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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431115/spatial-distribution-of-falciparum-malaria-infections-in-zanzibar-implications-for-focal-drug-administration-strategies-targeting-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers
#1
Anders Björkman, Jackie Cook, Hugh Sturrock, Mwinyi Msellem, Abdullah Ali, Weiping Xu, Fabrizio Molteni, Roly Gosling, Chris Drakeley, Andreas Mårtensson
Background.: Optimal use of mass/targeted screen-and-treat or mass or focal drug administration as malaria elimination strategies remains unclear. We therefore studied spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum infections to compare simulated effects of these strategies on reducing the parasite reservoir in a pre-elimination setting. Methods.: P. falciparum rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) and serological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) analyses were performed on finger-prick blood samples from a population-based survey in 3 adjacent communities...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427455/comparison-of-methods-for-detecting-asymptomatic-malaria-infections-in-the-china-myanmar-border-area
#2
Yonghong Zhao, Yan Zhao, Yanmin Lv, Fei Liu, Qinghui Wang, Peipei Li, Zhenjun Zhao, Yingjie Liu, Liwang Cui, Qi Fan, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Sensitive methods for detecting asymptomatic malaria infections are essential for identifying potential transmission reservoirs and obtaining an accurate assessment of malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas aiming to eliminate malaria. PCR techniques to detect parasite nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are among the most commonly used molecular methods. However, most of these methods are of low throughput and cannot be used for large-scale molecular epidemiological studies...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423028/four-human-plasmodium-species-quantification-using-droplet-digital-pcr
#3
Suttipat Srisutham, Naowarat Saralamba, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a partial PCR based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a highly sensitive method for detecting and delineating minor alleles from complex backgrounds and provides absolute quantification of DNA targets. The ddPCR technology has been applied for detection of many pathogens. Here the sensitive assay utilizing ddPCR for detection and quantification of Plasmodium species was investigated. The assay was developed for two levels of detection, genus specific for all Plasmodium species and for specific Plasmodium species detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420399/distinct-parasite-populations-infect-individuals-identified-through-passive-and-active-case-detection-in-a-region-of-declining-malaria-transmission-in-southern-zambia
#4
Kelly M Searle, Ben Katowa, Tamaki Kobayashi, Mwiche N S Siame, Sungano Mharakurwa, Giovanna Carpi, Douglas E Norris, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in the burden of malaria have been documented in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, with elimination strategies and goals being formulated in some regions. Within this context, understanding the epidemiology of low-level malaria transmission is crucial to achieving and sustaining elimination. A 24 single-nucleotide-polymorphism Plasmodium falciparum molecular barcode was used to characterize parasite populations from infected individuals identified through passive and active case detection in an area approaching malaria elimination in southern Zambia...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404504/burden-of-asymptomatic-malaria-among-a-tribal-population-in-a-forested-village-of-central-india-a%C3%A2-hidden-challenge-for-malaria-control-in-india
#5
M K Chourasia, K Raghavendra, R M Bhatt, D K Swain, N Valecha, I Kleinschmidt
OBJECTIVE: Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections...
March 21, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386613/magnetically-enabled-biomarker-extraction-and-delivery-system-towards-integrated-assured-diagnostic-tools
#6
Westley S Bauer, Danielle W Kimmel, Nicholas M Adams, Lauren E Gibson, Thomas F Scherr, Kelly A Richardson, Joseph A Conrad, Hellen K Matakala, Frederick R Haselton, David W Wright
Diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria poses a great challenge to global disease elimination efforts. Healthcare infrastructure in rural settings cannot support existing state-of-the-art tools necessary to diagnose asymptomatic malaria infections. Instead, lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs) are widely used as a diagnostic tool in malaria endemic areas. While LFAs are simple and easy to use, they are unable to detect low levels of parasite infection. We have developed a field deployable Magnetically-enabled Biomarker Extraction And Delivery System (mBEADS) that significantly improves limits of detection for several commercially available LFAs...
April 7, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376883/asymptomatic-and-sub-microscopic-malaria-infection-in-kayah-state-eastern-myanmar
#7
Myo Thiha Zaw, Myo Thant, Tin Maung Hlaing, Naing Zin Aung, Min Thu, Kanit Phumchuea, Kanokwan Phusri, Teerawat Saeseu, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Wang Nguitragool, Ingrid Felger, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has the heaviest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections are common in this region and may represent an important reservoir of transmission that must be targeted for malaria elimination. METHODS: A mass blood survey was conducted among 485 individuals from six villages in Kayah State, an area of endemic but low transmission malaria in eastern Myanmar. Malaria infection was screened by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), light microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and its association with demographic factors was explored...
