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Neural Oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433628/ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-hypothesis-for-mammalian-sleep
#1
REVIEW
Fumiya Tatsuki, Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep/wake cycles in mammals are elusive. In this regulation, at least two mechanisms with fast and slow time scales are involved. In the faster time scale, a state of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep can be microscopically characterized by the millisecond-to-second-order electrical behavior of neurons, namely slow-wave oscillations described by electrophysiology. In the slower time scale, the total duration of NREM sleep is homeostatically regulated by sleep pressure (the need for sleep), which is usually sustained for hours or even days and can be macroscopically described by electroencephalogram (EEG)...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428540/temporal-dynamics-of-saccades-explained-by-a-self-paced-process
#3
Roy Amit, Dekel Abeles, Izhar Bar-Gad, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
Sensory organs are thought to sample the environment rhythmically thereby providing periodic perceptual input. Whisking and sniffing are governed by oscillators which impose rhythms on the motor-control of sensory acquisition and consequently on sensory input. Saccadic eye movements are the main visual sampling mechanism in primates, and were suggested to constitute part of such a rhythmic exploration system. In this study we characterized saccadic rhythmicity, and examined whether it is consistent with autonomous oscillatory generator or with self-paced generation...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425500/structure-shapes-dynamics-and-directionality-in-diverse-brain-networks-mathematical-principles-and-empirical-confirmation-in-three-species
#4
Joon-Young Moon, Junhyeok Kim, Tae-Wook Ko, Minkyung Kim, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Jee-Hyun Choi, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
Identifying how spatially distributed information becomes integrated in the brain is essential to understanding higher cognitive functions. Previous computational and empirical studies suggest a significant influence of brain network structure on brain network function. However, there have been few analytical approaches to explain the role of network structure in shaping regional activities and directionality patterns. In this study, analytical methods are applied to a coupled oscillator model implemented in inhomogeneous networks...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424797/magnetoencephalography-as-a-tool-in-psychiatric-research-current-status-and-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Peter J Uhlhaas, Peter Liddle, David E J Linden, Anna C Nobre, Krish D Singh, Joachim Gross
The application of neuroimaging to provide mechanistic insights into circuit dysfunctions in major psychiatric conditions and the development of biomarkers are core challenges in current psychiatric research. We propose that recent technological and analytic advances in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that allows measurement of neuronal events directly and noninvasively with millisecond resolution, provides novel opportunities to address these fundamental questions. Because of its potential in delineating normal and abnormal brain dynamics, we propose that MEG provides a crucial tool to advance our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and the dementias...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424606/bifurcation-analysis-on-phase-amplitude-cross-frequency-coupling-in-neural-networks-with-dynamic-synapses
#6
Takumi Sase, Yuichi Katori, Motomasa Komuro, Kazuyuki Aihara
We investigate a discrete-time network model composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and dynamic synapses with the aim at revealing dynamical properties behind oscillatory phenomena possibly related to brain functions. We use a stochastic neural network model to derive the corresponding macroscopic mean field dynamics, and subsequently analyze the dynamical properties of the network. In addition to slow and fast oscillations arising from excitatory and inhibitory networks, respectively, we show that the interaction between these two networks generates phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC), in which multiple different frequency components coexist and the amplitude of the fast oscillation is modulated by the phase of the slow oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424575/contribution-of-autonomic-reflexes-to-the-hyperadrenergic-state-in-heart-failure
#7
REVIEW
Edgar Toschi-Dias, Maria Urbana P B Rondon, Chiara Cogliati, Nazareno Paolocci, Eleonora Tobaldini, Nicola Montano
Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome representing the clinical endpoint of many cardiovascular diseases of different etiology. Given its prevalence, incidence and social impact, a better understanding of HF pathophysiology is paramount to implement more effective anti-HF therapies. Based on left ventricle (LV) performance, HF is currently classified as follows: (1) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); (2) with mid-range EF (HFmrEF); and (3) with preserved EF (HFpEF). A central tenet of HFrEF pathophysiology is adrenergic hyperactivity, featuring increased sympathetic nerve discharge and a progressive loss of rhythmical sympathetic oscillations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422771/slow-intermuscular-oscillations-are-associated-with-cocontraction-steadiness
#8
Nayef E Ahmar, Minoru Shinohara
PURPOSE: Voluntary muscle contraction often involves low-frequency correlated neural oscillations across muscles, which may degrade steady cocontraction between antagonistic muscles with distinct levels of activation per each muscle (unbalanced cocontraction). The purposes of the study were 1) to determine whether there is an association between the low-frequency correlated EMG oscillations and performance of steady unbalanced cocontraction across individuals and 2) to determine whether a bout of out-of-phase cocontraction practice reduces the in-phase low-frequency correlated neural oscillations and improves the performance of steady unbalanced cocontraction...
