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M Janssen, J Farley, E Hearst
Standard models of Pavlovian conditioning neglect local effects of unsignaled unconditioned stimuli (USs) on learning and performance. Using the approach-withdrawal behavior of pigeons toward keylights as conditioned stimuli (CSs), the authors varied the specific times (5-110 s) that USs occurred before or after a CS. Withdrawal from a CS generally increased as the time between a US before and/or after the CS was lengthened. Combinations of 2 distant USs produced more withdrawal from the CS than either US alone, whereas combinations of a distant and a nearby US yielded behavior intermediate between that for either US alone...
April 1995: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes
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