April 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369085/defining-the-next-generation-of-plasmodium-vivax-diagnostic-tests-for-control-and-elimination-target-product-profiles
#8
Xavier C Ding, Maria Paz Ade, J Kevin Baird, Qin Cheng, Jane Cunningham, Mehul Dhorda, Chris Drakeley, Ingrid Felger, Dionicia Gamboa, Matthias Harbers, Socrates Herrera, Naomi Lucchi, Alfredo Mayor, Ivo Mueller, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Arsène Ratsimbason, Jack Richards, Marcel Tanner, Iveth J González
The global prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past fifteen years, but similar gains have not been realized against Plasmodium vivax because this species is less responsive to conventional malaria control interventions aimed principally at P. falciparum. Approximately half of all malaria cases outside of Africa are caused by P. vivax. This species places dormant forms in human liver that cause repeated clinical attacks without involving another mosquito bite. The diagnosis of acute patent P. vivax malaria relies primarily on light microscopy...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369062/t-cell-subtypes-and-reciprocal-inflammatory-mediator-expression-differentiate-p-falciparum-memory-recall-responses-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-malaria-patients-in-southeastern-haiti
#9
Jason S Lehmann, Joseph J Campo, Micheline Cicéron, Christian P Raccurt, Jacques Boncy, Valery E M Beau De Rochars, Anthony P Cannella
Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is responsible for maintaining malarial disease within human populations in low transmission countries such as Haiti. Investigating differential host immune responses to the parasite as a potential underlying mechanism could help provide insight into this highly complex phenomenon and possibly identify asymptomatic individuals. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals who were diagnosed with malaria in Sud-Est, Haiti by comparing the cellular and humoral responses of both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362910/treatment-of-chronic-asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-does-not-increase-the-risk-of-clinical-malaria-upon-reinfection
#10
Silvia Portugal, Tuan M Tran, Aissata Ongoiba, Aboudramane Bathily, Shanping Li, Safiatou Doumbo, Jeff Skinner, Didier Doumtabe, Younoussou Kone, Jules Sangala, Aarti Jain, D Huw Davies, Christopher Hung, Li Liang, Stacy Ricklefs, Manijeh Vafa Homann, Philip L Felgner, Stephen F Porcella, Anna Färnert, Ogobara K Doumbo, Kassoum Kayentao, Brian M Greenwood, Boubacar Traore, Peter D Crompton
Background: Chronic asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in endemic areas and are thought to contribute to the maintenance of malaria immunity. Whether treatment of these infections increases the subsequent risk of clinical episodes of malaria is unclear. Methods: In a 3-year study in Mali, asymptomatic individuals with or without P. falciparum infection at the end of the 6-month dry season were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical malaria risk was compared during the ensuing 6-month malaria transmission season...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327148/drug-resistance-mediating-plasmodium-falciparum-polymorphisms-and-clinical-presentations-of-parasitaemic-children-in-uganda
#11
Stephen Tukwasibwe, Patrick Tumwebaze, Melissa Conrad, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Samuel L Nsobya, Bryan Greenhouse, Philip J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms that mediate altered drug sensitivity may impact upon virulence. In a cross-sectional study, Ugandan children with infections mutant at pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, or pfmdr1 D1246Y had about one-fourth the odds of symptomatic malaria compared to those with infections with wild type (WT) sequences. However, results may have been confounded by greater likelihood in those with symptomatic disease of higher density mixed infections and/or recent prior treatment that selected for WT alleles...
