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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806601/influence-of-sublethal-doses-of-acetamiprid-and-halosulfuron-methyl-on-metabolites-of-zebra-fish-brachydanio-rerio
#1
Hong Zhang, Lijuan Zhao
Acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, is reported to have adverse sublethal effects on non-target beneficial organisms. Halosulfuron-methyl (HM), one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the toxicity of acetamiprid and HM. The Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) software program and the retention index method were used to identify 51 metabolites in zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio)...
August 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805788/nrf2-keap1-pathway-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-diminishes-ferroptosis
#2
Z Fan, A-K Wirth, D Chen, C J Wruck, M Rauh, M Buchfelder, N Savaskan
Cancer cells are hallmarked by high proliferation and imbalanced redox consumption and signaling. Various oncogenic pathways such as proliferation and evading cell death converge on redox-dependent signaling processes. Nrf2 is a key regulator in these redox-dependent events and operates in cytoprotection, drug metabolism and malignant progression in cancer cells. Here, we show that patients with primary malignant brain tumors (glioblastomas, WHO °IV gliomas, GBM) have a devastating outcome and overall reduced survival when Nrf2 levels are upregulated...
August 14, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804999/diversity-of-astroglial-responses-across-human-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-brain-aging
#3
Isidro Ferrer
Astrogliopathy refers to alterations of astrocytes occurring in diseases of the nervous system, and it implies the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Reactive astrocytosis refers to the response of astrocytes to different insults to the nervous system, whereas astrocytopathy indicates hypertrophy, atrophy/degeneration and loss of function and pathological remodeling occurring as a primary cause of a disease or as a factor contributing to the development and progression of a particular disease...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804802/improvement-of-glycerol-catabolism-in-bacillus-licheniformis-for-production-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid
#4
Yangyang Zhan, Chengjun Zhu, Bojie Sheng, Dongbo Cai, Qin Wang, Zhiyou Wen, Shouwen Chen
Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 is a well-studied strain to produce poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) with numerous applications. This study is to improve WX-02 strain's capability of assimilating glycerol, a major byproduct of biofuels industries, through metabolic manipulation. Through gene knockout, the GlpK pathway was identified as the sole functional glycerol catabolism pathway, while the DhaK pathway was inactive for this strain under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The enhancement of glycerol utilization was attempted by substituting the native glpFK promoter with the constitutive promoter (P43), ytzE promoter (PytzE), and bacABC operon promoter (PbacA), respectively...
August 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804757/one-aptamer-two-functions-the-full-length-aptamer-inhibits-ampa-receptors-while-the-short-one-inhibits-both-ampa-and-kainate-receptors
#5
William J Jaremko, Zhen Huang, Wei Wen, Andrew Wu, Nicholas Karl, Li Niu
AMPA and kainate receptors, along with NMDA receptors, are distinct subtypes of glutamate ion channels. Excessive activity of AMPA and kainate receptors has been implicated in neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Antagonists that block their activities are therefore potential drug candidates. In a recent article in the Journal of Biological Chemistry by Jaremko et al. 2017, we have reported on the discovery and molecular characterization of an RNA aptamer of a dual functionality: the full-length RNA (101 nucleotide) inhibits AMPA receptors while the truncated or the short (55 nucleotide) RNA inhibits both the AMPA and kainate receptors...
2017: RNA & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804557/motor-neuron-degeneration-following-glycine-mediated-excitotoxicity-induces-spastic-paralysis-after-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbit
#6
Li Wang, Sen Li, Yuan Liu, Dong-Liang Feng, Long Jiang, Zai-Yun Long, Ya-Min Wu
Spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion (SCIR) injury is the major cause of a wide range of complications, including neural degeneration and devastating paraplegia. Decrease of inhibitory neurotransmitters and increase of excitory neurotransmitters are the major cause for the excitotoxicity of neurons. However, no study has reported the temporal loss of motor neuron in the ventral horn of spinal cord area following SCIR-induced spastic paralysis, not even the mechanism under it. In the present study, we found that the rabbits were mainly spastic paralyzed after spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803850/association-of-exposure-to-manganese-and-iron-with-striatal-and-thalamic-gaba-and-other-neurometabolites-neuroimaging-results-from-the-weldox-ii-study
#7
Swaantje Casjens, Urike Dydak, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Clara Quetscher, Christoph Stewig, Benjamin Glaubitz, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, David Edmondson, Chien-Lin Yeh, Tobias Weiss, Christoph van Thriel, Lennard Herrmann, Siegfried Muhlack, Dirk Woitalla, Michael Aschner, Thomas Brüning, Beate Pesch
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method to quantify neurometabolite concentrations in the brain. Within the framework of the WELDOX II study, we investigated the association of exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in the striatum and thalamus of 154 men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GABA-edited and short echo-time MRS at 3T was used to assess brain levels of GABA, glutamate, total creatine (tCr) and other neurometabolites...
