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Neural Oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546544/reproducing-infra-slow-oscillations-with-dopaminergic-modulation
#1
Toshihiro Kobayashi, Yutaka Shimada, Kantaro Fujiwara, Tohru Ikeguchi
In the human brain, billions of neurons construct a neural network via synaptic connections. Neuronal excitation and inhibition are transmitted to other neurons through synapses via neurotransmitters. Dopamine is one of these neurotransmitters that plays a number of important roles. There are a variety of rhythms in the brain, such as alpha rhythm, beta rhythm, and so on. Infra-slow oscillation, ISO, is one of the rhythms observed in the brain, and ranges below 0.1 Hz. One of the key roles of dopamine is the generation of ISO in neural networks...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544930/neural-oscillations-demonstrate-that-general-anesthesia-and-sedative-states-are-neurophysiologically-distinct-from-sleep
#2
REVIEW
Oluwaseun Akeju, Emery N Brown
General anesthesia is a man-made neurophysiological state comprised of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility along with maintenance of physiological stability. Growing evidence suggests that anesthetic-induced neural oscillations are a primary mechanism of anesthetic action. Each anesthetic drug class produces distinct oscillatory dynamics that can be related to the circuit mechanisms of drug action. Sleep is a naturally occurring state of decreased arousal that is essential for normal health...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542644/pre-target-neural-oscillations-predict-variability-in-the-detection-of-small-pitch-changes
#3
Esther Florin, Dominique Vuvan, Isabelle Peretz, Sylvain Baillet
Pitch discrimination is important for language or music processing. Previous studies indicate that auditory perception depends on pre-target neural activity. However, so far the pre-target electrophysiological conditions which enable the detection of small pitch changes are not well studied, but might yield important insights into pitch-processing. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) source imaging to reveal the pre-target effects of successful auditory detection of small pitch deviations from a sequence of standard tones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539912/using-brain-oscillations-and-corticospinal-excitability-to-understand-and-predict-post-stroke-motor-function
#4
Aurore Thibaut, Marcel Simis, Linamara Rizzo Battistella, Chiara Fanciullacci, Federica Bertolucci, Rodrigo Huerta-Gutierrez, Carmelo Chisari, Felipe Fregni
What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation-TMS) and brain oscillations (electroencephalography-EEG). In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke) were recruited in two sites...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539421/sound-making-actions-lead-to-immediate-plastic-changes-of-neuromagnetic-evoked-responses-and-induced-beta-band-oscillations-during-perception
#5
Bernhard Ross, Masihullah Barat, Takako Fujioka
Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as vocalization or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at beta-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537480/alpha-band-oscillations-enable-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-tracking-of-covert-spatial-attention
#6
Joshua J Foster, David W Sutterer, John T Serences, Edward K Vogel, Edward Awh
Covert spatial attention is essential for humans' ability to direct limited processing resources to the relevant aspects of visual scenes. A growing body of evidence suggests that rhythmic neural activity in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) tracks the spatial locus of covert attention, which suggests that alpha activity is integral to spatial attention. However, extant work has not provided a compelling test of another key prediction: that alpha activity tracks the temporal dynamics of covert spatial orienting...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536269/a-cognition-related-neural-oscillation-pattern-generated-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-can-control-operant-learning-in-rats
#7
Samuel Hernández-González, Celia Andreu-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel Martín-Pascual, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-García
The prelimbic (PrL) cortex constitutes one of the highest levels of cortical hierarchy dedicated to the execution of adaptive behaviors. We have identified a specific local field potential (LFP) pattern generated in the PrL cortex, associated with cognition-related behaviors, and used it to trigger the activation of a visual display on a touch screen as part of an operant conditioning task. Rats learned to increase the presentation rate of the selected theta/beta-gamma transition pattern across training sessions...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534502/engaging-and-disengaging-recurrent-inhibition-coincides-with-sensing-and-unsensing-of-a-sensory-stimulus
#8
Debajit Saha, Wensheng Sun, Chao Li, Srinath Nizampatnam, William Padovano, Zhengdao Chen, Alex Chen, Ege Altan, Ray Lo, Dennis L Barbour, Baranidharan Raman
Even simple sensory stimuli evoke neural responses that are dynamic and complex. Are the temporally patterned neural activities important for controlling the behavioral output? Here, we investigated this issue. Our results reveal that in the insect antennal lobe, due to circuit interactions, distinct neural ensembles are activated during and immediately following the termination of every odorant. Such non-overlapping response patterns are not observed even when the stimulus intensity or identities were changed...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#9
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528848/temporal-expectancies-driven-by-self-and-externally-generated-rhythms
#10
Alexander Jones, Yi-Fang Hsu, Lionel Granjon, Florian Waszak
The dynamic attending theory proposes that rhythms entrain periodic fluctuations of attention which modulate the gain of sensory input. However, temporal expectancies can also be driven by the mere passage of time (foreperiod effect). It is currently unknown how these two types of temporal expectancy relate to each other, i.e. whether they work in parallel and have distinguishable neural signatures. The current research addresses this issue. Participants either tapped a 1Hz rhythm (active task) or were passively presented with the same rhythm using tactile stimulators (passive task)...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527912/implicit-variations-of-temporal-predictability-shaping-the-neural-oscillatory-and-behavioural-response
#11
Sophie K Herbst, Jonas Obleser
Being able to predict when an event will occur (temporal predictability) can help us prepare and time our responses. We here sought to delineate the neural and behavioural corollaries of highly implicit, probabilistic temporal predictability in an auditory foreperiod paradigm. To this end, we measured electroencephalography (EEG) and response times in two independent experiments (total N = 46). Unbeknownst to participants, we induced a probabilistic variation of cue-target delays (i.e., foreperiods) in a pitch-discrimination task on a noise-embedded tone: The smaller the standard deviation of the underlying foreperiod distribution, the more predictable the time of target occurrence should be...
