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Sign tracking

Maria P Rebollo, Moses J Bockarie
Interventions against neglected tropical diseases (NTD), including lymphatic filariasis (LF), scaled up dramatically after the signing of the London Declaration (LD) in 2012. LF is targeted for elimination by 2020, but some countries are considered not on track to meet the 2020 target using the recommended preventive chemotherapy and morbidity management strategies. In this Opinion article we review the prospects for achieving LF elimination by 2020 in the light of the renewed global action against NTDs and the global efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) by 2030...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Nils Kasties, Sarah Starosta, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
Animals exploit visual information to identify objects, form stimulus-reward associations, and prepare appropriate behavioral responses. The nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an associative region of the avian endbrain, contains neurons exhibiting prominent response modulation during presentation of reward-predicting visual stimuli, but it is unclear whether neural activity represents valuation signals, stimulus properties, or sensorimotor contingencies. To test the hypothesis that NCL neurons represent stimulus value, we subjected pigeons to a Pavlovian sign-tracking paradigm in which visual cues predicted rewards differing in magnitude (large vs...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Isabella Bertani, Cara E Steger, Daniel R Obenour, Gary L Fahnenstiel, Thomas B Bridgeman, Thomas H Johengen, Michael J Sayers, Robert A Shuchman, Donald Scavia
Cyanobacteria blooms are a major environmental issue worldwide. Our understanding of the biophysical processes driving cyanobacterial proliferation and the ability to develop predictive models that inform resource managers and policy makers rely upon the accurate characterization of bloom dynamics. Models quantifying relationships between bloom severity and environmental drivers are often calibrated to an individual set of bloom observations, and few studies have assessed whether differences among observing platforms could lead to contrasting results in terms of relevant bloom predictors and their estimated influence on bloom severity...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Kenneth Kato, K Bailey Freund, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) in a young male showing structural changes induced by a Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Case report of a 26-year-old oboist with SNIFR, including multimodal imaging. Eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to compare the retinal architecture at rest and during a Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular and peripapillary retinoschisis with no signs of pathologic myopia, optic pit, or vitreoretinal traction...
August 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Christian Cadeddu, Alessandra Piras, Mariele Dessì, Clelia Madeddu, Giovanni Mantovani, Mario Scartozzi, Andreas Hagendorff, Paolo Colonna, Giuseppe Mercuro
Trastuzumab (TZB) has been shown to be extremely effective in breast cancer patients over-expressing HER-2, but careful cardiac monitoring is required when TZB is administered with anthracyclines, since the combination can increase its toxicity. Myocardial deformation indexes associated with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have proven to be very sensitive in identifying early myocardial dysfunction. An observational, prospective study was designed to assess TZB-induced cardiac damage using STE in patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer who had been sequentially treated with TZB following epirubicin (EPI)...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Simone Cerciello, Jonathan Robin, Sébastien Lustig, Giulio Maccauro, Thomas J Heyse, Philippe Neyret
INTRODUCTION: Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a frequent complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patelloplasty, defined as reshaping the patella for optimal tracking in the trochlea, has been proposed to reduce the rate of this complication in patellar retaining implants. Aim of this study was to analyze the available literature regarding the outcomes of patelloplasty and to assess its methodological quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive review of the English literature was performed using the keywords "total knee arthroplasty", "patelloplasty" and "patellaplasty" with no limit regarding the year of publication...
November 2016: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
David Chan, Jason Rajsic, Jay Pratt
University-based psychological research typically relies on the participation of undergraduate students for data collection. Using this particular sample brings with it several possible issues, including the self-scheduling done by the participants. Research on performance between students who sign up early versus late in the semester has been inconsistent. Some research report benefits for early participant semesters, while others find no differences between the two groups. Anecdotally, it seems that the former holds true, as many researchers worry about the data collected late in the semester, sometimes opting for more motivated earlier participants in the next semester...
September 21, 2016: Vision Research
Kathleen S Paul, Claudia M Astorino, Shara E Bailey
OBJECTIVES: The Patterning Cascade Model (PCM) provides an evolutionary developmental framework for exploring diversity in tooth crown form. According to the model, proximity of secondary enamel knots and tooth germ size track underlying developmental processes that dictate ultimate crown morphology (i.e., cusp number, accessory cusp presence/size). Previous research has shown the model to successfully predict variation in Carabelli's trait expression between antimeric and metameric pairs of human permanent molars...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Christopher J Fitzpatrick, Jonathan D Morrow
The attribution of incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues contributes to cue-induced craving and relapse in addicted patients. Recently, it was demonstrated that subanesthetic ketamine increases motivation to quit and decreases cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent individuals. Although the underlying mechanism of this effect is currently unknown, one possibility is that subanesthetic ketamine decreases the incentive-motivational value of reward-related cues. In the present study, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure to identify sign-trackers, rats that attribute incentive-motivational value to reward-related cues, and goal-trackers, rats that assign only predictive value to reward-related cues...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Yossra Mahran, Robert Schueler, Marcel Weber, Carmen Pizarro, Georg Nickenig, Dirk Skowasch, Christoph Hammerstingl
AIM: To find parameters from transthorathic echocardiography (TTE) including speckle-tracking (ST) analysis of the right ventricle (RV) to identify precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Forty-four patients with suspected PH undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) were consecutively included (mean age 63.1 ± 14 years, 61% male gender). All patients underwent standardized TTE including ST analysis of the RV. Based on the subsequent TTE-derived measurements, the presence of PH was assessed: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by Simpsons rule from 4Ch...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Sangram Kishor Patel, Deepika Ganju, Parimi Prabhakar, Rajatashuvra Adhikary
BACKGROUND: The relationship between mobility, violence and mental health has largely been unexplored in developing countries. This study screens for signs of major depression, and assesses its association with mobility and violence among female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India. METHODS: Data (N=2400) for this study were used from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey (BTS-2014) conducted among FSWs from a southern state of India as part of the Avahan programme...
