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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053059/the-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-a-urine-based-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-a-malaria-endemic-area-in-odisha-india
#1
Ajit Gopal Samal, Prativa Kumari Behera, Akshay Kumar Mohanty, Sanghamitra Satpathi, Abhishek Kumar, Rabi Ratna Panda, Aruna Mukti Minz, Sanjib Mohanty, Abhijit Samal, Rob W Van Der Pluijm
BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial in the treatment of malaria. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) using blood have been recommended by the WHO as an acceptable method for the diagnosis of malaria. RDTs provide results quickly, is simple to use and easy to interpret. However, its use requires collection of blood by skin puncture. Hence the aim of the pilot study is to explore the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using urine (collected non-invasively) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and to assess the relation between parasite density in blood with HRP-2 Ag detection in urine...
October 20, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050948/detection-of-malaria-parasites-after-treatment-in-travelers-a-12-months-longitudinal-study-and-statistical-modelling-analysis
#2
Manijeh Vafa Homann, S Noushin Emami, Victor Yman, Christine Stenström, Klara Sondén, Hanna Ramström, Mattias Karlsson, Muhammad Asghar, Anna Färnert
The rapid clearance of malaria parasite DNA from circulation has widely been accepted as a fact without being systemically investigated. We assessed the persistence of parasite DNA in travelers treated for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a malaria-free area. Venous blood was collected at the time of admission and prospectively up to one year. DNA and RNA were extracted and analyzed using species-specific and gametocyte-specific real-time PCR as well as merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2)-PCR. In 31 successfully treated individuals, asexual parasites were seen by microscopy until two days after treatment, whereas parasite DNA was detected by msp2- and species-specific PCR up to days 31 and 42, respectively...
October 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049963/optimization-of-physicochemical-properties-for-4-anilinoquinazoline-inhibitors-of-trypanosome-proliferation
#3
Jennifer L Woodring, Kelly A Bachovchin, Kimberly G Brady, Mitchell F Gallerstein, Jessey Erath, Scott Tanghe, Susan E Leed, Ana Rodriguez, Kojo Mensa-Wilmot, Richard J Sciotti, Michael P Pollastri
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a deadly disease in need of new chemotherapeutics that can cross into the central nervous system. We previously reported the discovery of 2 (NEU-617), a small molecule with activity against T. brucei bloodstream proliferation. Further optimization of 2 to improve the physicochemical properties (LogP, LLE, [1], and MPO score) [2] have led us to twelve sub-micromolar compounds, most importantly the headgroup variants 9i and 9j, and the linker variant 18. Although these 3 compounds had reduced potency compared to 2, they all had improved LogP, LLE and MPO scores...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046610/molecular-epidemiology-of-mosquitoes-for-the-transmission-of-forest-malaria-in-south-central-vietnam
#4
REVIEW
Yoshimasa Maeno
Human infection caused by non-human primate malarial parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, occurs naturally in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Members of the Anopheles dirus species complex are known to be important vectors of human malarial parasites in the forested areas of southern and central Vietnam, including those in Khanh Phu commune and Khanh Hoa Province. Recent molecular epidemiological studies in Vietnam have reported cases of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and P...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046412/detection-of-plasmodium-species-by-high-resolution-melt-analysis-of-dna-from-blood-smears-acquired-in-southwestern-uganda
#5
Kennedy Kassaza, Darwin J Operario, Dan Nyehangane, K C Coffey, Mary Namugosa, Lena Turkheimer, Patrick Ojuka, Patrick Orikiriza, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Frederick Byarugaba, Joel Bazira, Jennifer L Guler, Christopher C Moore, Yap Boum
Background. Microscopic diagnosis of malaria using Giemsa-stained blood smears is the standard of care in resource-limited settings. These smears represent a potential source of DNA for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to confirm Plasmodium infection or for epidemiologic studies of archived samples. Therefore, we assessed the use of DNA extracts from stained blood smears for the detection of Plasmodium species using real-time PCR.Methods. We extracted DNA from archived blood smears and corresponding red blood cell pellets collected from asymptomatic children in Southwestern Uganda in 2010...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045645/predictors-of-antimalarial-self-medication-in-illegal-gold-miners-in-french-guiana-a-pathway-towards-artemisinin-resistance
#6
M Douine, Y Lazrek, D Blanchet, S Pelleau, R Chanlin, F Corlin, L Hureau, B Volney, H Hiwat, S Vreden, F Djossou, M Demar, M Nacher, L Musset