May 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#12
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522983/a-dynamical-model-of-pitch-memory-provides-an-improved-basis-for-implied-harmony-estimation
#13
Ji Chul Kim
Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522331/internal-mechanisms-underlying-anticipatory-language-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#14
Xiaoqing Li, Yuping Zhang, Jinyan Xia, Tamara Y Swaab
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts...
May 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516196/coupling-dynamics-in-speech-gestures-amplitude-and-rate-influences
#15
Pascal H H M van Lieshout
Speech is a complex oral motor function that involves multiple articulators that need to be coordinated in space and time at relatively high movement speeds. How this is accomplished remains an important and largely unresolved empirical question. From a coordination dynamics perspective, coordination involves the assembly of coordinative units that are characterized by inherently stable coupling patterns that act as attractor states for task-specific actions. In the motor control literature, one particular model formulated by Haken et al...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515289/learning-temporal-context-shapes-the-prestimulus-alpha-oscillations-and-improves-the-visual-discrimination-performance
#16
Tahereh Toosi, Ehsan K Tousi, Hossein Esteky
Time is an inseparable component of every physical event that we perceive, yet it is not clear how the brain processes time or how the neuronal representation of time affects our perception of events. Here, we asked subjects to perform a visual discrimination task, while we changed the temporal context in which the stimuli were presented. We collected electroencephalography (EEG) signals in two temporal contexts. Predictable blocks: stimuli were presented after a constant delay relative to a visual cue, and unpredictable blocks: stimuli were presented after variable delays relative to the visual cue...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513627/neuromorphic-device-architectures-with-global-connectivity-through-electrolyte-gating
#17
Paschalis Gkoupidenis, Dimitrios A Koutsouras, George G Malliaras
Information processing in the brain takes place in a network of neurons that are connected with each other by an immense number of synapses. At the same time, neurons are immersed in a common electrochemical environment, and global parameters such as concentrations of various hormones regulate the overall network function. This computational paradigm of global regulation, also known as homeoplasticity, has important implications in the overall behaviour of large neural ensembles and is barely addressed in neuromorphic device architectures...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506433/awareness-in-the-crowd-beta-power-and-alpha-phase-of-prestimulus-oscillations-predict-object-discrimination-in-visual-crowding
#18
Luca Ronconi, Rosilari Bellacosa Marotti
Visual crowding is among the factors that most hamper conscious object perception. However, we currently ignore the neural states that predispose to an accurate perception within different crowding regimes. Here, we performed single-trial analyses of the electroencephalographical (EEG) oscillations, evaluating the prestimulus power and phase differences between correct and incorrect discrimination during a letter-crowding task, where irrelevant letters were placed nearby (strong crowding) or far (mid crowding) relative to the target...
May 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502585/frontoparietal-neurostimulation-modulates-working-memory-training-benefits-and-oscillatory-synchronization
#19
Kevin T Jones, Dwight J Peterson, Kara J Blacker, Marian E Berryhill
There is considerable interest in maintaining working memory (WM) because it is essential to accomplish most cognitive tasks, and it is correlated with fluid intelligence and ecologically valid measures of daily living. Toward this end, WM training protocols aim to improve WM capacity and extend improvements to unpracticed domains, yet success is limited. One emerging approach is to couple WM training with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This pairing of WM training with tDCS in longitudinal designs promotes behavioral improvement and evidence of transfer of performance gains to untrained WM tasks...
May 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497235/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-cortical-responses-induced-by-a-prolonged-tactile-stimulation-of-the-human-fingertips
#20
Clara Genna, Calogero M Oddo, Chiara Fanciullacci, Carmelo Chisari, Henrik Jörntell, Fiorenzo Artoni, Silvestro Micera
The sense of touch is fundamental for daily behavior. The aim of this work is to understand the neural network responsible for touch processing during a prolonged tactile stimulation, delivered by means of a mechatronic platform by passively sliding a ridged surface under the subject's fingertip while recording the electroencephalogram (EEG). We then analyzed: (i) the temporal features of the Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and their topographical distribution bilaterally across the cortex; (ii) the associated temporal modulation of the EEG frequency bands...
May 11, 2017: Brain Topography
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