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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719236/applying-an-artificial-neural-network-model-for-developing-a-severity-score-for-patients-with-hereditary-amyloid-polyneuropathy
#1
Shenia Novis, Felipe Machado, Victor B Costa, Debora Foguel, Marcia W Cruz, José Manoel de Seixas
Hereditary (familial) amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a systemic disease that includes a sensorimotor polyneuropathy related to transthyretin (TTR) mutations. So far, a scale designed to classify the severity of this disease has not yet been validated. This work proposes the implementation of an artificial neural network (ANN) in order to develop a severity scale for monitoring the disease progression in FAP patients. In order to achieve this goal, relevant symptoms and laboratory findings were collected from 98 Brazilian patients included in THAOS - the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcomes Survey...
July 18, 2017: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#2
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core. These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined if the diminishing dopamine signal in the nucleus accumbens core has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681427/delirium-after-fast-track-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-a-cohort-study-of-6331-elderly-patients
#3
P B Petersen, C C Jørgensen, H Kehlet
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a well-known complication among elderly surgical patients and associated with increased morbidity, mortality and length of stay (LOS). In elective orthopedic surgery, including hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA), most studies report incidences between 5% and 10%. The multimodal optimization of perioperative care (fast-track) aims to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity and LOS, but limited data are available on the effect on PD. Consequently, the study investigated signs of PD associated with LOS > 4 days...
August 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680416/an-eye-tracking-study-on-the-perception-and-comprehension-of-unimodal-and-bimodal-linguistic-inputs-by-deaf-adolescents
#4
Eliana Mastrantuono, David Saldaña, Isabel R Rodríguez-Ortiz
An eye tracking experiment explored the gaze behavior of deaf individuals when perceiving language in spoken and sign language only, and in sign-supported speech (SSS). Participants were deaf (n = 25) and hearing (n = 25) Spanish adolescents. Deaf students were prelingually profoundly deaf individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) used by age 5 or earlier, or prelingually profoundly deaf native signers with deaf parents. The effectiveness of SSS has rarely been tested within the same group of children for discourse-level comprehension...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676467/the-rules-of-engagement-perspectives-on-secure-messaging-from-experienced-ambulatory-patient-portal-users
#5
Cynthia J Sieck, Jennifer L Hefner, Jeanette Schnierle, Hannah Florian, Aradhna Agarwal, Kristen Rundell, Ann Scheck McAlearney
BACKGROUND: Patient portals have shown promise in engaging individuals in self-management of chronic conditions by allowing patients to input and track health information and exchange secure electronic messages with their providers. Past studies have identified patient barriers to portal use including usability issues, low health literacy, and concerns about loss of personal contact as well as provider concerns such as increased time spent responding to messages. However, to date, studies of both patient and provider perspectives on portal use have focused on the pre-implementation or initial implementation phases and do not consider how these issues may change as patients and providers gain greater experience with portals...
July 4, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659281/diverse-roads-to-relapse-a-discriminative-cue-signaling-cocaine-availability-is-more-effective-in-renewing-cocaine-seeking-in-goal-trackers-than-sign-trackers-and-depends-on-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-activity
#6
Kyle K Pitchers, Kyra B Phillips, Jonte L Jones, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign-trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal-trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654030/in-vivo-tracking-of-edema-development-and-microvascular-pathology-in-a-model-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Angelika Hoffmann, Xavier Helluy, Manuel Fischer, Ann-Kristin Mueller, Sabine Heiland, Mirko Pham, Martin Bendszus, Johannes Pfeil
Cerebral malaria is a sign of severe malarial disease and is often a harbinger of death. While aggressive management can be life-saving, the detection of cerebral malaria can be difficult. We present an experimental mouse model of cerebral malaria that shares multiple features of the human disease, including edema and microvascular pathology. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we can detect and track the blood-brain barrier disruption, edema development, and subsequent brain swelling. We describe multiple MRI techniques that can visualize these pertinent pathological changes...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647400/intraoperative-registered-ultrasound-and-fluoroscopy-iruf-for-dose-calculation-during-prostate-brachytherapy-improved-accuracy-compared-to-standard-ultrasound-based-dosimetry
#8
Junghoon Lee, Omar Y Mian, Yi Le, Hee Joon Bae, E Clif Burdette, Theodore L DeWeese, Jerry L Prince, Daniel Y Song
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraoperative transrectal ultrasound dosimetry during low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is imprecise due to sonographic distortion caused by seed echoes and needle tracks that obscure seed positions or create false signals as well as traumatic edema. Here we report the results of a pilot study comparing a combined ultrasound and fluoroscopy-based seed localization method (iRUF) to standard ultrasound-based dosimetry (USD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing permanent Pd-103 seed implantation for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled...