April 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420362/clinical-hemispheric-and-autonomic-changes-associated-with-use-of-closed-loop-allostatic-neurotechnology-by-a-case-series-of-individuals-with-self-reported-symptoms-of-post-traumatic-stress
#9
Charles H Tegeler, Jared F Cook, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Hossam A Shaltout, Sean L Simpson, Brian C Fidali, Lee Gerdes, Sung W Lee
BACKGROUND: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the use of a closed-loop, allostatic, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology for individuals with self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress, as a potential means to impact symptomatology, temporal lobe high frequency asymmetry, heart rate variability (HRV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). METHODS: From a cohort of individuals participating in a naturalistic study to evaluate use of allostatic neurotechnology for diverse clinical conditions, a subset was identified who reported high scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418103/neurogenic-and-myogenic-patterns-of-electrical-activity-in-isolated-intact-mouse-colon
#10
T J Hibberd, M Costa, L Travis, S J H Brookes, D A Wattchow, J Feng, H Hu, N J Spencer
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the electrical rhythmicity of the whole colon, where long neural pathways are preserved. METHODS: Smooth muscle electrical activity was recorded extracellularly from the serosa of isolated flat-sheet preparations consisting of the whole mouse colon (n=31). KEY RESULTS: Two distinct electrical patterns were observed. The first, long intense spike bursts, occurred every 349±256 seconds (0.2±0.2 cpm), firing action potentials for 31±11 seconds at 2...
April 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412440/transient-networks-of-spatio-temporal-connectivity-map-communication-pathways-in-brain-functional-systems
#12
Alessandra Griffa, Benjamin Ricaud, Kirell Benzi, Xavier Bresson, Alessandro Daducci, Pierre Vandergheynst, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Patric Hagmann
The study of brain dynamics enables us to characterize the time-varying functional connectivity among distinct neural groups. However, current methods suffer from the absence of structural connectivity information. We propose to integrate infra-slow neural oscillations and anatomical-connectivity maps, as derived from functional and diffusion MRI, in a multilayer-graph framework that captures transient networks of spatio-temporal connectivity. These networks group anatomically wired and temporary synchronized brain regions and encode the propagation of functional activity on the structural connectome...
April 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411273/low-frequency-cortical-oscillations-entrain-to-sub-threshold-rhythmic-auditory-stimuli
#13
Sanne Ten Oever, Charles E Schroeder, David Poeppel, Nienke van Atteveldt, Ashesh D Mehta, Pierre Mégevand, David M Groppe, Elana Zion-Golumbic
Many environmental stimuli contain temporal regularities, a feature which can help predict forthcoming input. Phase-locking (entrainment) of ongoing low-frequency neuronal oscillations to rhythmic stimuli is proposed as a potential mechanism for enhancing neuronal responses and perceptual sensitivity, by aligning high-excitability phases to events within a stimulus stream. Previous experiments show that rhythmic structure has a behavioral benefit even when the rhythm itself is below perceptual detection thresholds (Ten Oever et al...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409319/the-effect-of-gamma-enhancing-binaural-beats-on-the-control-of-feature-bindings
#14
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro
Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance...
