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Neural Oscillations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936165/theta-oscillations-related-to-orientation-recognition-in-unattended-condition-a-vmmn-study
#1
Tianyi Yan, Yuan Feng, Tiantian Liu, Luyao Wang, Nan Mu, Xiaonan Dong, Zichuan Liu, Tianran Qin, Xiaoying Tang, Lun Zhao
Orientation is one of the important elements of objects that can influence visual processing. In this study, we examined whether changes in orientation could be detected automatically under unattended condition. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) was used to analyze this processing. In addition, we investigated the underlying neural oscillatory activity. Non-phase-locked spectral power was used to explore the specific frequency related to unexpected changes in orientation. The experiment consisted of standard (0° arrows) and deviant (90°/270° arrows) stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935857/sensorimotor-computation-underlying-phototaxis-in-zebrafish
#2
Sébastien Wolf, Alexis M Dubreuil, Tommaso Bertoni, Urs Lucas Böhm, Volker Bormuth, Raphaël Candelier, Sophia Karpenko, David G C Hildebrand, Isaac H Bianco, Rémi Monasson, Georges Debrégeas
Animals continuously gather sensory cues to move towards favourable environments. Efficient goal-directed navigation requires sensory perception and motor commands to be intertwined in a feedback loop, yet the neural substrate underlying this sensorimotor task in the vertebrate brain remains elusive. Here, we combine virtual-reality behavioural assays, volumetric calcium imaging, optogenetic stimulation and circuit modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms through which a zebrafish performs phototaxis, i.e...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930540/electrophysiological-evidence-for-long-axis-intrinsic-diversification-of-the-hippocampus
#3
Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The elongated structure of the hippocampus is critically involved in brain functions of profound importance. The segregation of functions along the longitudinal (septotemporal or dorsoventral) axis of the hippocampus is a slowly developed concept and currently is a widely accepted idea. The segregation of neuroanatomical connections along the hippocampal long axis can provide a basis for the interpretation of the functional segregation. However, an emerging and growing body of data strongly suggests the existence of endogenous diversification in the properties of the local neural network along the long axis of the hippocampus...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928634/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-mechanisms-and-protocols
#4
REVIEW
Amir V Tavakoli, Kyongsik Yun
Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925523/bdnf-haplo-insufficiency-impairs-high-frequency-cortical-oscillations-in-mice
#5
Nigel C Jones, Matthew Hudson, Joshua Foreman, Gil Rind, Rachel Hill, Elizabeth E Manning, Maarten van den Buuse
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous aetiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Deficiencies in both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NMDA receptor function have been implicated in the disorder, and may play causal and synergistic roles. Perturbations in the regulation of electrophysiological signals, including high-frequency (gamma: 30-80 Hz and beta: 20-30 Hz) neuronal oscillations, are also associated with the disorder. This study investigated the influence of BDNF deficiency and NMDA receptor hypofunction on electrophysiological responses to brief acoustic stimuli...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925374/task-induced-frequency-modulation-features-for-brain-computer-interfacing
#6
Vinay Jayaram, Matthias Hohmann, Jennifer Just, Bernhard Schölkopf, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup
OBJECTIVE: Task-induced amplitude modulation of neural oscillations is routinely used in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for decoding subjects' intents, and underlies some of the most robust and common methods in the field, such as common spatial patterns and Riemannian geometry. While there has been some interest in phase-related features for classification, both techniques usually presuppose that the frequencies of neural oscillations remain stable across various tasks. We investigate here whether features based on task-induced modulation of the frequency of neural oscillations enable decoding of subjects' intents with an accuracy comparable to task-induced amplitude modulation...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921756/temporal-alignment-of-anticipatory-motor-cortical-beta-lateralisation-in-hidden-visual-motor-sequences
#7
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
Performance improves when participants respond to events that are structured in repeating sequences, suggesting that learning can lead to proactive anticipatory preparation. Whereas most sequence-learning studies have emphasized spatial structure, most sequences also contain a prominent temporal structure. We used MEG to investigate spatial and temporal anticipatory neural dynamics in a modified serial reaction-time (SRT) task. Performance and brain activity were compared between blocks with learned spatial-temporal sequences and blocks with new sequences...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920096/competition-effects-in-visual-cortex-between-emotional-distractors-and-a-primary-task-in-remitted-depression
#8
Mary L Woody, Vladimir Miskovic, Max Owens, Kiera M James, Cope Feurer, Effua E Sosoo, Brandon E Gibb
BACKGROUND: Attentional biases, particularly difficulty inhibiting attention to negative stimuli, are implicated in risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study examined a neural measure of attentional bias using a continuous index of visuocortical engagement (steady-state visual evoked potentials [SSVEPs]) before and after a negative mood induction in a population at high-risk for MDD recurrence due to a recently remitted MDD (rMDD) episode. Additionally, we examined working memory (WM) capacity as a potential moderator of the link between rMDD and visuocortical responses...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919850/the-detection-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-during-sensory-processing
#9
Robert A Seymour, Gina Rippon, Klaus Kessler
There is increasing interest in understanding how the phase and amplitude of distinct neural oscillations might interact to support dynamic communication within the brain. In particular, previous work has demonstrated a coupling between the phase of low frequency oscillations and the amplitude (or power) of high frequency oscillations during certain tasks, termed phase amplitude coupling (PAC). For instance, during visual processing in humans, PAC has been reliably observed between ongoing alpha (8-13 Hz) and gamma-band (>40 Hz) activity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919408/neural-oscillations-reflect-latent-learning-states-underlying-dual-context-sensorimotor-adaptation
#10
Justin M Fine, Dalton Moore, Marco Santello
