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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434165/connexin-hemichannels-in-astrocytes-an-assessment-of-controversies-regarding-their-functional-characteristics
#1
Brian Skriver Nielsen, Daniel Bloch Hansen, Bruce R Ransom, Morten Schak Nielsen, Nanna MacAulay
Astrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system are interconnected by gap junctions made from connexins of the subtypes Cx30 and Cx43. These proteins may exist as hemichannels in the plasma membrane in the absence of a 'docked' counterpart on the neighboring cell. A variety of stimuli are reported to open the hemichannels and thereby create a permeation pathway through the plasma membrane. Cx30 and Cx43 have, in their hemichannel configuration, been proposed to act as ion channels and membrane pathways for different molecules, such as fluorescent dyes, ATP, prostaglandins, and glutamate...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433752/serotonergic-transmission-and-gap-junctional-coupling-in-proventricular-muscle-cells-in-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#2
Ryoichi Yoshimura, Taeko Suetsugu, Yasuhisa Endo
The visceral muscle tissues of insects consist of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms responsible for delivering signals to the contractile muscles in the insect digestive tract remain unclear. We found that serotonergic nerves innervate the hemocoel surfaces of foregut and midgut muscles in the American cockroach. Electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junctions in the proventriculus (gizzard) revealed typical synaptic structures, the accumulation of large core/cored vesicles (neuropeptides) and small clear vesicle (neurotransmitter) at presynapses, and synaptic clefts...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433669/environmental-enrichment-reverses-memory-impairment-induced-by-toluene-in-mice
#3
Sergio Montes, Rocío Del Carmen Solís-Guillen, David García-Jácome, Nayeli Páez-Martínez
Toluene is the main component of a variety of inhalants that are used for intoxication purposes. Alterations in memory have been reported in inhalant users; however, it is unclear whether these impairments could be reversed, and the mechanisms involved in the putative recovery. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to model the deleterious effects of toluene on memory in mice and to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on that response. In the second part of the study, the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, following chronic toluene exposure and after environmental enrichment treatment, were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433623/combined-fmri-mrs-acquires-simultaneous-glutamate-and-bold-fmri-signals-in-the-human-brain
#4
I Betina Ip, Adam Berrington, Aaron T Hess, Andrew J Parker, Uzay E Emir, Holly Bridge
Combined fMRI-MRS is a novel method to non-invasively investigate functional activation in the human brain using simultaneous acquisition of hemodynamic and neurochemical measures. The aim of the current study was to quantify neural activity using combined fMRI-MRS at 7 T. BOLD-fMRI and semi-LASER localization MRS data were acquired from the visual cortex of 13 participants during short blocks (64s) of flickering checkerboards. We demonstrate a correlation between glutamate and BOLD-fMRI time courses (R = 0...
April 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433499/changes-in-the-expression-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-mglur5-in-a-ketamine-based-animal-model-of-schizophrenia
#5
Dariusz Zurawek, Anna Salerno-Kochan, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Agnieszka Nikiforuk, Tomasz Kos, Piotr Popik
It has been shown that the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is functionally associated with the NMDA subtype of the glutamate receptor family (NMDA receptors). These two receptors colocalize in brain regions associated with schizophrenia. Although the role of the NMDA receptor in cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia is well studied, information about the role of mGluR5 receptors in schizophrenia is sparse. In our work, we show that subchronic administration of ketamine, a well-studied, non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors, caused cognitive deficits in rats as shown by testing novel object recognition (NOR)...
