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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097230/protection-against-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-by-pfspz-vaccine
#1
Judith E Epstein, Kristopher M Paolino, Thomas L Richie, Martha Sedegah, Alexandra Singer, Adam J Ruben, Sumana Chakravarty, April Stafford, Richard C Ruck, Abraham G Eappen, Tao Li, Peter F Billingsley, Anita Manoj, Joana C Silva, Kara Moser, Robin Nielsen, Donna Tosh, Susan Cicatelli, Harini Ganeshan, Jessica Case, Debbie Padilla, Silas Davidson, Lindsey Garver, Elizabeth Saverino, Tooba Murshedkar, Anusha Gunasekera, Patrick S Twomey, Sharina Reyes, James E Moon, Eric R James, Natasha Kc, Minglin Li, Esteban Abot, Arnel Belmonte, Kevin Hauns, Maria Belmonte, Jun Huang, Carlos Vasquez, Shon Remich, Mary Carrington, Yonas Abebe, Amy Tillman, Bradley Hickey, Jason Regules, Eileen Villasante, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman
BACKGROUND: A radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccine, PfSPZ Vaccine, protected 6 of 6 subjects (100%) against homologous Pf (same strain as in the vaccine) controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 3 weeks after 5 doses administered intravenously. The next step was to assess protective efficacy against heterologous Pf (different from Pf in the vaccine), after fewer doses, and at 24 weeks. METHODS: The trial assessed tolerability, safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3 or 5 doses of PfSPZ Vaccine in non-immune subjects...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097063/interferon-%C3%AE-responses-to-plasmodium-falciparum-vaccine-candidate-antigens-decrease-in-the-absence-of-malaria-transmission
#2
Cyrus Ayieko, Bilha S Ogola, Lyticia Ochola, Gideon A M Ngwena, George Ayodo, James S Hodges, Gregory S Noland, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination campaigns are planned or active in many countries. The effects of malaria elimination on immune responses such as antigen-specific IFN- γ responses are not well characterized. METHODS: IFN- γ responses to the P. falciparum antigens circumsporozoite protein, liver stage antigen-1, thrombospondin-related adhesive protein, apical membrane antigen-1, MB2, and merozoite surface protein-1 were tested by ELISA in 243 individuals in highland Kenya in April 2008, October 2008, and April 2009, after a one-year period of interrupted malaria transmission from April 2007 to March 2008...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096331/one-step-design-of-a-stable-variant-of-the-malaria-invasion-protein-rh5-for-use-as-a-vaccine-immunogen
#3
Ivan Campeotto, Adi Goldenzweig, Jack Davey, Lea Barfod, Jennifer M Marshall, Sarah E Silk, Katherine E Wright, Simon J Draper, Matthew K Higgins, Sarel J Fleishman
Many promising vaccine candidates from pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites are unstable and cannot be produced cheaply for clinical use. For instance, Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) is essential for erythrocyte invasion, is highly conserved among field isolates, and elicits antibodies that neutralize in vitro and protect in an animal model, making it a leading malaria vaccine candidate. However, functional RH5 is only expressible in eukaryotic systems and exhibits moderate temperature tolerance, limiting its usefulness in hot and low-income countries where malaria prevails...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096162/impact-of-extended-artesunate-duration-on-parasitological-outcome-in-a-cytocidal-murine-malaria-model
#4
Leah A Walker, David J Sullivan
Artemisinin-based combination therapies are a key pillar in global malaria control and are recommended as a first-line Plasmodium falciparum treatment. They rely upon a rapid, 4-log reduction in parasitemia by artemisinin compounds with a short half-life and the killing of remaining parasites by a partner compound with a longer half-life. Current treatment guidelines stipulate giving three 24 hour interval doses or six 12 hour interval doses over a 3-day period. Due to the short half-life of artesunate and artemether, almost all of the resulting cytocidal activity is confined within a single 48 hour asexual P...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096086/platelets-activate-a-pathogenic-response-to-blood-stage-plasmodium-infection-but-not-a-protective-immune-response
#5
Irene Gramaglia, Joyce Velez, Valery Combes, Georges E R Grau, Melanie Wree, Henri C van der Heyde
Clinical studies indicate that thrombocytopenia correlates with the development of severe falciparum malaria, suggesting that platelets either contribute to control of parasite replication possibly as innate parasite killer cells or function in eliciting pathogenesis. Removal of platelets by anti-CD41 mAb treatment, platelet inhibition by aspirin, and adoptive transfer of WT platelets to CD40-KO mice, which do not control parasite replication, resulted in similar parasitemia compared with control mice. Human platelets at a physiological ratio of 1 platelet to 9 RBCs did not inhibit the in vitro development or replication of blood-stage P...
January 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095916/insecticide-treated-net-effectiveness-at-preventing-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-varies-by-age-and-season
#6
Andrea G Buchwald, Jenna E Coalson, Lauren M Cohee, Jenny A Walldorf, Nelson Chimbiya, Andy Bauleni, Kondwani Nkanaunena, Andrew Ngwira, John D Sorkin, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Miriam K Laufer
BACKGROUND: After increasing coverage of malaria interventions, malaria prevalence remains high in Malawi. Previous studies focus on the impact of malaria interventions among children under 5 years old. However, in Malawi, the prevalence of infection is highest in school-aged children (SAC), ages 5 to 15 years. This study examined the interaction between age group and insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for preventing individual and community-level infection in Malawi. METHODS: Six cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the rainy and dry seasons in southern Malawi from 2012 to 2014...
