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L Brandejsky, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, S Bioulac, D Da Fonseca, C Daudet, L Boyer, R Richieri, C Lançon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to summarize the available data in the literature about the therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The scientific literature search of international articles was performed in February 2016 using the PubMed electronic database. The following MeSH terms were employed: "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial direct current stimulation"...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
David E Vance, Pariya L Fazeli, Shameka L Cody, Tyler R Bell, Caitlin Northcutt Pope
For centuries, since the advent of harnessing magnetic and electrical energies, humans have been applying such energies to various body parts, including the brain, with the goal of improving health. Advancements over the past two decades in the production and affordability of such devices that precisely deliver such energies have resulted in novel therapeutic uses. One technique in particular, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), uses electrodes placed on the scalp to deliver a low electrical current to various areas on the surface of the neocortex...
2016: Nursing: Research and Reviews
Pedro Shiozawa, July Silveira Gomes, Daniella Valverde Ducos, Henrique Teruo Akiba, Álvaro Machado Dias, Alisson Paulino Trevizol, Ricardo R Uchida, Natasza Orlov, Quirino Cordeiro
Introduction: We report a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) combined with cognitive training in schizophrenia. Method: We assessed psychotic symptoms in nine patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All evaluations were scored at baseline, at the end of the intervention protocol, and during a 4-week follow-up. The tDCS protocol consisted of 10 consecutive sessions over 5-day periods...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Yi-Jen Wu, Philip Tseng, Han-Wei Huang, Jon-Fan Hu, Chi-Hung Juan, Kuei-Sen Hsu, Chou-Ching Lin
Diabetes mellitus can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cognitive deficits that manifest as peripheral and central neuropathy, respectively. In this study we investigated the relationship between visuospatial working memory (VSWM) capacity and DPN severity, and attempted to improve VSWM in DPN patients via the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Sixteen DPN patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects received Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) for baseline cognitive assessment...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Asif Jamil, Giorgi Batsikadze, Hsiao-I Kuo, Ludovica Labruna, Alkomiet Hasan, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitsche
Contemporary non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have shown promising potential in both restituting impairments in cortical physiology in clinical settings, as well as modulating cognitive abilities in the healthy population. However, neuroplastic after-effects of tDCS are highly dependent on stimulation parameters, relatively short lasting, and not expectedly uniform between individuals. The present study systematically investigates the full range of current intensity between 0...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Katrin Hanken, Mona Bosse, Kim Möhrke, Paul Eling, Andreas Kastrup, Andrea Antal, Helmut Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. METHODS: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Eleni Papathanasiou, Mathilde Chevignard, Carole Vuillerot, Anne Tiberghien, Ingrid Godard
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric stroke is a relatively rare medical condition, but it often leads to long lasting motor and cognitive impairments. Rehabilitation of motor impairments has been widely studied, with most studies performed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, CP covers a variety of medical conditions, including brain lesions due to paediatric stroke occurring early in life, but not stroke occurring later on during childhood. The specificity of rehabilitation after paediatric stroke remains understudied...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Katharina Marie Steiner, Anne Enders, Wiebke Thier, Giorgi Batsikadze, Nicolas Ludolph, Winfried Ilg, Dagmar Timmann
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum is of increasing interest as a non-invasive technique to modulate motor performance and learning in health and disease. Previous studies have shown that cerebellar tDCS facilitates reach adaptation and associative motor learning in healthy subjects. In the present study it was tested whether cerebellar tDCS improves learning of a complex whole body motor skill. Because this task involves learning of posture and balance likely including learning of a new motor sequence and cognitive strategies, cerebellar tDCS was applied over midline cerebellar structures and the posterolateral cerebellar hemispheres...
2016: PloS One
Viola Oldrati, Jessica Patricelli, Barbara Colombo, Alessandro Antonietti
The main characteristic of the cognitive reflection test (CRT) is that it requires people to overcome a cognitive conflict. Solving this conflict requires (1) inhibitory control of prepotent but incorrect responses and (2) mental set-shifting in order to reframe the problem and reach a meaningful solution. Based on the well-known involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in inhibitory control we hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC would modulate its contribution to problem-solving performance...
September 17, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Tess E den Uyl, Thomas E Gladwin, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying mechanisms by including behavioral (craving, implicit associations, approach tendencies) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials) measurements. METHODS: The analytical sample consisted of 78 hazardous drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test >8) randomly assigned to 4 conditions in a 2-by-2 factorial design (control/active CBM and sham/active tDCS)...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Alexandre Heeren, Joël Billieux, Pierre Philippot, Rudi de Raedt, Chris Baeken, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Maurage, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt
Cognitive models posit that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with and maintained by attentional bias (AB) for social threat. However, over the last years, it has been suggested that AB in SAD may result from a decreased activation of the left prefrontal cortex, and particularly of its dorsolateral part (dlPFC). Accordingly, a transient increase of neural activity within the left dlPFC via non-invasive brain stimulation decreases AB in nonanxious control participants. Yet, none of these studies focused on SAD...
