We analyzed a 441 community-dwelling cohort on which we obtained demographic and health information, anthropometry and blood biochemistry data that served to categorize participants according to BMI, cardiometabolic health status and body size phenotypes...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142241/diverse-marinimicrobia-bacteria-may-mediate-coupled-biogeochemical-cycles-along-eco-thermodynamic-gradients
#18
Alyse K Hawley, Masaru K Nobu, Jody J Wright, W Evan Durno, Connor Morgan-Lang, Brent Sage, Patrick Schwientek, Brandon K Swan, Christian Rinke, Monica Torres-Beltrán, Keith Mewis, Wen-Tso Liu, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Tanja Woyke, Steven J Hallam
Microbial communities drive biogeochemical cycles through networks of metabolite exchange that are structured along energetic gradients. As energy yields become limiting, these networks favor co-metabolic interactions to maximize energy disequilibria. Here we apply single-cell genomics, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics to study bacterial populations of the abundant "microbial dark matter" phylum Marinimicrobia along defined energy gradients. We show that evolutionary diversification of major Marinimicrobia clades appears to be closely related to energy yields, with increased co-metabolic interactions in more deeply branching clades...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141837/user-acceptance-of-wrist-worn-activity-trackers-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-mixed-method-study
#19
Arjun Puri, Ben Kim, Olivier Nguyen, Paul Stolee, James Tung, Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: Wearable activity trackers are newly emerging technologies with the anticipation for successfully supporting aging-in-place. Consumer-grade wearable activity trackers are increasingly ubiquitous in the market, but the attitudes toward, as well as acceptance and voluntary use of, these trackers in older population are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess acceptance and usage of wearable activity trackers in Canadian community-dwelling older adults, using the potentially influential factors as identified in literature and technology acceptance model...
November 15, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141797/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-in-iran-a-consensus-guideline-and-recommendations
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Amir Reza Azimi, Nasrin Asgari, Fahimeh H Akhoundi, Roya Abolfazli, Shekoofeh Alaie, Fereshteh Ashtari, Hormoz Ayromlou, Seyed Mohammad Baghbanian, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Farzad Fatehi, Mohsen Foroughipour, Hamidreza Ghalyanchi Langroodi, Nastaran Majdinasab, Alireza Nickseresht, Abbas Nourian, Vahid Shaygannejad, Hamid Reza Torabi
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is a relapsing neuro inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that typically presents with optic neuritis or myelitis and may cause severe disability. The diagnostic criteria have been updated and several immunosuppressive agents have been demonstrated to prevent acute exacerbations. As the disease rarely develops in a progressive course, management of acute attacks and proper prevention of exacerbations may change the long term out-come and prevent future disability...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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