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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351585/core-differences-in-synaptic-signaling-between-primary-visual-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Sheng-Tao Yang, Min Wang, Constantinos D Paspalas, Johanna L Crimins, Marcus T Altman, James A Mazer, Amy F T Arnsten
Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are more resilient than those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in aging, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The current study compared glutamate and neuromodulatory actions in macaque V1 to those in dlPFC, and found striking regional differences. V1 neuronal firing to visual stimuli depended on AMPA receptors, with subtle NMDA receptor contributions, while dlPFC depends primarily on NMDA receptors. Neuromodulatory actions also differed between regions. In V1, cAMP signaling increased neuronal firing, and the phosphodiesterase PDE4A was positioned to regulate cAMP effects on glutamate release from axons...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351358/microfluidics-based-subretinal-chemical-neuromodulation-of-photoreceptor-degenerated-retinas
#2
Corey M Rountree, John B Troy, Laxman Saggere
Purpose: Retinal prostheses can restore rudimentary vision in cases of photoreceptor degeneration through electrical stimulation, but face difficulties achieving high spatial resolution because electrical current is an inherently unnatural stimulus. We investigated the therapeutic feasibility of using patterned delivery of the glutamate neurotransmitter, a primary agent of natural synaptic communication of the retina, as a biomimetic chemical alternative to electrical current for neuromodulation of photoreceptor degenerate retina...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351237/bioengineering-of-rfviia-biopharmaceutical-and-structure-characterization-for-biosimilarity-assessment
#3
Othman Montacir, Houda Montacir, Murat Eravci, Andreas Springer, Stephan Hinderlich, Fereidoun Mahboudi, Amirhossein Saadati, Maria Kristina Parr
Eptacog alfa (NovoSeven®) is a vitamin K-dependent recombinant Factor VIIa produced by genetic engineering from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as a single peptide chain of 406 residues. After activation, it consists of a light chain (LC) of 152 amino and a heavy chain (HC) of 254 amino acids. Recombinant FVIIa undergoes many post-translational modifications (PTMs). The first ten glutamic acids of the N-terminal moiety are γ-carboxylated, Asn145 and Asn322 are N-glycosylated, and Ser52 and Ser60 are O-glycosylated...
January 19, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350927/synthesis-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-c4%C3%AE-amide-substituted-2-aminobicyclo-3-1-0-hexane-2-6-dicarboxylates-identification-of-1s-2s-4s-5r-6s-2-amino-4-3-methoxybenzoyl-amino-bicyclo-3-1-0-hexane-2-6-dicarboxylic-acid-ly2794193-a-highly-potent-and
#4
James A Monn, Steven S Henry, Steven M Massey, David K Clawson, Qi Chen, Benjamin A Diseroad, Rajni M Bhardwaj, Shane Atwell, Frances Lu, Jing Wang, Marijane Russell, Beverly A Heinz, Xu-Shan Wang, Joan H Carter, Brian G Getman, Kofi Adragni, Lisa M Broad, Helene E Sanger, Daniel Ursu, John T Catlow, Steven Swanson, Bryan G Johnson, David B Shaw, David L McKinzie, Junliang Hao
Multiple therapeutic opportunities have been suggested for compounds capable of selective activation of metabotropic glutamate 3 (mGlu3) receptors, but small molecule tools are lacking. As part of our ongoing efforts to identify potent, selective and systemically bioavailable agonists for mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor subtypes, a series of C4β-N-linked variants of (1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-amino-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid 1 (LY354740) were prepared and evaluated for both mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor binding affinity and functional cellular responses...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350907/excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuronal-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord-and-their-role-in-the-control-of-motor-neuron-function-and-degeneration
#5
Uri Nimrod Ramírez-Jarquín, Ricardo Tapia
The complex neuronal networks of the spinal cord coordinate a wide variety of motor functions, including walking, running and voluntary and involuntary movements. This is accomplished by different groups of neurons, called center pattern generators, which control left-right alternation and flexor-extensor patterns. These spinal circuits, located in the ventral horns, are formed by several neuronal types, and the specific function of most of them has been identified by means of studies in vivo and in the isolated spinal cord of mice harboring genetically induced ablation of specific neuronal populations...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350434/the-cystine-glutamate-exchanger-xct-slc7a11-is-expressed-in-significant-concentrations-in-a-subpopulation-of-astrocytes-in-the-mouse-brain
#6
Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Qiu Xiang Hu, Virgine Veronique Follin-Arbelet, Eduard Bentea, Hideyo Sato, Ann Massie, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis by catalyzing cystine uptake and glutamate release. The released glutamate may modulate normal neural signaling and contribute to excitotoxicity in pathological situations. Uncertainty, however, remains as neither the expression levels nor the distribution of xCT have been unambiguously determined. In fact, xCT has been reported in astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia, but most of the information derives from cell cultures. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting that xCT is widely expressed in the central nervous system of both sexes...
