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Mariana Schroeder, Mira Jakovcevski, Tamar Polacheck, Yonat Drori, Alessia Luoni, Simone Röh, Jonas Zaugg, Shifra Ben-Dor, Christiane Albrecht, Alon Chen
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a devastating eating disorder characterized by self-starvation that mainly affects women. Its etiology is unknown, which impedes successful treatment options leading to a limited chance of full recovery. Here, we show that gestation is a vulnerable window that can influence the predisposition to AN. By screening placental microRNA expression of naive and prenatally stressed (PNS) fetuses and assessing vulnerability to activity-based anorexia (ABA), we identify miR-340 as a sexually dimorphic regulator involved in prenatal programming of ABA...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Roelie Hempel, Emily Vanderbleek, Thomas R Lynch
This article conceptualizes Anorexia Nervosa (AN) as a prototypical overcontrolled disorder, characterized by low receptivity and openness, low flexible control, pervasive inhibited emotional expressiveness, low emotional awareness, and low social connectedness and intimacy with others. As a result, individuals with AN often report high levels of emotional loneliness. A new evidence-based treatment, Radically Open Dialectical Behavior Therapy (RO-DBT), and its underlying neuroregulatory theory, offer a novel way of understanding how self-starvation and social signaling deficits are used as maladaptive regulation strategies to reduce negative affect...
January 2018: Eating Disorders
Joseph A King, Guido K W Frank, Paul M Thompson, Stefan Ehrlich
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and extreme weight loss. Pseudoatrophic brain changes are often readily visible in individual brain scans, and AN may be a valuable model disorder to study structural neuroplasticity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have found reduced gray matter volume and cortical thinning in acutely underweight patients to normalize following successful treatment. However, some well-controlled studies have found regionally greater gray matter and persistence of structural alterations following long-term recovery...
February 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Karin Eli
Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are inextricably linked, with substantial clinical and epidemiological overlaps. Yet, while anorexia has been analyzed extensively in medical anthropology, bulimia remains under-theorized. This is, perhaps, because, compared to self-starvation, binge eating presents a logic of practice that is difficult to reconcile with culturally reified notions of self-control, transcendence, and hard work. Thus, although anthropologists have analyzed anorexic subjectivities as imbued with a sense of cleanliness and purity, moral superiority, and heroics, similar analyses have not been extended to bulimic subjectivities; instead, bulimia has been subsumed, as a tangential disorder, into analyses of anorexia...
March 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Giuseppe Riva
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is still unclear, despite that it is a critical and potentially mortal illness. A recent neurobiological model considers AN as the outcome of dysfunctions in the neuronal processes related to appetite and emotionality (Kaye et al., 2009, 2013). However, this model still is not able to answer a critical question: What is behind body image disturbances (BIDs) in AN? The article starts its analysis from reviewing some of the studies exploring the effects of the serotonin systems in memory (episodic, working, and spatial) and its dysfunctions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Lauren R Godier, Sanne de Wit, Anthony Pinto, Joanna E Steinglass, Ashley L Greene, Jessica Scaife, Claire M Gillan, B Timothy Walsh, Helen-Blair Simpson, Rebecca J Park
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterised by compulsive behaviour, such as self-starvation and excessive exercise, which develop in the pursuit of weight-loss. Recent theory suggests that once established, compulsive weight-loss behaviours in AN may become habitual. In two parallel studies, we measured whether individuals with AN showed a bias toward habits using two outcome-devaluation tasks. In Study 1, 23 women with AN (restrictive and binge/purge subtypes), and 18 healthy controls (HC) completed the slips-of-action paradigm, designed to assess reward-based habits...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Lauren R Godier, Rebecca J Park
The characteristic relentless self-starvation behavior seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behavior. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behavior in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behavior in AN. Eight main themes emerged from thematic qualitative analysis; compulsivity as central to AN, impaired control, escalating compulsions, emotional triggers, negative reactions, detrimental continuation of behavior, functional impairment, and role in recovery...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Hong Li, Ganggang Li, Linxin Liu, Zhenzhen Guo, Xiaofang Ma, Ning Cao, Haihong Lin, Guang Han, Yongjian Duan, Gangjun Du
Angiogenesis is necessary for cancer progression, but antiangiogenic therapy actually promotes tumor recurrence, progression, and metastasis. This study focused on the contribution of the tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) to lung cancer progression. TIF was isolated and quantified for 10 μg protein/mL. Malignant driver characteristics of TIF were examined by tumor-initiating cells (TIC), self-renewal, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), autophagy, and apoptosis in vitro. In vivo tumor model was used to investigate the mechanistic roles of TIF in lung cancer progression...
November 2015: Cancer Prevention Research
Yuan-Yuan Zhou, Ying Li, Wei-Qin Jiang, Lin-Fu Zhou
Autophagy refers to a lysosomal degradative pathway or a process of self-cannibalization. This pathway maintains nutrients levels for vital cellular functions during periods of starvation and it provides cells with survival advantages under various stress situations. However, the mechanisms responsible for the induction and regulation of autophagy are poorly understood. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway functions to induce defence mechanisms that protect organisms against acute oxidative and xenobiotic insults...
April 22, 2015: Bioscience Reports
Bonnie J Cuthbert, Richard G Brennan, Maria A Schumacher
Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious bacteria known and is the etiologic agent of tularemia. Francisella virulence arises from a 33 kilobase (Kb) pathogenicity island (FPI) that is regulated by the macrophage locus protein A (MglA) and the stringent starvation protein A (SspA). These proteins interact with both RNA polymerase (RNAP) and the pathogenicity island gene regulator (PigR) to activate FPI transcription. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not well understood. Indeed, while most bacterial SspA proteins function as homodimers to activate transcription, F...