August 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803626/putting-the-piezolyte-hypothesis-under-pressure
#8
Christina M Papini, Pranav P Pandharipande, Catherine A Royer, George I Makhatadze
A group of small molecules that stabilize proteins against high hydrostatic pressure has been classified as piezolytes, a subset of stabilizing cosolutes. This distinction would imply that piezolytes counteract the effects of high hydrostatic pressure through effects on the volumetric properties of the protein. The purpose of this study was to determine if cosolutes proposed to be piezolytes have an effect on the volumetric properties of proteins through direct experimental measurements of volume changes upon unfolding of model proteins lysozyme and ribonuclease A, in solutions containing varying cosolute concentrations...
August 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#9
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802275/response-of-methylocystis-sp-strain-sc2-to-salt-stress-physiology-global-transcriptome-and-amino-acid-profiles
#10
Dongfei Han, Hannes Link, Werner Liesack
Soil microorganisms have to rapidly respond to salt-induced osmotic stress. Type II methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis are widely distributed in upland soils, but are known to have a low salt tolerance. Here, we tested the ability of Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 to adapt to increased salinity. When exposed to 0.75% NaCl, methane oxidation was completely inhibited for 2.25 h and fully recovered within 6 h. Growth was inhibited for 23.5 h and then fully recovered. Its transcriptome was profiled after 0 min (control), 45 min (early response) and 14 h (late response) of stress exposure...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802219/development-and-validation-of-a-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-to-quantify-ly-354-740-in-rat-and-marmoset-plasma
#11
Fleur Gaudette, Adjia Hamadjida, Dominique Bédard, Stephen G Nuara, Francis Beaudry, Philippe Huot
LY-354,740 (eglumegad) is a selective and potent agonist of the metabotropic glutamate group II receptors (mGluR2,3) that has already entered clinical trials as a potential anti-psychotic agent and therefore has well-documented pharmacokinetic (PK), safety and tolerability profiles in human. Whereas its development as an anti-psychotic agent has not been pursued, LY-354,740 may have potential in other neuroscience-related fields, notably anxiety and neuro-protection. The common marmoset is a small primate that has long been used in neuroscience...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802074/altered-amino-acid-concentrations-in-nafld-impact-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Chiara Rosso, Emma Buzzigoli, Milena Marietti, Veronica Della Latta, Demetrio Ciociaro, Maria Lorena Abate, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Amalia Gastaldelli
Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA), in particular branched chain (BCAA), are often found increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, if this is due to increased muscular protein catabolism, obesity and/or increased insulin resistance (IR) or impaired tissue metabolism is not known. Thus, we evaluated a) if subjects with NAFLD non-obese (NAFLD-NO), compared to obese (NAFLD-Ob) display altered plasma AA compared to controls (CT); b) if AA concentrations are associated to IR and liver histology...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801462/protein-glutaminylation-is-a-yeast-specific-posttranslational-modification-of-elongation-factor-1a
#13
Thomas Jank, Yury Belyi, Christophe Wirth, Sabine Rospert, Zehan Hu, Jörn Dengjel, Tina Tzivelekidis, Gregers Rom Andersen, Carola Hunte, Andreas Schlosser, Klaus Aktories
Ribosomal translation factors are fundamental for protein synthesis and highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. The essential eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), delivers aminoacyl tRNAs to the A-site of the translating 80S ribosome. Several studies have revealed that eEF1A is posttranslationally modified. Using MS analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and X-ray structural data analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eEF1A, we identified a posttranslational modification in which the alpha amino group of mono-L-glutamine is covalently linked to the side chain of glutamate 45 in eEF1A...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801048/the-key-role-of-glutamate-172-in-the-mechanism-of-type-ii-nadh-quinone-oxidoreductase-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Filipe M Sousa, Filipa V Sena, Ana P Batista, Diogo Athayde, José A Brito, Margarida Archer, A Sofia F Oliveira, Cláudio M Soares, Teresa Catarino, Manuela M Pereira
Type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane bound enzymes that deliver electrons to the respiratory chain by oxidation of NADH and reduction of quinones. In this way, these enzymes also contribute to the regeneration of NAD(+), allowing several metabolic pathways to proceed. As for the other members of the two-Dinucleotide Binding Domains Flavoprotein (tDBDF) superfamily, the enzymatic mechanism of NDH-2s is still little explored and elusive. In this work we addressed the role of the conserved glutamate 172 (E172) residue in the enzymatic mechanism of NDH-2 from Staphylococcus aureus...
