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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#1
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098776/distinguishing-benign-from-malignant-pancreatic-and-periampullary-lesions-using-combined-use-of-%C3%A2-h-nmr-spectroscopy-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#2
Yarrow J McConnell, Farshad Farshidfar, Aalim M Weljie, Karen A Kopciuk, Elijah Dixon, Chad G Ball, Francis R Sutherland, Hans J Vogel, Oliver F Bathe
Previous work demonstrated that serum metabolomics can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign disease. However, in the clinic, non-pancreatic periampullary cancers are difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer. Therefore, to test the clinical utility of this technology, we determined whether any pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma could be distinguished from benign masses and biliary strictures. Sera from 157 patients with malignant and benign pancreatic and periampullary lesions were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
January 13, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098344/inhibition-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-neuron-activity-in-rat-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-by-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling
#3
Alan Kania, Anna Czerw, Agnieszka Grabowiecka, Camila de Ávila, Tomasz Blasiak, Zenon Rajfur, Marian H Lewandowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elena Timofeeva, Andrew L Gundlach, Anna Blasiak
KEY-POINTS: Relaxin-3 is a stress-responsive neuropeptide that acts at its cognate receptor, RXFP3, to alter behaviours including feeding. In this study, we have demonstrated a direct, RXFP3-dependent, inhibitory action of relaxin-3 on oxytocin and vasopressin PVN neuron electrical activity, a putative cellular mechanism of orexinergic actions of relaxin-3. We observed a Gαi/o -protein-dependent inhibitory influence of selective RXFP3 activation on PVN neuronal activity in vitro and demonstrated a direct action of RXFP3 activation on oxytocin and vasopressin PVN neurons, confirmed by their abundant expression of RXFP3 mRNA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098256/dopamine-promotes-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-retina-through-d1-receptor-mediated-csk-activation-src-inhibition-and-decrease-of-glun2b-phosphorylation
#4
Renato Socodato, Felipe N Santiago, Camila C Portugal, Ivan Domith, Thaísa G Encarnação, Erick C Loiola, Ana L M Ventura, Marcelo Cossenza, João B Relvas, Newton G Castro, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho
Dopamine and glutamate are critical neurotransmitters involved in light-induced synaptic activity in the retina. In brain neurons, dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) and the cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase Src can, independently, modulate the behavior of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Here we studied the interplay between D1Rs, Src and NMDARs in retinal neurons. We reveal that dopamine-mediated D1R stimulation provoked NMDAR hypofunction in retinal neurons by attenuating NMDA-gated currents, by preventing NMDA-elicited calcium mobilization and by decreasing the phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit GluN2B...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097679/abnormal-levels-of-seven-amino-neurotransmitters-in-depression-rat-brain-and-determination-by-hplc-fld
#5
Ting Cui, Hong-Mei Qiu, Dan Huang, Qi-Xin Zhou, Xiao-Yan Fu, Hai-Yan Li, Xin-Hui Jiang
The determination of amino acids with the actions-like neurotransmitters or modulators have been increasingly important for diagnose in many neuropsychiatric diseases. A rapid and simple high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven amino acids: aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), glycine (Gly), taurine (Tau) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Homoserine (Hse) was used as an internal standard (IS)...
January 18, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097517/in-utero-exposure-of-hyperlipidemic-mice-to-diesel-exhaust-lack-of-effects-on-atherosclerosis-in-adult-offspring-fed-a-regular-chow-diet
#6
Jenna Harrigan, Divya Ravi, Jerry Ricks, Michael E Rosenfeld
Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/m(3) PM2.5 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (FA) throughout gestation. Treatment effects on litter size and gender distribution were recorded. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097463/neurokinin-1-receptor-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-medullary-dorsal-horn-provide-collateral-axons-to-both-the-thalamus-and-parabrachial-nucleus-in-rats
#7
Xu Li, Shun-Nan Ge, Yang Li, Han-Tao Wang
It has been suggested that the trigemino-thalamic and trigemino-parabrachial projection neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) are highly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and emotional/affective aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. In previous studies, some neurons were reported to send projections to both the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus by way of collaterals in the MDH. However, little is known about the chemoarchitecture of this group of neurons. Thus, in the present study, we determined whether the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is crucial for primary orofacial pain signaling, was expressed in MDH neurons co-innervating the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097219/key-role-of-the-dopamine-d4-receptor-in-the-modulation-of-corticostriatal-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#8
Jordi Bonaventura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Marcelo Rubinstein, Gianluigi Tanda, Sergi Ferré
Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) have been repeatedly associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the functional role of the D4 receptor and the functional differences of the products of DRD4 polymorphic variants remained enigmatic. Immunohistochemical and optogenetic-microdialysis experiments were performed in knock-in mice expressing a D4 receptor with the long intracellular domain of a human DRD4 polymorphic variant associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096552/novel-missense-variant-of-cacna1a-gene-in-a-slovak-family-with-episodic-ataxia-type-2
#9
Andrea Petrovicova, Miroslav Brozman, Egon Kurca, Tibor Gobo, Jana Dluha, Klaudia Kalmarova, Vladimir Nosal, Martina Hikkelova, Adriana Krajciova, Tatiana Burjanivova, Stefan Sivak
INTRODUCTION: Episodic ataxias (EAs) are rare dominantly inherited neurological disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of ataxia lasting minutes to hours. The most common subtype is EA type 2 (EA2) caused by pathogenic variants of calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 A gene (CACNA1A) on chromosome 19p13. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We examined a Slovak three-generation family. Genomic DNA of the family members was extracted from peripheral blood and amplified by polymerase chain reaction...
