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Majdi Ashour
BACKGROUND: People living in the Gaza Strip have experienced a protracted political conflict and extreme socioeconomic adversity since 1948. Economic conditions have deteriorated markedly since the onset of the Palestinian Intifada in 1987 and have been exacerbated by the economic siege after 2006. The health system in the Gaza Strip has faced additional challenges. The aim of this study was to assess how Palestinian households in the Gaza Strip experienced health care services during this period of political turmoil, socioeconomic adversity, and challenges to health services...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jasem Humeid
BACKGROUND: Children aged 7-12 years and their caregivers participated in a series of group psychosocial support sessions, using standard manuals specifically developed for facilitating such sessions such as Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Joint Sessions. The sessions used various activities, including drawing, storytelling, folk games, and other activities, to provide participants with opportunities to express their feelings, learn and practice new coping skills, and interact with others...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Katie Witkiewitz, Corey R Roos, Davood Tofighi, M Lee Van Horn
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have found support for coping as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) following coping skills training interventions for alcohol use disorder (AUD). One potential reason for null findings is heterogeneity in the patterns of coping skills acquired during treatment. This study sought to identify latent classes of coping and to test the latent class variable as a mediator of the effect of a combined behavioral intervention for AUD. METHOD: Secondary analyses of data from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study (N = 1,124; mean age = 44...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Mersedeh TariVerdi, Elise Miller-Hooks, Thomas Kirsch
Mass casualty incidents are a concern in many urban areas. A community's ability to cope with such events depends on the capacities and capabilities of its hospitals for handling a sudden surge in demand of patients with resource-intensive and specialized medical needs. This paper uses a whole-hospital simulation model to replicate medical staff, resources, and space for the purpose of investigating hospital responsiveness to mass casualty incidents. It provides details of probable demand patterns of different mass casualty incident types in terms of patient categories and arrival patterns, and accounts for related transient system behavior over the response period...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Laura C D Pomatto, Sarah Wong, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis enables rapid cellular signaling, leading to transcriptional and translational modifications (Davies, 2016) [1]. The Proteasome is one of the main cellular proteolytic enzymes that plays an essential role in the rapid clearance of oxidatively damaged cellular proteins, and is highly responsive to oxidative stress. Upon exposure to even very low, signaling levels of oxidants, the predominant form of the Proteasome becomes the ATP-independent 20S proteasome that enables rapid clearance of damaged proteins...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Robert W McConkey, Catherine Holborn
PURPOSE: Gay men with prostate cancer are an 'invisible species' in the research literature despite concerns that the impact of treatment may be more profound and in some ways unique compared to heterosexual men. The aim of this research is to explore the lived experience of gay men with prostate cancer. METHOD: In-depth interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim from a purposive sample of eight gay men treated for prostate cancer in Ireland. A qualitative methodological approach employing Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method was used to collect and analyse data...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Miyoung Jang, Jiyoung Kim
PURPOSE: Prospective studies have examined factors directly affecting psychosocial adjustment during breast cancer treatment. Survivorship stage may moderate a direct effect of stress on psychosocial adjustment. This study aimed to examine relationships between stress, social support, self-efficacy, coping, and psychosocial adjustment to construct a model of the effect pathways between those factors, and determine if survivorship stage moderates those effects. METHODS: Six hundred people with breast cancer completed questionnaires...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
M Clara F do Amaral, James Frisbie, David L Goldstein, Carissa M Krane
Cope's gray treefrog (Dryophytes chrysoscelis) is one of few freeze-tolerant frogs that mobilize glycerol as a cryoprotectant, yet cold and freezing-induced accumulation of this and other osmolytes has received little attention in this species. This study investigated the development of freeze tolerance in D. chrysoscelis, analyzing the response of the cryoprotectant system to cold acclimation, freezing, and thawing. Glycerol production was low and unresponsive to acclimation temperature, or duration of acclimation to 5 °C, except for one cold-acclimated frog that presented elevated glycerol in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Stefan G Hofmann, Aleena C Hay
Avoidance is typically considered a maladaptive behavioral response to excessive fear and anxiety, leading to the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Exposure is a core element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. One important aspect of this treatment is repeated and prolonged exposure to a threat while discouraging patients from using avoidance strategies, such as escape or safety behaviors. We will first revisit the role of avoidance learning in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, including important insights from the neuroscience literature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Mario Altamura, Salvatore Iuso, Angela Balzotti, Girolamo Francavilla, Andrea Dimitri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonello Bellomo, Annamaria Petito
Reported findings on reactivity to stress of the sympathetic-adreno-medullar (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems in panic disorder (PD) are very variable. This inconsistency may be explained by differences in treatment exposure, illness duration and emotion regulation strategies. The present study examined the reactivity to mental stress of the SAM and HPA axes in a sample of first episode, drug naïve patients with PD which avoids confounds of medications exposure and illness chronicity...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Jeffrey J Olney, S Alex Marshall, Todd E Thiele
Psychological depression is frequently linked to alcohol abuse and even serves as key indicators of an alcohol use disorder (AUD). This relationship is supported by preclinical findings in which depression-like phenotypes develop in animals exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor, a common preclinical model of alcohol dependence. However, the emergence of these maladaptive phenotypes following repeated binge-like ethanol drinking remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate depression-like behaviors associated with binge-like consumption in mice...