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800966/reconstruction-of-a-metabolic-regulatory-network-in-escherichia-coli-for-purposeful-switching-from-cell-growth-mode-to-production-mode-in-direct-gaba-fermentation-from-glucose
#15
Yuki Soma, Yuri Fujiwara, Takuya Nakagawa, Keigo Tsuruno, Taizo Hanai
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a drug and functional food additive and is used as a monomer for producing the biodegradable plastic, polyamide 4. Recently, direct GABA fermentation from glucose has been developed as an alternative to glutamate-based whole cell bioconversion. Although total productivity in fermentation is determined by the specific productivity and cell amount responsible for GABA production, the optimal metabolic state for GABA production conflicts with that for bacterial cell growth. Herein, we demonstrated metabolic state switching from the cell growth mode based on the metabolic pathways of the wild type strain to a GABA production mode based on a synthetic metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli through rewriting of the metabolic regulatory network and pathway engineering...
August 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800937/vortioxetine-a-new-alternative-for-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Estela Salagre, Iria Grande, Brisa Solé, Jose Sanchez-Moreno, Eduard Vieta
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric condition. Its treatment remains a challenge nowadays. Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant with a unique profile, as it acts as a multimodal serotoninergic agent. Its efficacy in MDD has been established in many short- and long-term studies, with 7 positive, 4 negative and 1 failed randomized controlled trials. Moreover, its ability to modulate a wide range of neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, glutamate or GABA) confers vortioxetine pro-cognitive effects...
August 8, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800512/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-emerging-research-targets-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Caren J Blacker, Charles P Lewis, Mark A Frye, Marin Veldic
Glutamatergic dysregulation is implicated in the neuropathology of bipolar disorder (BD). There is increasing interest in investigating the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in BD and as a target for treatment intervention. Bipolar mGluR studies (published January 1992-April 2016) were identified via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus. Full-text screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal were conducted in duplicate, with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The initial literature search for mGluRs in BD, including non-bipolar mood disorders and primary psychotic disorders, identified 1544 articles...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800112/low-concentration-tributyltin-decreases-glur2-expression-via-nuclear-respiratory-factor-1-inhibition
#18
Keishi Ishida, Kaori Aoki, Tomoko Takishita, Masatsugu Miyara, Shuichiro Sakamoto, Seigo Sanoh, Tomoki Kimura, Yasunari Kanda, Shigeru Ohta, Yaichiro Kotake
Tributyltin (TBT), which has been widely used as an antifouling agent in paints, is a common environmental pollutant. Although the toxicity of high-dose TBT has been extensively reported, the effects of low concentrations of TBT are relatively less well studied. We have previously reported that low-concentration TBT decreases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. However, the mechanism of this TBT-induced GluR2 decrease remains unknown...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799954/effects-of-systemic-glutamatergic-manipulations-on-conditioned-eyeblink-responses-and-hyperarousal-in-a-rabbit-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798928/functional-virtual-flow-cytometry-a-visual-analytic-approach-for-characterizing-single-cell-gene-expression-patterns
#20
Zhi Han, Travis Johnson, Jie Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Kun Huang
We presented a novel workflow for detecting distribution patterns in cell populations based on single-cell transcriptome study. With the fast adoption of single-cell analysis, a challenge to researchers is how to effectively extract gene features to meaningfully separate the cell population. Considering that coexpressed genes are often functionally or structurally related and the number of coexpressed modules is much smaller than the number of genes, our workflow uses gene coexpression modules as features instead of individual genes...
2017: BioMed Research International
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