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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324797/sex-dependent-impact-of-early-life-stress-and-adult-immobilization-in-the-attribution-of-incentive-salience-in-rats
#1
Silvia Fuentes, Javier Carrasco, Abigail Hatto, Juan Navarro, Antonio Armario, Manel Monsonet, Jordi Ortiz, Roser Nadal
Early life stress (ELS) induces long-term effects in later functioning and interacts with further exposure to other stressors in adulthood to shape our responsiveness to reward-related cues. The attribution of incentive salience to food-related cues may be modulated by previous and current exposures to stressors in a sex-dependent manner. We hypothesized from human data that exposure to a traumatic (severe) adult stressor will decrease the attribution of incentive salience to reward-associated cues, especially in females, because these effects are modulated by previous ELS...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323517/individual-differences-are-more-than-a-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-the-role-of-learning
#2
Nicola C Byrom, Robin A Murphy
Individual differences in behavior are understood generally as arising from an interaction between genes and environment, omitting a crucial component. The literature on animal and human learning suggests the need to posit principles of learning to explain our differences. One of the challenges for the advancement of the field has been to establish how general principles of learning can explain the almost infinite variation in behavior. We present a case that: (a) individual differences in behavior emerge, in part, from principles of learning; (b) associations provide a descriptive mechanism for understanding the contribution of experience to behavior; and (c) learning theories explain dissociable aspects of behavior...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315659/the-role-of-glutamate-signaling-in-incentive-salience-second-by-second-glutamate-recordings-in-awake-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Seth R Batten, Francois Pomerleau, Jorge Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Joshua S Beckmann
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli has been shown to be associated with substance abuse-like behavior such as increased drug taking. Evidence suggests that glutamate neurotransmission and sequential N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation are involved in the attribution of incentive salience. Here we further explore the role of second-by-second glutamate neurotransmission in the attribution of incentive salience to reward-predictive stimuli by measuring sign-tracking behavior during a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure using ceramic-based microelectrode arrays configured for sensitive measures of extracellular glutamate in awake behaving Sprague Dawley rats...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298602/mentalizing-in-the-presence-of-another-measuring-reflective-functioning-and-attachment-in-the-therapy-process
#4
Alessandro Talia, Madeleine Miller-Bottome, Hannah Katznelson, Signe H Pedersen, Howard Steele, Paul Schröder, Amy Origlieri, Fredrik B Scharff, Guido Giovanardi, Mart Andersson, Vittorio Lingiardi, Jeremy D Safran, Susanne Lunn, Stig Poulsen, Svenja Taubner
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we test the reliability and validity of two novel ways of assessing mentalizing in the therapy context: the Reflective Functioning scale (RF) applied to code psychotherapy transcripts (In-session RF), and the Exploring scale of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), which measures in-session autonomy and is linked with secure attachment in psychotherapy. METHOD: Before treatment, 160 patients in different types of psychotherapy and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), which was rated with the RF scale...
January 3, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285634/transient-inactivation-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-enhances-cue-induced-reinstatement-in-goal-trackers-but-not-sign-trackers
#5
Brittany N Kuhn, Marin S Klumpner, Ignacio R Covelo, Paolo Campus, Shelly B Flagel
RATIONALE: The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) has been shown to mediate cue-motivated behaviors, such as sign- and goal-tracking, as well as reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the role of the PVT in mediating individual variation in cue-induced drug-seeking behavior remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine if inactivation of the PVT differentially mediates cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in sign-trackers and goal-trackers...