January 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350251/pyramidal-cell-selective-glun1-knockout-causes-impairments-in-salience-attribution-and-related-eeg-activity
#7
Alexandra D Forrest, Jakyung Bang, Robert E Featherstone, Jonathan H Bloom, Matthew S Luminais, Rebecca V Zhang, Christopher R Gajewski, Mary F McMullen, Yuling Liang, Steven J Siegel
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disease characterized by symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, loss of pleasure, and inappropriate affect. Although schizophrenia is marked by dysfunction in dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling, it is not presently clear how these dysfunctions give rise to symptoms. The aberrant salience hypothesis of schizophrenia argues that abnormal attribution of motivational salience to stimuli is one of the main contributors to both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
January 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350038/efficient-mass-spectral-analysis-of-active-transporters-overexpressed-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Mamiyo Kawakami, Narinobu Juge, Yuri Kato, Hiroshi Omote, Yoshinori Moriyama, Takaaki Miyaji
Structural analysis of purified active membrane proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry (MS). However, no large-scale expression systems for active eukaryotic membrane proteins are available. Moreover, because membrane proteins cannot easily be digested by trypsin and ionized, they are difficult to analyze by MS. Here, we developed a method for mass spectral analysis of eukaryotic membrane proteins combined to an overexpression system in Escherichia coli. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2/SLC17A6) with a soluble α-helical protein and histidine tag on the N- and C-terminus, respectively, was overexpressed in E...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350007/-the-metabolic-profilings-study-of-serum-and-spinal-cord-from-acute-spinal-cord-injury-rats-%C3%A2-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#9
Hua-Hui Hu, Xiao-Long Huang, Ren-Fu Quan, Zong-Bao Yang, Jing-Jing Xu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the rat model of acute spinal cord injury, followed by aprimary study on this model with ¹H NMR based on metabonomics and to explore the metabonomics and biomarkers of spinal cord injury rat. METHODS: Twenty eight-week-old adult male SD rats of clean grade, with body weight of (200±10) g, were divided into sham operation group and model group in accordance with the law of random numbers, and every group had 10 rats. The rats of sham operation group were operated without damaging the spinal cord, and rats of model group were made an animal model of spinal cord incomplete injury according to the modified Allen's method...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349679/autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies-a-case-series
#10
Faruk Incecik, Ozlem M Herguner, Seyda Besen, Mustafa Yılmaz
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are associated with various neurologic conditions described in patients including stiff person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, refractory epilepsy, limbic and extralimbic encephalitis. GAD antibodies-related limbic encephalitis cases are well described; reports of extralimbic involvement are limited. We describe four cases of GAD antibody-related autoimmune encephalitis. Three of them had extralimbic involvement and only one had limbic encephalitis.
January 18, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349632/growth-performance-and-protective-effect-of-vitamin-e-on-oxidative-stress-pufferfish-takifugu-obscurus-following-by-ammonia-stress
#11
Chang-Hong Cheng, Zhi-Xun Guo, An-Li Wang
This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, biochemical parameters, and antioxidant capacity of pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) exposed to ammonia stress. The experimental basal diets supplemented with vitamin E at the rates of 2.31 (control), 21.84, 40.23, 83.64, 158.93, and 311.64 mg kg-1 dry weight were fed to fish for 60 days. After the feeding trial, the fish were exposed to 100 mg L-1 ammonia-nitrogen for 48 h. The results shown that the vitamin E group significantly improved weight gain, specific growth rate, and the expression levels of growth hormone receptors and insulin-like growth factor...