Background: Malaria is endemic in French Guiana (FG), South America. Despite the decrease in cases in the local population, illegal gold miners are very affected by malaria (22.3% of them carried Plasmodium spp.). Self-medication seems to be very common, but its modalities and associated factors have not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate parasite susceptibility to drugs and to document behaviours that could contribute to resistance selection in illegal gold miners. Methods: This multicentric cross-sectional study was conducted in resting sites along the FG-Surinamese border...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045442/a-semi-synthetic-glycosaminoglycan-analogue-inhibits-and-reverses-plasmodium-falciparum-cytoadherence
#7
Mark A Skidmore, Khairul Mohd Fadzli Mustaffa, Lynsay C Cooper, Scott E Guimond, Edwin A Yates, Alister G Craig
A feature of mature Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cells is their ability to bind surface molecules of the microvascular endothelium via the parasite-derived surface protein Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). This ligand is associated with the cytoadherence pathology observed in severe malaria. As pRBC treated with effective anti-malarial drugs are still able to cytoadhere, there is therefore a need to find an adjunct treatment that can inhibit and reverse the adhesion process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042501/plasmodium-falciparum-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-2-is-critical-for-male-gametocyte-exflagellation-but-not-essential-for-asexual-proliferation
#8
Abhisheka Bansal, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Joseph Brzostowski, Jianbing Mu, Louis H Miller
Drug development efforts have focused mostly on the asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Except for primaquine, which has its own limitations, there are no available drugs that target the transmission of the parasite to mosquitoes. Therefore, there is a need to validate new parasite proteins that can be targeted for blocking transmission. P. falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases (PfCDPKs) play critical roles at various stages of the parasite life cycle and, importantly, are absent in the human host...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042500/immune-regulation-of-plasmodium-is-anopheles-species-specific-and-infection-intensity-dependent
#9
Maria L Simões, Godfree Mlambo, Abhai Tripathi, Yuemei Dong, George Dimopoulos
Malaria parasite ookinetes must traverse the vector mosquito midgut epithelium to transform into sporozoite-producing oocysts. The Anopheles innate immune system is a key regulator of this process, thereby determining vector competence and disease transmission. The role of Anopheles innate immunity factors as agonists or antagonists of malaria parasite infection has been previously determined using specific single Anopheles-Plasmodium species combinations. Here we show that the two C-type lectins CTL4 and CTLMA2 exert differential agonistic and antagonistic regulation of parasite killing in African and South American Anopheles species...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042203/association-of-antibodies-to-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-4-with-protection-against-clinical-malaria
#10
Ronald Perraut, Marie-Louise Varela, Charlotte Joos, Babacar Diouf, Cheikh Sokhna, Babacar Mbengue, Adama Tall, Cheikh Loucoubar, Aissatou Touré, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon
Identification of parasite antigens targeted by immune effector mechanisms that confer protection against malaria is important for the design of a multi-component malaria vaccine. Here, the association of antibodies reacting with the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-4 (MSP4) with protection against clinical malaria was investigated in a Senegalese community living in an area of moderate, seasonal malaria transmission. Blood samples were collected at the end of an 8-month long dry season without any recorded parasite transmission from 206 residents enrolled in a prospective follow-up study...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041962/comparative-assessment-of-an-gambiae-and-an-stephensi-mosquitoes-to-determine-transmission-reducing-activity-of-antibodies-against-p-falciparum-sexual-stage-antigens
#11
Maarten Eldering, Anaïs Bompard, Kazutoyo Miura, Will Stone, Isabelle Morlais, Anna Cohuet, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Patrick M Brock, Sanna R Rijpma, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Wouter Graumans, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Dari F Da, Carole A Long, Merribeth J Morin, Robert W Sauerwein, Thomas S Churcher, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: With the increasing interest in vaccines to interrupt malaria transmission, there is a demand for harmonization of current methods to assess Plasmodium transmission in laboratory settings. Potential vaccine candidates are currently tested in the standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) that commonly relies on Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Other mosquito species including Anopheles gambiae are the dominant malaria vectors for Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using human serum and monoclonal pre-fertilization (anti-Pfs48/45) and post-fertilization (anti-Pfs25) antibodies known to effectively inhibit sporogony, we directly compared SMFA based estimates of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) for An...