March 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Xin Li, James A Imlay
Escherichia coli is a model organism that has been exploited to reveal key details of hydrogen peroxide stress: the biomolecules that H2 O2 most rapidly damages and the defensive tactics that organisms use to fend it off. Much less clear is the amount of exogenous H2 O2 that is sufficient to injure the bacterium and/or to trigger its stress response. To fill this gap, we need to study the behavior of cells when they are exposed to defined amounts of H2 O2 on an hours-long time scale. Such experiments are difficult because bacteria rapidly consume H2 O2 that is added to test cultures...
March 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Giuseppe Brescia, Claudia Zanotti, Daniela Parrino, Umberto Barion, Gino Marioni
PURPOSE: Endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) poses a challenge for rhinologists nowadays. Phenotyping CRSwNP proved inappropriate as an approach to their classification because of their common clinical features. Endotyping, being based on the pathogenic mechanism, provides a precise picture more appropriate for use in clinical practice. Patients' treatment and follow-up can thus be tailored to cope with the degree of aggressiveness of a specific CRSwNP endotype...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Polona Mivšek, Anna-Mari Äimälä, Boštjan Žvanut, Jouni Tuomi
OBJECTIVES: Midwifery education is very demanding considering the professional competencies student midwives are required to develop. It can cause different levels of stress to students and affect their learning abilities. With the JDCS (Job Demands-Control-Social support) model adapted for educational purposes we aimed to estimate the midwifery students' coping abilities with study related stress. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative study was conducted using a questionnaire that evaluated perceived demand (9 items), perceived control (10 items), and perceived social support (10 items) with a 5-point Likert scale...
February 21, 2018: Midwifery
Buyun Chen, Pingping Lu, Dugan Freeman, Yang Gao, Edna Choo, Kevin DeMent, Scott Savage, Kelly Zhang, Dennis Milanwoski, Lichuan Liu, Brian Dean, Yuzhong Deng
The pH labile metabolite, hydrophobicity, high oral dose and systematic exposure of GDC-0810 posed tremendous challenges to develop a LC-MS method for a stable isotope labeled aBA study. In this study, we explored practical solutions to balance stability and sensitivity and to cope with the impact of high Cp.o. to Ci.v. ratio on the labeling selection and assay dynamic range. A [13 C9 ] GDC-0810 was synthesized to minimize the isotopic interference between PO dose, internal standard and I.V. microtracer. A highly sensitive LC-MS assay was validated for quantitation of [13 C9 ] GDC-0810 from 5 to 1250 pg/mL...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Emily L Zale, Tessa J Heinhuis, Tara Tehan, Danielle Salgueiro, Jonathan Rosand, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
OBJECTIVE: Every year, millions of Americans become informal caregivers to loved ones admitted to Neuroscience Intensive Care Units (Neuro-ICU), and face challenges to Quality of Life (QoL). This study sought to identify associations between resiliency, distress, and caregiver QoL at time of Neuro-ICU admission. METHODS: Informal caregivers (N = 79, Mage  = 53, 64% female) of Neuro-ICU patients were recruited and completed self-report questionnaires during the hospitalization...
March 6, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
Meghna Singhal, Manjula Munivenkatappa, John Vijay Sagar Kommu, Mariamma Philip
Subclinical depressive symptoms in adolescents are associated with a host of impairments and constitute a risk factor for future depression. The aim of the present study was to study the efficacy of a school-based group coping skills program for Indian adolescents with subclinical depression. Adolescents (n = 120) across two schools comprised the intervention and control groups and were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months no-contact follow-up. The intervention group adolescents received the 8-weekly Coping Skills program in same-gender groups of 4-8 adolescents each, and the control group adolescents received one interactive psycho-educatory session...
March 11, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Julia Morris, Deborah Turnbull, David Preen, Ian Zajac, Angelita Martini
This study reviewed the literature regarding the psychological, social, and behavioural impact of parental cancer on offspring aged 10-24 years, at the time of the parent's first diagnosis. A systematic literature review was conducted following 2015 PRISMA guidelines. Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Offspring were impacted by their parent's cancer and experienced psychological and behavioural problems. Daughters and offspring who experienced more problems at their parent's diagnosis appeared to be most impacted...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Christopher T Sege, Margaret M Bradley, Peter J Lang
Although avoidance and escape behaviors each contribute to maintaining anxiety disorders, only avoidance completely eliminates exposure to the aversive context. Current research compared anticipatory defensive engagement when aversion could either be completely avoided or escaped after initial exposure; in addition, this research examined the impact of trait anxiety on coping-related defensive engagement. Cues signaled that upcoming rapid action would avoid (block), escape (terminate), or not affect subsequent aversive exposure; the acoustic startle reflex was measured during each anticipatory interval to index defensive engagement, and blink magnitudes were compared across low-, moderate-, and high-anxious individuals...
March 8, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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