June 21, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637462/outbreak-tracking-of-aleutian-mink-disease-virus-amdv-using-partial-ns1-gene-sequencing
#9
P Ryt-Hansen, C K Hjulsager, E E Hagberg, M Chriél, T Struve, A G Pedersen, L E Larsen
BACKGROUND: Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) is an infectious disease of mink (Neovison vison) and globally a major cause of economic losses in mink farming. The disease is caused by Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) that belongs to the genus Amdoparvovirus within the Parvoviridae family. Several strains have been described with varying virulence and the severity of infection also depends on the host's genotype and immune status. Clinical signs include respiratory distress in kits and unthriftiness and low quality of the pelts...
June 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626013/sleep-disrupts-high-level-speech-parsing-despite-significant-basic-auditory-processing
#10
Shiri Makov, Omer Sharon, Nai Ding, Michal Ben-Shachar, Yuval Nir, Elana Zion Golumbic
The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli, such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed, using non-invasive brain recordings. Those were so far tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels, using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that can online monitor the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603785/patterns-of-gall-bladder-wall-thickening-in-dengue-fever-a-mirror-of-the-severity-of-disease
#11
Jitendra Premjibhai Parmar, Chander Mohan, Maulik Vora
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a major public health problem with an increased incidence in recent years. Gall bladder wall thickening has been reported as one of the most common findings in dengue fever. There is a paucity of literature regarding the various patterns of gall bladder wall thickening in dengue fever and their significance in predicting the severity of disease. METHODOLOGY AND SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS: Out of 93 seropositive patients included in the study, 54 patients with dengue fever had gall bladder wall thickening...
April 2017: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595818/do-not-resuscitate-orders-and-high-risk-pediatric%C3%A2-surgery-professional-nuisance-or%C3%A2-medical%C3%A2-necessity
#12
Lauren M Baumann, Kibileri Williams, Fizan Abdullah, Richard J Hendrickson, Tolulope A Oyetunji
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data in the literature regarding end-of-life care and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status of the pediatric surgical patient, although invasive procedures are frequently performed in very high risk and critically ill children. Despite significant efforts in adult medicine to enhance discussions around end-of-life care, little is known about similar endeavors in the pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective review of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric database was performed...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592849/imaging-grading-system-for-the-diagnosis-of-dural-ossification-based-on-102-segments-of-tolf-ct-bone-window-data
#13
Sheng-Yuan Zhou, Bo Yuan, Xiong-Sheng Chen, Xue-Bin Li, Wei Zhu, Lian-Shun Jia
Thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (TOLF) complicated with dural ossification (DO) is a severe clinical disease. The diagnosis of DO preoperatively remains challenging. The current study retrospectively analyzed imaging features of 102 segments with TOLF from 39 patients and proposed a grading system for evaluating DO risk. Logistic regression results showed that unilateral spinal canal occupational rate (UCOR), tram track signs, and C-signs were all risk factors for DO (odds ratios of 5.393, 19...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592829/speckle-tracking-stress-echocardiography-uncovers-early-subclinical-cardiac-involvement-in-pediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#14
Kai O Hensel, Francisca E Abellan Schneyder, Lucia Wilke, Andreas Heusch, Stefan Wirth, Andreas C Jenke
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether cardiac consequences present early in IBD is unknown. This is the first study in children aiming to unmask altered myocardial mechanics in IBD. We enrolled 50 consecutive normotensive children with Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 28) or ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 22). The study groups consisted of 18 patients with active inflammatory disease (mean age 14.6 ± 2.5 years) and 32 children with IBD in remission (14...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585997/diagnosis-and-management-of-traumatic-patellar-instability-in-the-pediatric-patient