January 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095801/providing-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-during-pregnancy-does-not-reduce-the-risk-of-maternal-p-falciparum-parasitaemia-and-reproductive-tract-infections-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Minyanga Nkhoma, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey, Austrida Gondwe, John Mbotwa, Stephen Rogerson, Steve M Taylor, Kenneth Maleta
BACKGROUND: Maternal infections are associated with maternal and foetal adverse outcomes. Nutrient supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the occurrence of infections by improving maternal immunity. We aimed to investigate the impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) on the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia during pregnancy and trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis and urinary tract infection (UTI) after delivery. METHODS: Pregnant Malawian women enrolled in the iLiNS-DYAD trial receiving daily supplementation with SQ-LNS, multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron & folic acid (IFA) from <20 gestation weeks (gw) were assessed for P...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094293/the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-infected-mosquitoes-an-gambiae-keele-an-arabiensis-ifakara-is-altered-by-the-vertebrate-blood-type-they-consume-during-parasite-development
#8
S Noushin Emami, Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright, Heather M Ferguson
The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093995/glycosides-as-possible-lead-antimalarial-in-new-drug-discovery-future-perspectives
#9
Marya, Haroon Khan, Izhar Ahmad
Malaria remains one of the major public health problems worldwide and is responsible for a large number of morbidity and mortality. Especially, in the third world countries, it is still alarming. The development of drug-resistant to Plasmodium falciparum strains has further degraded the overall situation. However, a limited number of effective drugs available emphasizes how essential it is to establish new anti-malarial compounds. New antimalarial agents with distinctive structures and mechanism of action from the natural origin are thus immediately required to treat sensitive and drug-resistant strains of malaria...
January 15, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091576/adjuvant-and-carrier-protein-dependent-t-cell-priming-promotes-a-robust-antibody-response-against-the-plasmodium-falciparum-pfs25-vaccine-candidate
#10
Andrea J Radtke, Charles F Anderson, Nicolas Riteau, Kelly Rausch, Puthupparampil Scaria, Emily R Kelnhofer, Randall F Howard, Alan Sher, Ronald N Germain, Patrick Duffy
Humoral immune responses have the potential to maintain protective antibody levels for years due to the immunoglobulin-secreting activity of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). However, many subunit vaccines under development fail to generate robust LLPC responses, and therefore a variety of strategies are being employed to overcome this limitation, including conjugation to carrier proteins and/or formulation with potent adjuvants. Pfs25, an antigen expressed on malaria zygotes and ookinetes, is a leading transmission blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate for Plasmodium falciparum...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091569/epigenetic-regulation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-clonally-variant-gene-expression-during-development-in-anopheles-gambiae
#11
Elena Gómez-Díaz, Rakiswendé S Yerbanga, Thierry Lefèvre, Anna Cohuet, M Jordan Rowley, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Victor G Corces
P. falciparum phenotypic plasticity is linked to the variant expression of clonal multigene families such as the var genes. We have examined changes in transcription and histone modifications that occur during sporogonic development of P. falciparum in the mosquito host. All var genes are silenced or transcribed at low levels in blood stages (gametocyte/ring) of the parasite in the human host. After infection of mosquitoes, a single var gene is selected for expression in the oocyst, and transcription of this gene increases dramatically in the sporozoite...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091560/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-malaria-incidence-in-the-peruvian-amazon-region-between-2002-and-2013
#12
Veronica Soto-Calle, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Emmanuel Abatih, Redgi DeDeken, Hugo Rodriguez, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Dionicia Gamboa, Umberto D Alessandro, Annette Erhart, Niko Speybroeck
Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon where the persistence of high-risk transmission areas (hotspots) challenges the current malaria control strategies. This study aimed at identifying significant space-time clusters of malaria incidence in Loreto region 2002-2013 and to determine significant changes across years in relation to the control measures applied. Poisson regression and purely temporal, spatial, and space-time analyses were conducted. Three significantly different periods in terms of annual incidence rates (AIR) were identified, overlapping respectively with the pre-, during, and post- implementation control activities supported by PAMAFRO project...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091526/a-disrupted-transsulphuration-pathway-results-in-accumulation-of-redox-metabolites-and-induction-of-gametocytogenesis-in-malaria
#13
Divya Beri, Balu Balan, Shweta Chaubey, Suraj Subramaniam, Bachu Surendra, Utpal Tatu
Intra-erythrocytic growth of malaria parasite is known to induce redox stress. In addition to haem degradation which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), the parasite is also thought to efflux redox active homocysteine. To understand the basis underlying accumulation of homocysteine, we have examined the transsulphuration (TS) pathway in the parasite, which is known to convert homocysteine to cysteine in higher eukaryotes. Our bioinformatic analysis revealed absence of key enzymes in the biosynthesis of cysteine namely cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in the parasite...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091389/trali-syndrome-during-the-treatment-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-case