January 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096492/identification-of-glutaminyl-cyclase-genes-involved-in-pyroglutamate-modification-of-fungal-lignocellulolytic-enzymes
#10
Vincent W Wu, Craig M Dana, Anthony T Iavarone, Douglas S Clark, N Louise Glass
: The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. Currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. A post-translational N-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when N-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. This modification has been shown to confer resistance to thermal denaturation for CBH-1 and EG-1 cellulases...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096465/sequences-within-the-c-terminus-of-the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mglur5-are-responsible-for-inner-nuclear-membrane-localization
#11
Ismail Sergin, Yuh-Jiin I Jong, Steven K Harmon, Vikas Kumar, Karen L O'Malley
Traditionally G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are thought to be located on the cell surface where they transmit extracellular signals to the cytoplasm. However recent studies indicate that some GPCRs are also localized to various subcellular compartments such as the nucleus where they appear required for various biological functions. For example, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, mGluR5, is concentrated at the inner nuclear membrane (INM) where it mediates Ca2+ changes in the nucleoplasm by coupling with Gq/11...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096462/unique-contributions-of-an-arginine-side-chain-to-ligand-recognition-in-a-glutamate-gated-chloride-channel
#12
Timothy Lynagh, Vitaly V Komnatnyy, Stephan A Pless
Glutamate recognition by neurotransmitter receptors often relies on arginine (Arg) residues in the binding site, leading to the assumption that charge-charge interactions underlie ligand recognition. However, assessing the precise chemical contribution of Arg side chains to protein function and pharmacology has proven to be exceedingly difficult in such large and complex proteins. Using the in vivo nonsense suppression approach, we report the first successful incorporation of the isosteric, titratable Arg analog, canavanine, into a neurotransmitter receptor in a living cell, utilizing a glutamate-gated chloride channel from the nematode Haemonchus contortus...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096234/glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase-enables-anaplerotic-refilling-of-tca-cycle-intermediates-in-stroke-affected-brain
#13
Cameron Rink, Surya Gnyawali, Richard Stewart, Seth Teplitsky, Hallie Harris, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen, Savita Khanna
Ischemic stroke results in excessive release of glutamate, which contributes to neuronal cell death. Here, we test the hypothesis that otherwise neurotoxic glutamate can be productively metabolized by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to maintain cellular energetics and protect the brain from ischemic stroke injury. The GOT-dependent metabolism of glutamate was studied in primary neural cells and in stroke-affected C57-BL6 mice using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS. Extracellular Glu sustained cell viability under hypoglycemic conditions and increased GOT-mediated metabolism in vitro Correction of stroke-induced hypoxia using supplemental oxygen in vivo lowered Glu levels as measured by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095909/prevalence-and-genetic-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-species-and-giardia-duodenalis-in-lambs-in-oromia-special-zone-central-ethiopia
#14
Teklu Wegayehu, Md Robiul Karim, Junqiang Li, Haileeyesus Adamu, Berhanu Erko, Longxian Zhang, Getachew Tilahun
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis are gastro-intestinal parasites that infect human and animals worldwide. Both parasites share a broad host range and are believed to be zoonosis. The aim of this study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium and assemblages of G. duodenalis in lambs and to elucidate their role in zoonotic transmission. RESULTS: A total of 389 fecal samples were collected from lambs and screened by microscopy and nested PCR targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA for Cryptosporidium; and the small-subunit ribosomal RNA, triose phosphate isomerase, β-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes for G...