#15
Steven F DeFroda, Joseph A Gil, Alex Boulos, Aristides I Cruz
Instability of the patella is a common cause of knee pain and dysfunction in pediatric and adolescent patients and can be due to several factors. Although some patients will recall a specific traumatic event others may not, requiring the diagnosis to be made on the basis of physical examination and imaging. Congenital dislocation and connective tissue disorders should also be considered, even in the setting of trauma. There are radiographic parameters that may identify causes of instability such as trochlear and patellar abnormalities, and magnetic resonance imaging can identify signs of trauma such as bony edema, loose osteochondral fragments, and increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance...
June 6, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574689/changing-urban-carbon-metabolism-over-time-historical-trajectory-and-future-pathway
#16
Shaoqing Chen, Bin Chen
Cities are expected to play a major role in carbon emissions mitigation. A key step in decoupling urban economy from carbon emissions is to understand the full impact of socioeconomic development on urban metabolism over time. Herein, we establish a system-based framework for modeling the variation of urban carbon metabolism through time by integrating a metabolic flow inventory, input-output model, and network analysis. Using Beijing as a case study, we track the historical trajectory of carbon flows embodied in urban final consumption over 1985-2012...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569746/ants-regulate-colony-spatial-organization-using-multiple-chemical-road-signs
#17
Yael Heyman, Noam Shental, Alexander Brandis, Abraham Hefetz, Ofer Feinerman
Communication provides the basis for social life. In ant colonies, the prevalence of local, often chemically mediated, interactions introduces strong links between communication networks and the spatial distribution of ants. It is, however, unknown how ants identify and maintain nest chambers with distinct functions. Here, we combine individual tracking, chemical analysis and machine learning to decipher the chemical signatures present on multiple nest surfaces. We present evidence for several distinct chemical 'road-signs' that guide the ants' movements within the dark nest...
June 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557672/the-road-to-language-learning-is-not-entirely-iconic-iconicity-neighborhood-density-and-frequency-facilitate-acquisition-of-sign-language
#18
Naomi K Caselli, Jennie E Pyers
Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition...
July 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546646/canaries-in-a-coal-mine-what-the-killings-of-journalists-tell-us-about-future-repression
#19
Anita R Gohdes, Sabine C Carey
An independent press that is free from government censorship is regarded as instrumental to ensuring human rights protection. Yet governments across the globe often target journalists when their reports seem to offend them or contradict their policies. Can the government's infringements of the rights of journalists tell us anything about its wider human rights agenda? The killing of a journalist is a sign of deteriorating respect for human rights. If a government orders the killing of a journalist, it is willing to use extreme measures to eliminate the threat posed by the uncontrolled flow of information...
March 2017: Journal of Peace Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532165/16p11-2-microduplication-and-associated-symptoms-a-case-study
#20
Martin Knoll, Kirsten Arnett, Jeremy Hertza
The minimal amount known regarding chromosomal microduplications and microdeletions presents a fascinating new direction of research into better understanding misunderstood symptoms and overall genomic influence. Specifically, the 16p11.2 microduplication has been associated with a myriad of possible cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms. The purpose of this study is to inform the reader of the biological basis of the 16p11.2 microduplication, review sources that suggest a link between the microduplication and clinically relevant diagnoses/sources of impairment, and to better understand the implications and development of symptoms through the illustration of a case example...
May 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
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