2015: PloS One
Takashi X Fujisawa, Chiho Yatsuga, Hiroyo Mabe, Eiji Yamada, Masato Masuda, Akemi Tomoda
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by the relentless pursuit to lose weight, mostly through self-starvation, and a distorted body image. AN tends to begin during adolescence among women. However, the underlying neural mechanisms related to AN remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry based on magnetic resonance imaging scans, we investigated whether the presence of AN was associated with discernible changes in brain morphology. Participants were 20 un-medicated, right-handed patients with early-onset AN and 14 healthy control subjects...
2015: PloS One
Will Mandy, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: Many women with eating disorders (EDs) have social impairments and difficulties with flexibility. It is unclear to what extent these are manifestations of an underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD); or whether they are instead the consequence of starvation, anxiety, low mood or obsessive compulsive disorder, all of which are highly prevalent in EDs. The resolution of this clinically and theoretically important uncertainty will require the use of gold-standard ASD assessment measures...
2015: Molecular Autism
Hernán Rojas, Brice Floyd, Stephanie C Morriss, Diane Bassham, Gustavo C MacIntosh, Ariel Goldraij
A combined strategy of phosphate (Pi) remobilization from internal and external RNA sources seems to be conserved in plants exposed to Pi starvation. Thus far, the only ribonucleases (RNases) reported to be induced in Nicotiana alata undergoing Pi deprivation are extracellular S-like RNase NE and NnSR1. NnSR1 is a class III non S-RNase of unknown subcellular location. Here, we examine the hypothesis that NnSR1 is an intracellular RNase derived from the self-incompatibility system with specific expression in self-incompatible Nicotiana alata...
July 2015: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Mareike Rudolf, Chana Kranzler, Hagar Lis, Ketty Margulis, Mara Stevanovic, Nir Keren, Enrico Schleiff
Iron is a member of a small group of nutrients that limits aquatic primary production. Mechanisms for utilizing iron have to be efficient and adapted according to the ecological niche. In respect to iron acquisition cyanobacteria, prokaryotic oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms can be divided into siderophore- and non-siderophore-producing strains. The results presented in this paper suggest that the situation is far more complex. To understand the bioavailability of different iron substrates and the advantages of various uptake strategies, we examined iron uptake mechanisms in the siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp...
August 2015: Molecular Microbiology
Salman Hasan, Phylis Hétié, Erika L Matunis
Tissue-specific stem cells are thought to resist environmental insults better than their differentiating progeny, but this resistance varies from one tissue to another, and the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. Here, we use the Drosophila testis as a model system to study the regulation of cell death within an intact niche. This niche contains sperm-producing germline stem cells (GSCs) and accompanying somatic cyst stem cells (or CySCs). Although many signals are known to promote stem cell self-renewal in this tissue, including the highly conserved JAK-STAT pathway, the response of these stem cells to potential death-inducing signals, and factors promoting stem cell survival, have not been characterized...
August 1, 2015: Developmental Biology
Brent Bezo, Stefania Maggi
Qualitative methodology was used to investigate the intergenerational impact of the 1932-1933 Holodomor genocide on three generations in 15 Ukrainian families. Each family, residing in Ukraine, consisted of a first generation survivor, a second generation adult child and a third generation adult grandchild of the same line. The findings show that the Holodomor, a genocide that claimed millions of lives by forced starvation, still exerts substantial effects on generations born decades later. Specifically, thematic analysis of the 45 semi-structured, in-depth interviews, done between July and November 2010, revealed that a constellation of emotions, inner states and trauma-based coping strategies emerged in the survivors during the genocide period and were subsequently transmitted into the second and third generations...
June 2015: Social Science & Medicine
Guido K W Frank
Over the past decade, brain imaging has helped to better define eating disorder-related brain circuitry. Brain research on gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes had been inconsistent, possibly due to the effects of acute starvation, exercise, medication, and comorbidity, but newer studies have controlled for such effects. Those studies suggest larger left medial orbitofrontal gyrus rectus volume in ill adult and adolescent anorexia nervosa after recovery from anorexia nervosa, and in adult bulimia nervosa...
August 2015: CNS Spectrums
Bert-Ewald Priegnitz, Ulrike Brandt, Khomaizon A K Pahirulzaman, Jeroen S Dickschat, André Fleißner
Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity...
June 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Pouneh K Fazeli, Alexander T Faje, Ela J Cross, Hang Lee, Clifford J Rosen, Mary L Bouxsein, Anne Klibanski
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation and low body weight. Women with AN have impaired bone formation, low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. FGF-21 is a hormone secreted by the liver in starvation and FGF-21 transgenic mice have significant bone loss due to an uncoupling of bone resorption and bone formation. We hypothesized that FGF-21 may contribute to the low bone mass state of AN. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied 46 women: 20 with AN (median age [interquartile range]: 27...
August 2015: Bone
Christian Q Scheckhuber
The study of cellular quality control systems has emerged as a highly dynamic and relevant field of contemporary research. It has become clear that cells possess several lines of defense against damage to biologically relevant molecules like nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. In addition to organelle dynamics (fusion/fission/motility/inheritance) and tightly controlled protease activity, the degradation of surplus, damaged or compromised organelles by autophagy (cellular 'self-eating') has received much attention from the scientific community...
February 1, 2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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