April 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433457/spatial-and-temporal-expression-patterns-of-genes-around-nine-neuroticism-associated-loci
#6
Kazutaka Ohi, Takamitsu Shimada, Toshiki Yasuyama, Kohei Kimura, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
Neuroticism is a high-order personality trait. Individuals with higher neuroticism have increased risks of various psychiatric disorders and physical health outcomes. Neuroticism is related to physiological differences in the brain. A recent genome-wide association study identified nine distinct genomic loci that contribute to neuroticism. Brain development and function depend on the precise regulation of gene expression, which is differentially regulated across brain regions and developmental stages. Using multiple publicly available human post-mortem databases, we investigated, in brain and non-brain tissues and across several developmental life stages, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of genes arising from nine neuroticism-associated loci...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433001/principal-cell-types-of-sleep-wake-regulatory-circuits
#7
REVIEW
Barbara E Jones
Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons which discharge maximally in association with distinct sleep-wake states are distributed through the brain, albeit in differing proportions. As studied using juxtacellular recording and labeling within the basal forebrain, four functional principal cell types are distinguished as: wake/paradoxical sleep (W/PS)-, slow wave sleep (SWS)-, W- and PS-max active. They are each comprised by both GABA and glutamate neurons, in addition to acetylcholine neurons belonging to the W/PS group...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432787/presynaptic-morphology-and-vesicular-composition-determine-vesicle-dynamics-in-mouse-central-synapses
#8
Laurent Guillaud, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tomoyuki Takahashi
Transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in nerve terminals is thought to play essential roles in maintenance of neurotransmission. To identify factors modulating SV movements, we performed real-time imaging analysis of fluorescently labeled SVs in giant calyceal and conventional hippocampal terminals. Compared with small hippocampal terminals, SV movements in giant calyceal terminals were faster, longer and kinetically more heterogeneous. Morphological maturation of giant calyceal terminals was associated with an overall reduction in SV mobility and displacement heterogeneity...
April 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432550/estradiol-mitigates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-renal-failure-through-nmda-receptor-antagonism-in-rats
#9
Amrit Pal Singh, Nirmal Singh, Preet Mohinder Singh Bedi
In the present study, we investigated possible involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) in estradiol mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Bilateral renal ischemia of 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h induced ARF in male wistar rats. Quantification of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa), and urinary microproteins was done to assess I/R-induced renal damage in rats...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432493/effect-of-pharmacological-modulation-of-activity-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-on-their-gene-expression-after-excitotoxic-damage-in-hippocampal-neurons
#10
E V Pershina, M V Kapralova, V I Arkhipov
Microinjection of kainic acid into rat hippocampus causes excitotoxic neuronal damage predominantly in the CA3 and CA1 fields. These lesions can be significantly reduced by simultaneous administration of MPEP, a negative allosteric modulator of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors, and LY354740, an agonist of type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors. The decrease in neuronal death in the hippocampus during pharmacological modulation was paralleled by adaptive changes in gene expression. In the hippocampus, gene expression of type 5 postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor was close to the control level, and in the frontal cortex expression of the gene of α1-subunit of the GABAA receptor returned to normal...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432359/role-of-the-ion-channel-extracellular-collar-in-ampa-receptor-gating
#11
Maria V Yelshanskaya, Samaneh Mesbahi-Vasey, Maria G Kurnikova, Alexander I Sobolevsky
AMPA subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are implicated in numerous neurological diseases. Ionic currents through AMPA receptor channels can be allosterically regulated via different sites on the receptor protein. We used site-directed mutagenesis and patch-clamp recordings to probe the ion channel extracellular collar, the binding region for noncompetitive allosteric inhibitors. We found position and substitution-dependent effects for introduced mutations at this region on AMPA receptor gating...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432288/overexpression-of-human-nr2b-receptor-subunit-in-lman-causes-stuttering-and-song-sequence-changes-in-adult-zebra-finches
#12
Mukta Chakraborty, Liang-Fu Chen, Emma E Fridel, Marguerita E Klein, Rebecca A Senft, Abhra Sarkar, Erich D Jarvis
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn to produce songs in a manner reminiscent of spoken language development in humans. One candidate gene implicated in influencing learning is the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype 2B glutamate receptor (NR2B). Consistent with this idea, NR2B levels are high in the song learning nucleus LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) during juvenile vocal learning, and decreases to low levels in adults after learning is complete and the song becomes more stereotyped...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431974/unique-mitochondrial-localization-of-arginase-1-and-2-in-hepatocytes-of-air-breathing-walking-catfish-clarias-batrachus-and-their-differential-expression-patterns-under-hyper-ammonia-stress