2016: BMJ Open
M V Pshenichnov, V V Egorov, O V Kolenko, E L Sorokin
AIM: to compare the effectiveness of biomicroscopy (BMS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in recognizing prognostically unfavorable signs in peripheral vitreoretinal dystrophy (PVRD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 131 cases of equatorial PVRD (91 eyes of 56 patients) were assessed. The mean patient's age was 24.7 years. The length of the anterior-posterior axis of the eyeball averaged 25.36±1.12 mm. Prevalence of particular warning signs in PVRD patients at BMS or OCT was comparatively analyzed...
July 2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Cynthia Blanton, Jennifer K Brooks, Laura McKnight
Negative attitudes toward people with high body weight have been documented in pre-professional health students, prompting concern that such feelings may manifest as poor patient care in professional practice. This study assessed weight bias in university students in the non-physician health professions. A convenience sample of 206 students completed an online survey composed of a validated 14-item scale (1-5 lowest to highest weight bias) and questions regarding personal experiences of weight bias. Respondents were grouped by discipline within graduate and undergraduate levels...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
Amory Koch, Jatinder Gulani, Gregory King, Kevin Hieber, Mark Chappell, Natalia Ossetrova
Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population...
2016: PloS One
Steven L Moulton, Jane Mulligan, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Greg Z Grudic, Sharone Green, Robert V Gibbons, Gary W Muniz, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Alan L Rothman, Stephen J Thomas, Victor A Convertino
BACKGROUND: Early recognition and treatment of circulatory volume loss is essential in the clinical management of dengue viral infection. We hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm, originally developed for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss in combat casualties, could: (1) indicate the central volume status of children with dengue during the early stages of "shock"; and (2) track fluid resuscitation status. METHODS: Continuous noninvasive photoplethysmographic waveforms were collected over a 5-month period from three children of Thai ethnicity with clinical suspicion of dengue...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Sara R Collins, Munira Z Gunja, Michelle M Doty, Sophie Beutel
The number of uninsured people in the United States has declined by an estimated 20 million since the Affordable Care Act went into effect in 2010. Yet, an estimated 24 million people still lack health insurance. Goal: To examine the characteristics of the remaining uninsured adults and their reasons for not enrolling in marketplace plans or Medicaid. Methods: Analysis of the Commonwealth Fund ACA Tracking Survey, February--April 2016. Key findings and conclusions: There have been notable shifts in the demographic composition of the uninsured since the law's major coverage expansions went into effect in 2014...
August 2016: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
Jiaming Yan, Hong Hong, Heng Zhao, Yusheng Li, Chen Gu, Xiaohua Zhu
Targets located at the same distance are easily neglected in most through-wall multiple targets detecting applications which use the single-input single-output (SISO) ultra-wideband (UWB) radar system. In this paper, a novel multiple targets vital signs tracking algorithm for through-wall detection using SISO UWB radar has been proposed. Taking advantage of the high-resolution decomposition of the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) based algorithm, the respiration signals of different targets can be decomposed into different sub-signals, and then, we can track the time-varying respiration signals accurately when human targets located in the same distance...
2016: Sensors
Claudio Stacchi, Federico Berton, Gianluca Turco, Maurizio Franco, Chiara Ottavia Navarra, Francesca Andolsek, Michele Maglione, Roberto Di Lenarda
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse in vitro the main features of osteotomies performed by means of different ultrasonic and sonic systems for bone surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six ultrasonic and two sonic devices for osseous surgery were evaluated during block harvesting on bovine bone. After measuring cutting speed, images of the blocks were acquired by light stereo-microscope and E-SEM, in order to measure the osteotomy thickness and to evaluate the presence of intra-trabecular bone debris and signs of thermal injuries on the bone...
September 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
A Dimirov, T Garnizov, V Zlatkov, B Frundeva, A Masseva
Conservative management of placenta accrete consists in leaving the entire placenta accreta in situ after vaginal delivery of the fetus. This behavior requires active monitoring the vital signs of mother, genital status and paraclinical indicators for an extended period after birth. Monitoring is suspended after full absorption of the placenta. The success of the conservative approach depends on: the adopted protocol formanagement of placenta accreta, whether the diagnosis is known before birth, the possible of application techniques, reducing blood flow to the uterus, keeping the placental period and others...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
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