October 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041929/absence-of-plasmodium-inui-and-plasmodium-cynomolgi-but-detection-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-and-plasmodium-vivax-infections-in-asymptomatic-humans-in-the-betong-division-of-sarawak-malaysian-borneo
#12
Angela Siner, Sze-Tze Liew, Khamisah Abdul Kadir, Dayang Shuaisah Awang Mohamad, Felicia Kavita Thomas, Mohammad Zulkarnaen, Balbir Singh
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has become the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Epidemiological data on malaria for Sarawak has been derived solely from hospitalized patients, and more accurate epidemiological data on malaria is necessary. Therefore, a longitudinal study of communities affected by knowlesi malaria was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 3002 blood samples on filter paper were collected from 555 inhabitants of 8 longhouses with recently reported knowlesi malaria cases in the Betong Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo...
October 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041927/diagnostic-performance-of-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-based-illumigene-%C3%A2-malaria-assay-in-a-non-endemic-region
#13
Anne-Sophie De Koninck, Lieselotte Cnops, Mattias Hofmans, Jan Jacobs, Dorien Van den Bossche, Jan Philippé
BACKGROUND: Light microscopy and antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests are the primary diagnostic tools for detecting malaria, although being labour-intensive and frequently challenged by lack of personnel's experience and low levels of parasite density. The latter being especially important in non-endemic settings. Novel molecular techniques aim to overcome this drawback. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the illumigene malaria assay(®) (Meridian Bioscience) compared to microscopy, RDT and real-time PCR...
October 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040727/whole-genome-sequencing-of-african-dogs-provides-insights-into-adaptations-against-tropical-parasites
#14
Yan-Hu Liu, Lu Wang, Tao Xu, Xiaomin Guo, Yang Li, Ting-Ting Yin, He-Chuan Yang, Hu Yang, Adeniyi C Adeola, Oscar J Sanke, Newton O Otecko, Meng Wang, Yaping Ma, Olaogun S Charles, Mikkel-Holger S Sinding, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, José Alfredo Samaniego, Anders J Hansen, Carlos Fernandes, Philippe Gaubert, Jane Budd, Philip M Dawuda, Eli Knispel Rueness, Lubin Jiang, Weiwei Zhai, M T P Gilbert, Min-Sheng Peng, Xiaopeng Qi, Guo-Dong Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang
Natural selection in domestic dogs is of great interest in evolutionary biology since dogs have migrated to every inhabited continent of the world alongside humans, and adapted to diverse environments. Here, we explored their demographic history and genetic basis of adaptation to the tropical African environment using whole genome analyses of 19 African indigenous dogs from Nigeria. Demographic analysis suggests that the ancestors of these dogs migrated into Africa from Eurasia 14,000 years ago and underwent a severe founder effect before population expansion...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039247/high-throughput-in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-plasmodium-falciparum-prl-phosphatase-inhibitors
#15
Rajan Pandey, Rakesh Kumar, Priya Gupta, Asif Mohmmed, Rita Tewari, Pawan Malhotra, Dinesh Gupta
Kinases and phosphatases are involved in many essential processes in Plasmodium life cycle. Among the identified 67 Plasmodium falciparum phosphatases, Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) family protein homolog, PfPRL is an essential parasite tyrosine phosphatase. PfPRL is shown to be prenylated, secreted and involved in the host invasion process. In the present study, a structure based high throughput in-silico screening of PfPRL binders, using ChEMBL-NTD compounds lead to the identification of nine compounds based on binding energy, Lipinski rule of five and QED score...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038124/plasmodium-falciparum-pfemp1-modulates-monocyte-macrophage-transcription-factor-activation-and-cytokine-and-chemokine-responses
#16
Natália Guimarães Sampaio, Emily Marie Eriksson, Louis Schofield
Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is slow to develop, and it is often asserted that malaria suppresses host immunity, although this is poorly understood and the molecular basis for such activity remains unknown. P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a virulence factor that plays a key role in parasite-host interactions. We investigated the immunosuppressive effect of PfEMP1 on monocytes/macrophages, which are central to the anti-parasitic innate response. RAW macrophages and human primary monocytes were stimulated with wild-type 3D7 or CS2 parasites or transgenic PfEMP1-null parasites...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037202/high-prevalence-of-very-low-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-carriers-in-the-peruvian-amazon-insights-into-local-and-occupational-mobility-related-transmission
#17
Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Julio Miranda-Alban, Carlos Fernandez-Miñope, Kimberly C Brouwer, Katherine Torres, Maritza Calderon, Dionicia Gamboa, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malaria due both to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon has risen in the past 5 years. This study tested the hypothesis that the maintenance and emergence of malaria in hypoendemic regions such as Amazonia is determined by submicroscopic and asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia carriers. The present study aimed to precisely quantify the rate of very-low parasitaemia carriers in two sites of the Peruvian Amazon in relation to transmission patterns of P...
October 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037193/molecular-surveillance-of-pfhrp2-and-pfhrp3-deletions-in-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-mozambique
#18
Himanshu Gupta, Gloria Matambisso, Beatriz Galatas, Pau Cisteró, Lidia Nhamussua, Wilson Simone, Jane Cunningham, N Regina Rabinovitch, Pedro Alonso, Franciso Saute, Pedro Aide, Alfredo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Malaria programmes use Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria diagnosis. The deletion of this target antigen could potentially lead to misdiagnosis, delayed treatment and continuation of active transmission. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum isolates (n = 1162) collected in Southern Mozambique were assessed by RDTs, microscopy and/or 18SrRNA qPCR. pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions were investigated in isolates from individuals who were negative by RDT but positive by microscopy and/or qPCR (n = 69) using gene-specific PCRs, with kelch13 PCR as the parasite DNA control...
October 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036170/quantifying-the-effects-of-temperature-on-mosquito-and-parasite-traits-that-determine-the-transmission-potential-of-human-malaria
#19
Lillian L M Shapiro, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
Malaria transmission is known to be strongly impacted by temperature. The current understanding of how temperature affects mosquito and parasite life history traits derives from a limited number of empirical studies. These studies, some dating back to the early part of last century, are often poorly controlled, have limited replication, explore a narrow range of temperatures, and use a mixture of parasite and mosquito species. Here, we use a single pairing of the Asian mosquito vector, An. stephensi and the human malaria parasite, P...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034876/quantifying-the-contribution-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-to-febrile-illness-amongst-african-children
#20
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Sunetra Gupta, Peter W Gething
Suspected malaria cases in Africa increasingly receive a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before antimalarials are prescribed. While this ensures efficient use of resources to clear parasites, the underlying cause of the individual's fever remains unknown due to potential coinfection with a non-malarial febrile illness. Widespread use of RDTs does not necessarily prevent over-estimation of clinical malaria cases or sub-optimal case management of febrile patients. We present a new approach that allows inference of the spatiotemporal prevalence of both Plasmodium falciparum malaria-attributable and non-malarial fever in sub-Saharan African children from 2006-2014...
October 16, 2017: ELife
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