August 16, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Tobias U Hauser, Bruno Rütsche, Karoline Wurmitzer, Silvia Brem, Christian C Ruff, Roland H Grabner
BACKGROUND: A small but increasing number of studies suggest that non-invasive brain stimulation by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate arithmetic processes that are essential for higher-order mathematical skills and that are impaired in dyscalculic individuals. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such stimulation effects, and whether they are specific to cognitive processes involved in different arithmetic tasks. METHODS: We addressed these questions by applying tDCS during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were solving two types of complex subtraction problems: repeated problems, relying on arithmetic fact learning and problem-solving by fact retrieval, and novel problems, requiring calculation procedures...
July 20, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Bryan S Baxter, Bradley J Edelman, Nicholas Nesbitt, Bin He
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to alter the excitability of neurons within the cerebral cortex. Improvements in motor learning have been found in multiple studies when tDCS was applied to the motor cortex before or during task learning. The motor cortex is also active during the performance of motor imagination, a cognitive task during which a person imagines, but does not execute, a movement. Motor imagery can be used with noninvasive brain computer interfaces (BCIs) to control virtual objects in up to three dimensions, but to master control of such devices requires long training times...
July 15, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Kathrin Weidacker, Christoph T Weidemann, Frederic Boy, Stephen J Johnston
OBJECTIVE: It is investigated whether personality-related inter-individual differences modulate tDCS effects on response inhibition. Psychopathic personality traits have been associated with a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent responses and as such it is likely that these traits may modulate the effect tDCS has on response inhibition. This study represents the first investigation into the effect of psychopathic traits on tDCS effects in the context of response inhibition, and based on previous research, the psychopathic traits Blame Externalization and Coldheartedness were elected as potential candidates for modulating tDCS effects to right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Laëtitia Leloup, Diana Dongo Miletich, Gaëlle Andriet, Yves Vandermeeren, Dana Samson
Recently, a few transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies have shown that the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) plays a causal role in moral reasoning especially in cases of accidental harms or attempted harms. The profile of results across studies is, however, not entirely consistent: sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly attempted harms while sometimes the stimulation affects predominantly accidental harms. We argue that such discrepancy could reflect different functional contributions of the rTPJ in moral judgments and that the chosen design parameters or stimulation method may differentially bring to light one or the other functional role of the rTPJ...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Wei-Peng Teo, Makii Muthalib, Sami Yamin, Ashlee M Hendy, Kelly Bramstedt, Eleftheria Kotsopoulos, Stephane Perrey, Hasan Ayaz
In the last decade, virtual reality (VR) training has been used extensively in video games and military training to provide a sense of realism and environmental interaction to its users. More recently, VR training has been explored as a possible adjunct therapy for people with motor and mental health dysfunctions. The concept underlying VR therapy as a treatment for motor and cognitive dysfunction is to improve neuroplasticity of the brain by engaging users in multisensory training. In this review, we discuss the theoretical framework underlying the use of VR as a therapeutic intervention for neurorehabilitation and provide evidence for its use in treating motor and mental disorders such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, and other related clinical areas...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Federico D'Agata, Elena Peila, Alessandro Cicerale, Marcella M Caglio, Paola Caroppo, Sergio Vighetti, Alessandro Piedimonte, Alice Minuto, Marcello Campagnoli, Adriana Salatino, Maria T Molo, Paolo Mortara, Lorenzo Pinessi, Giuseppe Massazza
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two specific Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, the repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Short and long term outcomes (after 3 and 6 months, respectively) were evaluated. We measured, at multiple time points, the manual dexterity using a validated clinical scale (ARAT), electroencephalography auditory event related potentials, and neuropsychological performances in patients with chronic stroke of middle severity...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Hannah L Filmer, Elizabeth Varghese, Guy E Hawkins, Jason B Mattingley, Paul E Dux
In recent years there has been a significant commercial interest in 'brain training' - massed or spaced practice on a small set of tasks to boost cognitive performance. Recently, researchers have combined cognitive training regimes with brain stimulation to try and maximize training benefits, leading to task-specific cognitive enhancement. It remains unclear, however, whether the performance gains afforded by such regimes can transfer to untrained tasks, or how training and stimulation affect the brain's latent information processing dynamics...
July 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Ashlee M Hendy, Alex Tillman, Timo Rantalainen, Makii Muthalib, Liam Johnson, Dawson J Kidgell, Daniel Wundersitz, Peter G Enticott, Wei-Peng Teo
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) results from a loss of dopamine in the brain, leading to movement dysfunctions such as bradykinesia, postural instability, resting tremor and muscle rigidity. Furthermore, dopamine deficiency in PD has been shown to result in maladaptive plasticity of the primary motor cortex (M1). Progressive resistance training (PRT) is a popular intervention in PD that improves muscular strength and results in clinically significant improvements on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)...
2016: Trials
Skadi Wilke, Jonathan List, Ralf Mekle, Robert Lindenberg, Martin Bukowski, Stefanie Ott, Florian Schubert, Bernd Ittermann, Agnes Flöel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients in the chronic phase after recurrent mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration and receptor activity have been reported, possibly mediating subtle but persistent cognitive deficits and increased rate of dementia in older age. Here, we evaluated whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) over the primary motor cortex reduces GABA concentration and GABAB receptor activity in patients with recurrent mTBI...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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