#14
Hülya Çaşkurlu, Rahman Nurmuhammedov, Zarni Htway
Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089716/a-characterization-of-the-antimalarial-activity-of-the-bark-of-cylicodiscus-gabunensis-harms
#15
Omar Aldulaimi, Fidelia I Uche, Hamza Hameed, Haddijatou Mbye, Imran Ullah, Falko Drijfhout, Timothy D W Claridge, Paul Horrocks, Wen-Wu Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIM: A decoction of the bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms is used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria. This study aims to validate the antimalarial potency of this decoction in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and define potential bioactive constituents within the C. gabunensis bark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bioassay-guided separation and fractionation protocol was applied to C. gabunensis extracts, exploiting the use of a Malaria Sybr Green I Fluorescence assay method to monitor antiproliferative effects on parasites as well as define 50% inhibition concentrations...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089547/antibody-profiles-to-wheat-germ-cell-free-system-synthesized-plasmodium-falciparum-proteins-correlate-with-protection-from-symptomatic-malaria-in-uganda
#16
Bernard N Kanoi, Eizo Takashima, Masayuki Morita, Michael T White, Nirianne M Q Palacpac, Edward H Ntege, Betty Balikagala, Adoke Yeka, Thomas G Egwang, Toshihiro Horii, Takafumi Tsuboi
The key targets of protective antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum remain largely unknown. In this study, we determined immunoreactivity to 1827 recombinant proteins derived from 1565 genes representing ∼30% of the entire P. falciparum genome, for identification of novel malaria vaccine candidates. The recombinant proteins were expressed by wheat germ cell-free system, a platform that can synthesize quality plasmodial proteins that elicit biologically active antibodies in animals. Sera were obtained from indigenous residents of a malaria endemic region in Northern Uganda who were enrolled at the start of a rainy season and prospectively monitored for symptomatic malaria episodes for a year...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086864/direct-detection-of-falciparum-and-non-falciparum-malaria-dna-from-a-drop-of-blood-with-high-sensitivity-by-the-dried-lamp-system
#17
Kyoko Hayashida, Kiichi Kajino, Humphrey Simukoko, Martin Simuunza, Joseph Ndebe, Amos Chota, Boniface Namangala, Chihiro Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Because of the low sensitivity of conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria infections, the actual prevalence of the diseases, especially those caused by non-Plasmodium falciparum (non-Pf) species, in asymptomatic populations remain less defined in countries lacking in well-equipped facilities for accurate diagnoses. Our direct blood dry LAMP system (CZC-LAMP) was applied to the diagnosis of malaria as simple, rapid and highly sensitive method as an alternative for conventional RDTs in malaria endemic areas where laboratory resources are limited...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086789/detection-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-in-a-co-endemic-area-in-malaysia
#18
Kim A Piera, Ammar Aziz, Timothy William, David Bell, Iveth J González, Bridget E Barber, Nicholas M Anstey, Matthew J Grigg
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia. However, microscopic diagnosis is inaccurate and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are insufficiently sensitive. PCR is sensitive and specific but not feasible at a district level. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) shows potential with only basic requirements. A commercially available LAMP assay, the Eiken Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan Detection kit, is sensitive for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but has not previously been evaluated for P...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086777/profile-of-molecular-mutations-in-pfdhfr-pfdhps-pfmdr1-and-pfcrt-genes-of-plasmodium-falciparum-related-to-resistance-to-different-anti-malarial-drugs-in-the-bata-district-equatorial-guinea
#19
Pedro Berzosa, Andrés Esteban-Cantos, Luz García, Vicenta González, Marisa Navarro, Taiomara Fernández, María Romay-Barja, Zaida Herrador, José Miguel Rubio, Policarpo Ncogo, María Santana-Morales, Basilio Valladares, Matilde Riloha, Agustín Benito
BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been a major contributor to the global burden of malaria. Drug resistance complicates treatment, and it is one of the most important problems in malaria control. This study assessed the level of mutations in P. falciparum genes, pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfmdr1, and pfcrt, related to resistance to different anti-malarial drugs, in the Continental Region of Equatorial Guinea, after 8 years of implementing artesunate combination therapies as the first-line treatment...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086775/rapid-decline-in-the-susceptibility-of-plasmodium-falciparum-to-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-the-south-of-vietnam
#20
Ngo Viet Thanh, Nguyen Thuy-Nhien, Nguyen Thi Kim Tuyen, Nguyen Thanh Tong, Nguyen Thuy Nha-Ca, Le Thanh Dong, Huynh Hong Quang, Jeremy Farrar, Guy Thwaites, Nicholas J White, Marcel Wolbers, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the countries of the Greater Mekong sub-region posing a serious threat to global malaria elimination efforts. The relationship of artemisinin resistance to treatment failure has been unclear. METHODS: In annual studies conducted in three malaria endemic provinces in the south of Vietnam (Binh Phuoc, Ninh Thuan and Gia Lai) between 2011 and 2015, 489 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled in detailed clinical, parasitological and molecular therapeutic response assessments with 42 days follow up...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
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