April 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408875/apas-constraints-to-voluntary-movements-the-case-for-limb-movements-coupling
#15
REVIEW
Fausto G Baldissera, Luigi Tesio
When rhythmically moving two limbs in either the same or in opposite directions, one coupling mode meets constraints that are absent in the other mode. Isodirectional (ISO) flexion-extensions of the ipsilateral hand and foot can be easily performed with either the hand prone or supine. Instead, antidirectional (ANTI) movements require attentive effort and irresistibly tend to reverse into ISO when frequency increases. Experimental evidence indicates that the direction dependent easy-difficult dichotomy is caused by interference of the anticipatory postural commands associated to movements of one limb with voluntary commands to the other limb...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401525/new-world-tryptamine-hallucinogens-and-the-neuroscience-of-ayahuasca
#16
Dennis McKenna, Jordi Riba
New World indigenous peoples are noted for their sophisticated use of psychedelic plants in shamanic and ethnomedical practices. The use of psychedelic plant preparations among New World tribes is far more prevalent than in the Old World. Yet, although these preparations are botanically diverse, almost all are chemically similar in that their active principles are tryptamine derivatives, either DMT or related constituents. Part 1 of this paper provides an ethnopharmacological overview of the major tryptamine-containing New World hallucinogens...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394781/patterns-of-brain-oscillations-across-different-electrode-montages-in-transcranial-pulsed-current-stimulation
#17
Alejandra C Vasquez, Aurore Thibaut, Leon Morales-Quezada, Jorge Leite, Felipe Fregni
Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has been studied in the last decade. Several parameters have been assessed independently to optimize the effects. Our aim was to explore the effects of tPCS using different montages on cortical brain oscillations indexed by power spectrum and interhemispheric coherence in different electroencephalography frequency bands. Twenty healthy individuals were randomized to receive either active tPCS or sham intervention using the following bilateral montages: ear clip (conventional), ear hook, or mastoid placement...
April 7, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394324/abnormal-wiring-of-cck-basket-cells-disrupts-spatial-information-coding
#18
Isabel Del Pino, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, André Marques-Smith, Aline Marighetto, Andreas Frick, Oscar Marín, Beatriz Rico
The function of cortical GABAergic interneurons is largely determined by their integration into specific neural circuits, but the mechanisms controlling the wiring of these cells remain largely unknown. This is particularly true for a major population of basket cells that express the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK). Here we found that the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 was required for the normal integration into cortical circuits of basket cells expressing CCK and vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGlut3)...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390225/persistent-irregular-activity-is-a-result-of-rebound-and-coincident-detection-mechanisms-a-computational-study
#19
Mustafa Zeki, Ahmed A Moustafa
Persistent irregular activity is defined as elevated irregular neural discharges in the brain in such a way that while the average network activity displays high frequency oscillations, the participating neurons display irregular and low frequency oscillations. This type of activity is observed in many brain regions like prefrontal cortex that plays a role in working memory. Previous studies have shown that large networks with sparse connections, networks with strong noise and persistent inhibition and networks with structured synaptic connections display persistent-irregular activity...
March 22, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385876/concurrent-tacs-fmri-reveals-causal-influence-of-power-synchronized-neural-activity-on-resting-state-fmri-connectivity
#20
Marc Bächinger, Valerio Zerbi, Marius Moisa, Rafael Polania, Quanying Liu, Dante Mantini, Christian Ruff, Nicole Wenderoth
Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is commonly used to study the brain's intrinsic neural coupling, which reveals specific spatiotemporal patterns in the form of resting state networks (RSN). It has been hypothesized that slow rs-fMRI oscillations (<0.1 Hz) are driven by underlying electrophysiological rhythms that typically occur at much faster timescales (>5 Hz); however, causal evidence for this relationship is currently lacking. Here we measured rs-fMRI in humans while applying transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to entrain brain rhythms in left and right sensorimotor cortices...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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