#13
Bodhisattwa Banerjee, Debaprasad Koner, Priyanka Lal, Nirmalendu Saha
Arginase (ARG) catalyzes the final step of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) leading to a conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Several isoforms of ARG have been reported in vertebrates, out of which the two predominant isoforms are the cytosolic ARG1 and the mitochondrial ARG2. The air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the active presence of ARG1 and ARG2 isoforms in hepatocytes along with unique localization of both the isoforms inside the mitochondria, and also their specific expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress (5mM NH4Cl) in isolated hepatocytes of walking catfish...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431972/mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-of-rat-hippocampus-after-treatment-with-the-antidepressants-desipramine-and-fluoxetine
#14
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Laura Bagini, Antonella Gorini, Nicoletta Brunello, Fabio Tascedda
Alterations in mitochondrial functions have been hypothesized to participate in the pathogenesis of depression, because brain bioenergetic abnormalities have been detected in depressed patients by neuroimaging in vivo studies. However, this hypothesis is not clearly demonstrated in experimental studies: some suggest that antidepressants are inhibitors of mitochondrial metabolism, while others observe the opposite. In this study, the effects of 21-day treatment with desipramine (15 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) were examined on the energy metabolism of rat hippocampus, evaluating the catalytic activity of regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial energy-yielding metabolic pathways...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431930/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-key-proteins-regulated-by-eicosapentaenoic-acid-in-endothelial-activation
#15
Lu Zhang, Kunhong Xiao, Xuyang Zhao, Xiaoli Sun, Jianshu Zhang, Xian Wang, Yi Zhu, Xu Zhang
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), has been shown to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis by attenuating endothelial activation. In this study, we used mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics to study the protective mechanisms of EPA and to identify key proteins that regulated by EPA in endothelial activation. Arachidonic acid (AA) was used as a control. HUVECs were pretreated with each of the two PUFAs, and then stimulated with TNFα as a model of endothelial activation...
April 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431918/gender-dependent-effects-of-fasting-blood-glucose-levels-and-disease-duration-on-biochemical-markers-in-type-2-diabetics-a-pilot-study
#16
Abhijit A Ghadge, Arundhati G Diwan, Abhay M Harsulkar, Aniket A Kuvalekar
AIM: The impact of fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) and disease duration on type 2 diabetes in Indian population is still unclear. The present study examines gender-dependent effects of FBG and disease duration on lipid profile, adipocytokines and related biochemical parameters in diabetic individuals. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic individuals (n=100) were classified depending on FBG: patients with normal FBG (Glucose<126mg/dl) and patients with high FBG (Glucose≥126mg/dl); and disease duration: ≥0-≤3yr, >3-≤7yr, >7yr...
April 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#17
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#18
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431287/age-and-gender-effects-of-11-c-itmm-binding-to-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-type-1-in-healthy-human-participants
#19
Muneyuki Sakata, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishibashi, Kei Wagatsuma, Kenji Ishii, Ming-Rong Zhang, Kiichi Ishiwata
We examined possible age- and gender-related changes in binding of the selective antagonist N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM) to metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 in healthy human brains. Dynamic (11)C-ITMM positron emission tomography scans (90 min) with serial arterial blood sampling were performed in 15 young and 24 older healthy adult volunteers. The total distribution volume (VT) of several brain regions was estimated with 2-tissue compartment model analysis...
March 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430781/an-unmodified-wobble-uridine-in-trnas-specific-for-glutamine-lysine-and-glutamic-acid-from-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-results-in-nonviability-due-to-increased-missense-errors
#20
Kristina Nilsson, Gunilla Jäger, Glenn R Björk
In the wobble position of tRNAs specific for Gln, Lys, and Glu a universally conserved 5-methylene-2-thiouridine derivative (xm5s2U34, x denotes any of several chemical substituents and 34 denotes the wobble position) is present, which is 5-(carboxy)methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine ((c)mnm5s2U34) in Bacteria and 5-methylcarboxymethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U34) in Eukarya. Here we show that mutants of the bacterium Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2 lacking either the s2- or the (c)mnm5-group of (c)mnm5s2U34 grow poorly especially at low temperature and do not grow at all at 15°C in both rich and glucose minimal media...
2017: PloS One
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