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Lauren R Godier, Sanne de Wit, Anthony Pinto, Joanna E Steinglass, Ashley L Greene, Jessica Scaife, Claire M Gillan, B Timothy Walsh, Helen-Blair Simpson, Rebecca J Park
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterised by compulsive behaviour, such as self-starvation and excessive exercise, which develop in the pursuit of weight-loss. Recent theory suggests that once established, compulsive weight-loss behaviours in AN may become habitual. In two parallel studies, we measured whether individuals with AN showed a bias toward habits using two outcome-devaluation tasks. In Study 1, 23 women with AN (restrictive and binge/purge subtypes), and 18 healthy controls (HC) completed the slips-of-action paradigm, designed to assess reward-based habits...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Lauren R Godier, Rebecca J Park
The characteristic relentless self-starvation behavior seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behavior. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behavior in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behavior in AN. Eight main themes emerged from thematic qualitative analysis; compulsivity as central to AN, impaired control, escalating compulsions, emotional triggers, negative reactions, detrimental continuation of behavior, functional impairment, and role in recovery...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Hong Li, Ganggang Li, Linxin Liu, Zhenzhen Guo, Xiaofang Ma, Ning Cao, Haihong Lin, Guang Han, Yongjian Duan, Gangjun Du
Angiogenesis is necessary for cancer progression, but antiangiogenic therapy actually promotes tumor recurrence, progression, and metastasis. This study focused on the contribution of the tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) to lung cancer progression. TIF was isolated and quantified for 10 μg protein/mL. Malignant driver characteristics of TIF were examined by tumor-initiating cells (TIC), self-renewal, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), autophagy, and apoptosis in vitro. In vivo tumor model was used to investigate the mechanistic roles of TIF in lung cancer progression...
November 2015: Cancer Prevention Research
Yuan-Yuan Zhou, Ying Li, Wei-Qin Jiang, Lin-Fu Zhou
Autophagy refers to a lysosomal degradative pathway or a process of self-cannibalization. This pathway maintains nutrients levels for vital cellular functions during periods of starvation and it provides cells with survival advantages under various stress situations. However, the mechanisms responsible for the induction and regulation of autophagy are poorly understood. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway functions to induce defence mechanisms that protect organisms against acute oxidative and xenobiotic insults...
2015: Bioscience Reports
Bonnie J Cuthbert, Richard G Brennan, Maria A Schumacher
Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious bacteria known and is the etiologic agent of tularemia. Francisella virulence arises from a 33 kilobase (Kb) pathogenicity island (FPI) that is regulated by the macrophage locus protein A (MglA) and the stringent starvation protein A (SspA). These proteins interact with both RNA polymerase (RNAP) and the pathogenicity island gene regulator (PigR) to activate FPI transcription. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not well understood. Indeed, while most bacterial SspA proteins function as homodimers to activate transcription, F...
2015: PloS One
Takashi X Fujisawa, Chiho Yatsuga, Hiroyo Mabe, Eiji Yamada, Masato Masuda, Akemi Tomoda
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by the relentless pursuit to lose weight, mostly through self-starvation, and a distorted body image. AN tends to begin during adolescence among women. However, the underlying neural mechanisms related to AN remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry based on magnetic resonance imaging scans, we investigated whether the presence of AN was associated with discernible changes in brain morphology. Participants were 20 un-medicated, right-handed patients with early-onset AN and 14 healthy control subjects...
2015: PloS One
Will Mandy, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: Many women with eating disorders (EDs) have social impairments and difficulties with flexibility. It is unclear to what extent these are manifestations of an underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD); or whether they are instead the consequence of starvation, anxiety, low mood or obsessive compulsive disorder, all of which are highly prevalent in EDs. The resolution of this clinically and theoretically important uncertainty will require the use of gold-standard ASD assessment measures...
2015: Molecular Autism
Hernán Rojas, Brice Floyd, Stephanie C Morriss, Diane Bassham, Gustavo C MacIntosh, Ariel Goldraij
A combined strategy of phosphate (Pi) remobilization from internal and external RNA sources seems to be conserved in plants exposed to Pi starvation. Thus far, the only ribonucleases (RNases) reported to be induced in Nicotiana alata undergoing Pi deprivation are extracellular S-like RNase NE and NnSR1. NnSR1 is a class III non S-RNase of unknown subcellular location. Here, we examine the hypothesis that NnSR1 is an intracellular RNase derived from the self-incompatibility system with specific expression in self-incompatible Nicotiana alata...
July 2015: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Mareike Rudolf, Chana Kranzler, Hagar Lis, Ketty Margulis, Mara Stevanovic, Nir Keren, Enrico Schleiff
Iron is a member of a small group of nutrients that limits aquatic primary production. Mechanisms for utilizing iron have to be efficient and adapted according to the ecological niche. In respect to iron acquisition cyanobacteria, prokaryotic oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms can be divided into siderophore- and non-siderophore-producing strains. The results presented in this paper suggest that the situation is far more complex. To understand the bioavailability of different iron substrates and the advantages of various uptake strategies, we examined iron uptake mechanisms in the siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp...
August 2015: Molecular Microbiology
Salman Hasan, Phylis Hétié, Erika L Matunis
Tissue-specific stem cells are thought to resist environmental insults better than their differentiating progeny, but this resistance varies from one tissue to another, and the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. Here, we use the Drosophila testis as a model system to study the regulation of cell death within an intact niche. This niche contains sperm-producing germline stem cells (GSCs) and accompanying somatic cyst stem cells (or CySCs). Although many signals are known to promote stem cell self-renewal in this tissue, including the highly conserved JAK-STAT pathway, the response of these stem cells to potential death-inducing signals, and factors promoting stem cell survival, have not been characterized...