January 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095420/molecular-mechanism-of-disease-associated-mutations-in-the-pre-m1-helix-of-nmda-receptors-and-potential-rescue-pharmacology
#15
Kevin K Ogden, Wenjuan Chen, Sharon A Swanger, Miranda J McDaniel, Linlin Z Fan, Chun Hu, Anel Tankovic, Hirofumi Kusumoto, Gabrielle J Kosobucki, Anthony J Schulien, Zhuocheng Su, Joseph Pecha, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Slavé Petrovski, Adam E Cohen, Elias Aizenman, Stephen F Traynelis, Hongjie Yuan
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), ligand-gated ionotropic glutamate receptors, play key roles in normal brain development and various neurological disorders. Here we use standing variation data from the human population to assess which protein domains within NMDAR GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B subunits show the strongest signal for being depleted of missense variants. We find that this includes the GluN2 pre-M1 helix and linker between the agonist-binding domain (ABD) and first transmembrane domain (M1). We then evaluate the functional changes of multiple missense mutations in the NMDAR pre-M1 helix found in children with epilepsy and developmental delay...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095303/gd-dtpa-induced-dynamic-metabonomic-changes-in-rat-biofluids
#16
Chuanling Wan, Youyang Zhan, Rong Xue, Yijie Wu, Xiaojing Li, Fengkui Pei
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to detect the dynamic metabonomic changes induced by gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and (2) to investigate the potential metabolic disturbances associated with the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at the early stage. METHODS: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary and serum metabolic changes induced by a single tail vein injection of Gd-DTPA (dosed at 2 and 5mmol/kg body weight) in rats...
January 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094898/polyelectrolyte-oil-core-nanocarriers-for-localized-and-sustained-delivery-of-daunorubicin-to-colon-carcinoma-mc38-cells-the-case-of-polysaccharide-multilayer-film-in-relation-to-peg-ylated-shell
#17
Urszula Bazylińska, Jadwiga Pietkiewicz, Joanna Rossowska, Grzegorz Chodaczek, Andrzej Gamian, Kazimiera A Wilk
The authors examine properties of daunorubicin (DNR)-loaded oil-core multilayer nanocapsules prepared via layer-by-layer approach with different polyelectrolyte (PE) coatings such as a standard one (containing polysodium 4-styrenesulphonate/poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium) chloride) and a polysaccharide-based shell (dextran/chitosan), in regard to the outer layer of poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) grafted with polyethylene glycol (PGA-g-PEG). The nanocarriers are obtained on a cationic nanoemulsion template (stabilized by dicephalic-type surfactant, N,N-bis[3,30-(trimethylammonio)propyl]-dodecanamide dimethylsulfate) and layered with the PE shell of different thicknesses resulting in average size of 150 nm in diameter (as shown by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy)...
January 17, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094305/association-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-with-the-development-of-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#18
Martin S Zinkernagel, Denise C Zysset-Burri, Irene Keller, Lieselotte E Berger, Alexander B Leichtle, Carlo R Largiadèr, Georg M Fiedler, Sebastian Wolf
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the elderly. There is evidence that nutrition, inflammation and genetic risk factors play an important role in the development of AMD. Recent studies suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiome is associated with metabolic diseases through modulation of inflammation and host metabolism. To investigate whether compositional and functional alterations of the intestinal microbiome are associated with AMD, we sequenced the gut metagenomes of patients with AMD and controls...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093554/tumour-necrosis-factor-mediated-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-in-behavioural-models-testing-a-role-in-maternal-immune-activation
#19
Sarah C Konefal, David Stellwagen
The proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) has long been characterized for its role in the innate immune system, but more recently has been found to have a distinct role in the nervous system that does not overlap with other proinflammatory cytokines. Through regulation of neuronal glutamate and GABA receptor trafficking, TNF mediates a homeostatic form of synaptic plasticity, but plays no direct role in Hebbian forms of plasticity. As yet, there is no evidence to suggest that this adaptive plasticity plays a significant role in normal development, but it does maintain neuronal circuit function in the face of several types of disruption...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093366/strategy-for-constructing-vascularized-adipose-units-in-poly-l-glutamic-acid-hydrogel-porous-scaffold-through-inducing-in-situ-formation-of-ascs-spheroids
#20
Kunxi Zhang, Li Song, Jia Wang, Shifeng Yan, Guifei Li, Lei Cui, Jingbo Yin
: Vascularization is of great importance to adipose tissue regeneration. Here we introduced a paradigm that using scaffold to induce ASC spheroids, so to promote vascularized adipose tissue regeneration. Poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) was activated by EDC, followed by being cross-linked by Adipic dihydrazide (ADH) to form a homogeneous hydrogel. Lyophilization was then carried out to create porous structure. The PLGA hydrogel scaffold possessed a significant swollen hydrophilic network to weaken cell-scaffold adhesion but drive ASCs to aggregate to form spheroids...
January 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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