January 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349577/combination-therapy-with-sulfasalazine-and-valproic-acid-promotes-human-glioblastoma-cell-death-through-imbalance-of-the-intracellular-oxidative-response
#12
Carlos Gustavo Garcia, Suzana Assad Kahn, Luiz Henrique Medeiros Geraldo, Igor Romano, Ivan Domith, Deborah Christinne Lima E Silva, Fernando Dos Santos Assunção, Marcos José Ferreira, Camila Cabral Portugal, Jorge Marcondes de Souza, Luciana Ferreira Romão, Annibal Duarte Pereira Netto, Flávia Regina Souza Lima, Marcelo Cossenza
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor and still lacks effective therapeutic strategies. It has already been shown that old drugs like sulfasalazine (SAS) and valproic acid (VPA) present antitumoral activities in glioma cell lines. SAS has also been associated with a decrease of intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels through a potent inhibition of xc- glutamate/cystine exchanger leading to an antioxidant deprotection. In the same way, VPA was recently identified as a histone deacetylase (HDAT) inhibitor capable of activating tumor suppression genes...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349498/plasma-metabolites-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-swedish-population-a-case-control-study-nested-in-a-prospective-cohort
#13
Lin Shi, Carl Brunius, Marko Lehtonen, Seppo Auriola, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Olov Rolandsson, Kati Hanhineva, Rikard Landberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aims of the present work were to identify plasma metabolites that predict future type 2 diabetes, to investigate the changes in identified metabolites among individuals who later did or did not develop type 2 diabetes over time, and to assess the extent to which inclusion of predictive metabolites could improve risk prediction. METHODS: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort...
January 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348674/variation-at-position-350-in-the-chikungunya-virus-6k-e1-protein-determines-the-sensitivity-of-detection-in-a-rapid-e1-antigen-test
#14
Aekkachai Tuekprakhon, Emi E Nakayama, Koen Bartholomeeusen, Orapim Puiprom, Tadahiro Sasaki, Ralph Huits, Natthanej Luplertlop, Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Pannamas Maneekan, Kevin K Ariën, Tatsuo Shioda, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne pathogen, consists of three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. Although a current rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1-antigen showed high sensitivity to ECSA-genotype viruses, it showed poor performance against the Asian-genotype virus that is spreading in the American continents. To understand the basis for the low performance of this IC test against Asian-genotype virus, we re-examined the anti-CHIKV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used in the assay for their interaction with E1-antigen of the three CHIKV genotypes...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348321/lower-limbic-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-availability-in-alcohol-dependence
#15
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo L Crunelle, Bart de Laat, Jef Verbeek, Stephanie Deman, Hugo Neels, Guy Bormans, Hendrik Peuskens, Koen Van Laere
Animal studies suggest an important role for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but direct human evidence is lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate cerebral mGlu5 availability in alcohol-dependent patients versus controls using 18F-FPEB positron emission tomography. Methods: Dynamic 90 minute 18F-FPEB scans combined with arterial blood sampling were acquired in 16 recently abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 32 age-matched controls...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348256/flavonoids-dairy-foods-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health-a-review-of-emerging-biologic-pathways
#16
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348189/cancer-stem-cell-phenotypes-in-er-breast-cancer-models-are-promoted-by-pelp1-aib1-complexes
#17
Thu H Truong, Hsiangyu Hu, Nuri A Temiz, Kyla Hagen, Brian J Girard, Nicholas J Brady, Kathryn L Schwertfeger, Carol A Lange, Julie H Ostrander
Proline, glutamic acid, and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) is overexpressed in approximately 80% of invasive breast tumors. PELP1 dynamically shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but is primarily nuclear in normal breast tissue. However, altered localization of PELP1 to the cytoplasm is an oncogenic event that promotes breast cancer initiation and progression. Herein, interacting partners unique to cytoplasmic PELP1 and the mechanisms by which these interactions promote oncogenic PELP1 signaling were sought...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347189/turing-mechanism-for-homeostatic-control-of-synaptic-density-during-c-elegans-growth
#18
Heather A Brooks, Paul C Bressloff
We propose a mechanism for the homeostatic control of synapses along the ventral cord of Caenorhabditis elegans during development, based on a form of Turing pattern formation on a growing domain. C. elegans is an important animal model for understanding cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Our mathematical model consists of two interacting chemical species, where one is passively diffusing and the other is actively trafficked by molecular motors, which switch between forward and backward moving states (bidirectional transport)...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346767/functional-principles-of-posterior-septal-inputs-to-the-medial-habenula
#19
Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#20
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
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