August 1, 2015: Developmental Biology
Brent Bezo, Stefania Maggi
Qualitative methodology was used to investigate the intergenerational impact of the 1932-1933 Holodomor genocide on three generations in 15 Ukrainian families. Each family, residing in Ukraine, consisted of a first generation survivor, a second generation adult child and a third generation adult grandchild of the same line. The findings show that the Holodomor, a genocide that claimed millions of lives by forced starvation, still exerts substantial effects on generations born decades later. Specifically, thematic analysis of the 45 semi-structured, in-depth interviews, done between July and November 2010, revealed that a constellation of emotions, inner states and trauma-based coping strategies emerged in the survivors during the genocide period and were subsequently transmitted into the second and third generations...
June 2015: Social Science & Medicine
Guido K W Frank
Over the past decade, brain imaging has helped to better define eating disorder-related brain circuitry. Brain research on gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes had been inconsistent, possibly due to the effects of acute starvation, exercise, medication, and comorbidity, but newer studies have controlled for such effects. Those studies suggest larger left medial orbitofrontal gyrus rectus volume in ill adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa after recovery from anorexia nervosa, and in adult bulimia nervosa...
August 2015: CNS Spectrums
Bert-Ewald Priegnitz, Ulrike Brandt, Khomaizon A K Pahirulzaman, Jeroen S Dickschat, André Fleißner
Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity...
June 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Pouneh K Fazeli, Alexander T Faje, Ela J Cross, Hang Lee, Clifford J Rosen, Mary L Bouxsein, Anne Klibanski
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation and low body weight. Women with AN have impaired bone formation, low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. FGF-21 is a hormone secreted by the liver in starvation and FGF-21 transgenic mice have significant bone loss due to an uncoupling of bone resorption and bone formation. We hypothesized that FGF-21 may contribute to the low bone mass state of AN. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied 46 women: 20 with AN (median age [interquartile range]: 27...
August 2015: Bone
Christian Q Scheckhuber
The study of cellular quality control systems has emerged as a highly dynamic and relevant field of contemporary research. It has become clear that cells possess several lines of defense against damage to biologically relevant molecules like nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. In addition to organelle dynamics (fusion/fission/motility/inheritance) and tightly controlled protease activity, the degradation of surplus, damaged or compromised organelles by autophagy (cellular 'self-eating') has received much attention from the scientific community...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Katherine Curnow
There has been limited examination of the Australian common law position regarding contemporaneous refusals of care or medical treatment by competent adults since the first two Australian cases to adjudicate on refusals of this type: H Ltd v J and Brightwater Care Group (Inc) v Rossiter. This article maps the legal position in Australia in light of the two cases with particular emphasis on the finding in H Ltd v J that self-starvation is not suicide at common law. Finally, this article highlights the broader relevance of this area of the law and its capacity to inform debates as disparate as whether to legalise voluntary euthanasia and the possible implications for the autonomy of pregnant women of proposed laws giving legal status to fetuses (particularly Zoe's Law)...
December 2014: Journal of Law and Medicine
Ben White, Lindy Willmott, Julian Savulescu
Increasingly, individuals want control over their own destiny. This includes the way in which they die and the timing of their death. The desire for self-determination at the end of life is one of the drivers for the ever-increasing number of jurisdictions overseas that are legalising voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide, and for the continuous attempts to reform State and Territory law in Australia. Despite public support for law reform in this field, legislative change in Australia is unlikely in the near future given the current political landscape...
December 2014: Journal of Law and Medicine
Sharon A Tooze, Hannah C Dooley, Harold B J Jefferies, Justin Joachim, Delphine Judith, Christopher A Lamb, Minoo Razi, Martina Wirth
Autophagy (self-eating) is a highly conserved, vesicular pathway that cells use to eat pieces of themselves, including damaged organelles, protein aggregates or invading pathogens, for self-preservation and survival (Choi et al., N Engl J Med 368:651-662, 2013; Lamb et al., Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 14:759-774, 2013). Autophagy can be delineated into three major vesicular compartments (the phagophore, autophagosome, autolysosome, see Fig. 1). The initial stages of the pathway involve the formation of phagophores (also called isolation membranes), which are open, cup-shaped membranes that expand and sequester the cytosolic components, including organelles and aggregated proteins or intracellular pathogens...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Burkhard A Hense, Martin Schuster
Autoinduction (AI), the response to self-produced chemical signals, is widespread in the bacterial world. This process controls vastly different target functions, such as luminescence, nutrient acquisition, and biofilm formation, in different ways and integrates additional environmental and physiological cues. This diversity raises questions about unifying principles that underlie all AI systems. Here, we suggest that such core principles exist. We argue that the general purpose of AI systems is the homeostatic control of costly cooperative behaviors, including, but not limited to, secreted public goods...
March 2015: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Jeong-Hoon Park, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Jong-Hun Park, Hee-Deung Park, Sang-Hyoun Kim
High-rate biohydrogen production was achieved via hybrid immobilized cells fed with galactose in a continuous reactor system. The hybrid immobilized cells were broken down after 20 days and began to form granules by self-aggregation. The peak hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 11.8 ± 0.6 LH2/L-d and 2.1 ± 0.1 mol H2/molgalactose(added), respectively, were achieved at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8h with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 45 g/L-d. This is the highest yet reported for the employment of galactose in a continuous system...
2015: Bioresource Technology
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