Recent studies have suggested that individuals can form multiple motor memories when simultaneously adapting to multiple, but oppositely-oriented perturbations. These findings predict that individuals detect the change in learning context, allowing the selective initialization and update of motor memories. However, previous electrophysiological studies of sensorimotor adaptation have not identified a neural mechanism supporting the detection of a context switch and adaptation to separate contexts. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism is identifiable through neural oscillations measured through EEG...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919407/how-to-target-inter-regional-phase-synchronization-with-dual-site-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation
#11
Guilherme Bicalho Saturnino, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Axel Thielscher
Large-scale synchronization of neural oscillations is a key mechanism for functional information exchange among brain areas. Dual-site Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (ds-TACS) has been recently introduced as non-invasive technique to manipulate the temporal phase relationship of local oscillations in two connected cortical areas. While the frequency of ds-TACS is matched, the phase of stimulation is either identical (in-phase stimulation) or opposite (anti-phase stimulation) in the two cortical target areas...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914607/cortex-wide-bold-fmri-activity-reflects-locally-recorded-slow-oscillation-associated-calcium-waves
#12
Miriam Schwalm, Florian Schmid, Lydia Wachsmuth, Hendrik Backhaus, Andrea Kronfeld, Felipe Aedo Jury, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Consuelo Fois, Franziska Albers, Timo van Alst, Cornelius Faber, Albrecht Stroh
Spontaneous slow oscillation-associated slow wave activity represents an internally generated state which is characterized by alternations of network quiescence and stereotypical episodes of neuronal activity - slow wave events. However, it remains unclear which macroscopic signal is related to these active periods of the slow wave rhythm. We used optic fiber-based calcium recordings of local neural populations in cortex and thalamus to detect neurophysiologically defined slow calcium waves in isoflurane anesthetized rats...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912551/the-antipsychotic-drugs-olanzapine-and-haloperidol-modify-network-connectivity-and-spontaneous-activity-of-neural-networks-in-vitro
#13
Egor Dzyubenko, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
Impaired neural synchronization is a hallmark of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. It has been proposed that schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits are caused by an unbalance of reciprocal inhibitory and stimulatory signaling. This supposedly leads to decreased power of induced gamma oscillations during the performance of cognitive tasks. In light of this hypothesis an efficient antipsychotic treatment should modify the connectivity and synchronization of local neural circuits. To address this issue, we investigated a model of hippocampal neuronal networks in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912159/oscillatory-reinstatement-enhances-declarative-memory
#14
Amir-Homayoun Javadi, James C Glen, Sara Halkiopoulos, Mei Schulz, Hugo J Spiers
Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912155/visual-motion-discrimination-by-propagating-patterns-in-primate-cerebral-cortex
#15
Rory Townsend, Selina S Solomon, Paul R Martin, Samuel G Solomon, Pulin Gong
Visual stimuli can evoke waves of neural activity that propagate across the surface of visual cortical areas. The relevance of these waves for visual processing is unknown. Here we measured the phase and amplitude of local field potentials (LFPs) in electrode array recordings from motion-processing medial temporal area (MT) of anesthetized male marmosets. Animals viewed grating or dot-field stimuli drifting in different directions. We found that on individual trials, the direction of LFP wave propagation is sensitive to the direction of stimulus motion...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894235/temporally-and-spatially-distinct-theta-oscillations-dissociate-a-language-specific-from-a-domain-general-processing-mechanism-across-the-age-trajectory
#16
Caroline Beese, Lars Meyer, Benedict Vassileiou, Angela D Friederici
The cognitive functionality of neural oscillations is still highly debated, as different functions have been associated with identical frequency ranges. Theta band oscillations, for instance, were proposed to underlie both language comprehension and domain-general cognitive abilities. Here we show that the ageing brain can provide an answer to the open question whether it is one and the same theta oscillation underlying those functions, thereby resolving a long-standing paradox. While better cognitive functioning is predicted by low theta power in the brain at rest, resting state (RS) theta power declines with age, but sentence comprehension deteriorates in old age...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893605/oscillator-networks-with-tissue-specific-circadian-clocks-in-plants
#17
REVIEW
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Many organisms rely on circadian clocks to synchronize their biological processes with the 24-hour rotation of the earth. In mammals, the circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral clocks in other tissues. The central clock is tightly coupled to synchronize rhythmicity and can organize peripheral clocks through neural and hormonal signals. In contrast to mammals, it has long been assumed that the circadian clocks in each plant cell is able to be entrained by external light, and they are only weakly coupled to each other...
September 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891781/occipital-alpha-and-gamma-oscillations-support-complementary-mechanisms-for-processing-stimulus-value-associations
#18
Tom R Marshall, Sebastiaan den Boer, Roshan Cools, Ole Jensen, Sean James Fallon, Johanna M Zumer
Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous information going unnoticed. Neural systems are also in place for processing rewarding and punishing information. Here, we examine the interaction between selective attention (left vs. right) and stimulus's learned value associations (neutral, punished, or rewarded) and how they compete for control of posterior neural oscillations...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888892/alpha-band-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-modulates-precision-but-not-gain-during-whole-body-spatial-updating
#19
T P Gutteling, D J L G Schutter, W P Medendorp
Spatial updating is essential to maintain an accurate representation of our visual environment when we move. A neural mechanism that contributes to this ability is called remapping: the transfer of visual information from neural populations that code a location before the motion to those that encode it after the motion. While there is ample evidence for neural remapping in conjunction with eye movements, only recent findings suggest a role of this mechanism for whole-body motion updating, based on the observation that alpha band (10Hz) activity is selectively reorganized during remapping...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887898/beta-band-oscillations-during-passive-listening-to-metronome-sounds-reflect-improved-timing-representation-after-short-term-musical-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#20
Takako Fujioka, Bernhard Ross
Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with aging, musical experts are less affected. The present study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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