December 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278696/individual-differences-in-incentive-salience-attribution-are-not-related-to-suboptimal-choice-in-rats
#6
Paulina López, Rodrigo Alba, Vladimir Orduña
Previous research has shown great variation in the extent to which individual rats attribute incentive salience to stimuli that are predictors of reinforcement. When using the Pavlovian Conditioned Approach procedure, in which a discrete stimulus is presented contingently before the delivery of reinforcement, the attribution of incentive salience is demonstrated by sign-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the stimulus predictor of reinforcement), while an absence of this attribution is reflected by goal-tracking behavior (responses directed toward the source of reinforcement)...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259655/continuation-with-clozapine-after-eosinophilia-a-case-report
#7
Yen-Cheng Ho, Huang-Li Lin
Background: Clozapine-induced eosinophilia had been reported in several studies about blood dyscrasias in clozapine-treated patient. The largest study with 2404 patients in Italy found the incidence of 2.2% by criteria of more than 0.4 × 109/l. Associated cases of pancreatitis, hepatitis, colitis, nephritis, and myocarditis were reported. Interestingly, incidence of myocarditis is high in Australia, but low in the rest of the world. In the following, we will present a case of clozapine-induced eosinophilia which spontaneous resolution was noted under continuation of clozapine...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249652/know-your-numbers-creation-and-implementation-of-a-novel-community-health-mobile-application-app-by-student-pharmacists
#8
Michelle Vu, Vi Nguyen, Soumya Vishwanath, Courtney Wolfe, Sweta Patel
OBJECTIVES: A free mobile application (app), Know Your Numbers (KYN), was developed by student pharmacists to assist underserved community members to track their health numbers. The study objectives included creating a health app, implementing a pilot program, and analyzing the frequency of app use and perceptions of community members toward their health numbers, pharmacists, and health apps. SETTING: Student pharmacists recruited participants at the community clinics and health fairs organized in underserved communities of the Atlanta metropolitan area...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246511/fetal-cardiac-function-in-maternal-diabetes-a%C3%A2-conventional-and-speckle-tracking-echocardiographic-study
#9
Joana O Miranda, Rui J Cerqueira, Carla Ramalho, José Carlos Areias, Tiago Henriques-Coelho
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine exposure to a diabetic environment is associated with adverse fetal myocardial remodeling. The aim of this study was to assess the biventricular systolic and diastolic function of fetuses exposed to maternal diabetes (MD) compared with control subjects, using a comprehensive cardiac functional assessment and exploring the role of speckle-tracking to assess myocardial deformation. The authors hypothesized that fetuses exposed to MD present signs of biventricular dysfunction, which can be detected by deformation analysis...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242594/automated-tracking-to-measure-behavioural-changes-in-pigs-for-health-and-welfare-monitoring
#10
Stephen G Matthews, Amy L Miller, Thomas PlÖtz, Ilias Kyriazakis
Since animals express their internal state through behaviour, changes in said behaviour may be used to detect early signs of problems, such as in animal health. Continuous observation of livestock by farm staff is impractical in a commercial setting to the degree required to detect behavioural changes relevant for early intervention. An automated monitoring system is developed; it automatically tracks pig movement with depth video cameras, and automatically measures standing, feeding, drinking, and locomotor activities from 3D trajectories...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234934/early-detection-of-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-using-conventional-and-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-in-a-large-animal-model-of-metabolic-dysfunction
#11
Mark M P van den Dorpel, Ilkka Heinonen, Sanne M Snelder, Hendrik J Vos, Oana Sorop, Ron T van Domburg, Daphne Merkus, Dirk J Duncker, Bas M van Dalen
Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is one of the important mechanisms responsible for symptoms in patients with heart failure. The aim of the current study was to identify parameters that may be used to detect early signs of LV diastolic dysfunction in diabetic pigs on a high fat diet, using conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography. The study population consisted of 16 healthy Göttingen minipigs and 18 minipigs with experimentally induced metabolic dysfunction. Echocardiography measurements were performed at baseline and 3-month follow-up...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230169/eye-gaze-and-aging-selective-and-combined-effects-of-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control
#12
Trevor J Crawford, Eleanor S Smith, Donna M Berry
Eye-tracking is increasingly studied as a cognitive and biological marker for the early signs of neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to make further progress, a more comprehensive understanding of the age-related effects on eye-tracking is essential. The antisaccade task requires participants to make saccadic eye movements away from a prepotent stimulus. Speculation on the cause of the observed age-related differences in the antisaccade task largely centers around two sources of cognitive dysfunction: inhibitory control (IC) and working memory (WM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222822/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-and-myocardial-contractile-reserve-in-women-with-angina-and-no-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Marie M Michelsen, Adam Pena, Naja D Mygind, Jan Bech, Ida Gustafsson, Jens Kastrup, Henrik S Hansen, Nis Høst, Peter R Hansen, Eva Prescott
BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a potential cause of myocardial ischemia and may affect myocardial function at rest and during stress. We investigated whether CMD was associated with left ventricular diastolic and systolic function at rest and during pharmacologically induced hyperemic stress. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we included 963 women with angina, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >45%, and an invasive coronary angiogram without significant stenosis (<50%)...
December 8, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214205/simple-eye-movement-feedback-during-visual-search-is-not-helpful
#14
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams
Searching for targets in the visual world, or visual search, is something we all do every day. We frequently make 'false-negative' errors, wherein we erroneously conclude a target was absent when one was, in fact, present. These sorts of errors can have tremendous costs, as when signs of cancers are missed in diagnostic radiology. Prior research has characterized the cause of many of these errors as being due to failure to completely search the area where targets may be present; indeed, roughly one-third of chest nodules missed in lung cancer screening are never fixated (Drew, Võ, Olwal, Jacobson, Seltzer and Wolfe, Journal of Vision 13:3, 2013)...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205484/subclinical-left-ventricular-systolic-and-diastolic-dysfunction-in-type-1-diabetic-children-and-adolescents-with-good-metabolic-control
#15
Tamer Yoldaş, Utku Arman Örün, Elif Sagsak, Zehra Aycan, Özkan Kaya, Senem Özgür, Selmin Karademir
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac dysfunction is a well-known consequence of diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to assess whether type 1 diabetic children and adolescents with good metabolic control have early echocardiographic signs of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and whether diabetes duration has any influence, using conventional and nonconventional echocardiographic tools. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 80 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were included...
December 3, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203204/component-deficits-of-visual-neglect-magnetic-attraction-of-attention-vs-impaired-spatial-working-memory
#16
Monica N Toba, Marco Rabuffetti, Christophe Duret, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Guido Gainotti, Paolo Bartolomeo
Visual neglect is a disabling consequence of right hemisphere damage, whereby patients fail to detect left-sided objects. Its precise mechanisms are debated, but there is some consensus that distinct component deficits may variously associate and interact in different patients. Here we used a touch-screen based procedure to study two putative component deficits of neglect, rightward "magnetic" attraction of attention and impaired spatial working memory, in a group of 47 right brain-damaged patients, of whom 33 had signs of left neglect...
December 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197366/characteristics-and-outcome-in-patients-with-non-specific-symptoms-and-signs-of-cancer-referred-to-a-fast-track-cancer-patient-pathway-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Sara Falk Jørgensen, Pernille Ravn, Søren Thorsen, Signe Westring Worm
BACKGROUND: In 2012 a new cancer patient pathway for patients with non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC-CPP) was introduced in Denmark. Limited information is available about the patients referred to the NSSC-CPP and the investigational course. The aim was to describe the population and the investigational course, estimate the prevalence of cancer and one-year mortality, and identify factors associated with a subsequent cancer diagnosis in patients referred to the NSSC-CPP...
December 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192653/a-translational-model-to-assess-sign-tracking-and-goal-tracking-behavior-in-children
#18
Michelle A Joyner, Ashley N Gearhardt, Shelly B Flagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191159/barriers-and-facilitating-factors-related-to-use-of-early-warning-score-among-acute-care-nurses-a-qualitative-study
#19
John Asger Petersen, Lars S Rasmussen, Susan Rydahl-Hansen
BACKGROUND: The early warning score (EWS) was developed to identify deteriorating patients early. It is a track-and-trigger system based on vital signs designed to direct appropriate clinical responses based on the seriousness and nature of the underlying condition. Despite its wide dissemination, serious adverse events still occur, often due to failure among staff on general wards to follow the EWS protocol. The purpose of the study was to determine barriers and facilitating factors related to three aspects of the EWS protocol: 1) adherence to monitoring frequency, 2) call for junior doctors to patients with an elevated EWS, and 3) call for the medical emergency team...
December 1, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189934/mechanical-deformation-in-adult-patients-with-unrepaired-aortic-coarctation
#20
Leonel Avendaño-Pérez, María Elena Soto, Nydia Ávila-Vanzzini, Guillermo Bracamontes-Castelo, José Carlos Ruán-Díaz, Erick Alexanderson-Rosas, Nilda Espinola-Zavaleta
Aortic coarctation is a congenital heart disease that causes an increased left ventricular afterload, resulting in increased systolic parietal tension, compensatory hypertrophy, and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The speckle tracking is a new echocardiographic technique that allows the detection of subclinic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to detect early left ventricular dysfunction using mechanical deformation by echocardiography in adults with un-repaired aortic coarctation...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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