March 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322706/malaria-in-children-adopted-from-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#12
Elena Chiappini, Sara Sollai, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
Data are lacking regarding asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria prevalence in internationally adopted children. Among 20 children from Democratic Republic of the Congo evaluated in Florence, Italy, in April 2016, malaria prevalence was 80%; 50% of infected children had symptomatic malaria. Adopted children from areas of high malaria endemicity should be screened for malaria.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322694/plasmodium-malariae-prevalence-and-csp-gene-diversity-kenya-2014-and-2015
#13
Eugenia Lo, Kristie Nguyen, Jennifer Nguyen, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Jiaobao Xu, Harrisone Etemesi, Andrew Githeko, Guiyun Yan
In Africa, control programs that target primarily Plasmodium falciparum are inadequate for eliminating malaria. To learn more about prevalence and genetic variability of P. malariae in Africa, we examined blood samples from 663 asymptomatic and 245 symptomatic persons from western Kenya during June-August of 2014 and 2015. P. malariae accounted for 5.3% (35/663) of asymptomatic infections and 3.3% (8/245) of clinical cases. Among asymptomatic persons, 71% (32/45) of P. malariae infections detected by PCR were undetected by microscopy...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320389/age-and-geographic-patterns-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-infection-in-a-representative-sample-of-children-living-in-burkitt-lymphoma-endemic-areas-of-northern-uganda
#14
Marlena Maziarz, Tobias Kinyera, Isaac Otim, Paul Kagwa, Hadijah Nabalende, Ismail D Legason, Martin D Ogwang, Samuel Kirimunda, Benjamin Emmanuel, Steven J Reynolds, Patrick Kerchan, Moses M Joloba, Andrew W Bergen, Kishor Bhatia, Ambrose O Talisuna, Robert J Biggar, James J Goedert, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Sam M Mbulaiteye
BACKGROUND: Falciparum malaria is an important risk factor for African Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but few studies have evaluated malaria patterns in healthy BL-age children in populations where both diseases are endemic. To obtain accurate current data, patterns of asymptomatic malaria were investigated in northern Uganda, where BL is endemic. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2015, 1150 apparently healthy children under 15 years old were sampled from 100 villages in northern Uganda using a stratified, multi-stage, cluster survey design...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303984/silent-killers-transfusion-transmissible-infections-tti-among-asymptomatic-population-of-pakistan
#15
Muhammad Saeed, Shahida Hussain, Farhan Rasheed, Maqsood Ahmad, Mizna Arif, Muhammad Tariq Hamid Rahmani
OBJECTIVE: To analyse transfusion transmissible infections in asymptomatic population. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from December 2014 to November 2015, and comprised healthy asymptomatic blood donors.Every sample was screened for the presence of antibodies/antigens of hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, treponemapallidum, hepatitis B virus and malaria parasite through rapid immunochromatographic technique...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284964/optimal-control-of-a-malaria-model-with-asymptomatic-class-and-superinfection
#16
Liming Cai, Xuezhi Li, Necibe Tuncer, Maia Martcheva, Abid Ali Lashari
In this paper, we introduce a malaria model with an asymptomatic class in human population and exposed classes in both human and vector populations. The model assumes that asymptomatic individuals can get re-infected and move to the symptomatic class. In the case of an incomplete treatment, symptomatic individuals move to the asymptomatic class. If successfully treated, the symptomatic individuals recover and move to the susceptible class. The basic reproduction number, R0, is computed using the next generation approach...
March 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268096/impact-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-on-prevalence-of-subclinical-malaria-among-children-in-the-presence-of-pyrethroid-resistance-in-anopheles-culicifacies-in-central-india
#17
Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Raghavendra Kamaraju, Immo Kleinschmidt, Rajendra M Bhatt, Dipak Kumar Swain, Tessa Bellamy Knox, Neena Valecha
BACKGROUND: Subclinical (asymptomatic) cases of malaria could be a major barrier to the success of malaria elimination programs. This study has evaluated the impact of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) on the prevalence of subclinical malaria in the presence of pyrethroid resistance in the main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies on malaria transmission among a cohort of children in villages of the Keshkal sub-district in Chhattisgarh state. METHODS: A cohort of 6582 children ages less than 14 years was enrolled from 80 study clusters...
April 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263883/asymptomatic-plasmodium-malariae-infections-in-children-from-suburban-areas-of-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#18
Dongang Nana Rodrigue Roman, Ngono Ngane Annie Rosalie, Amit Kumar, Koanga Mogtomo Martin Luther, Vineeta Singh, Mouelle Sone Albert
The gold standard for malaria diagnosis is the microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thick blood smears though microscopy mostly may not detect the presence of Plasmodium species infections in asymptomatic samples. In the reported study, we used two diagnostic methods viz. the conventional microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to analyse the asymptomatic malaria samples. PCR assay amplifying 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Plasmodium in 122 samples confirmed 68% of isolates as asymptomatic P...
March 2, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253867/the-shape-of-the-iceberg-quantification-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-and-gametocytaemia-in-five-low-endemic-settings-in-ethiopia
#19
Fitsum G Tadesse, Lotus van den Hoogen, Kjerstin Lanke, Jodie Schildkraut, Kevin Tetteh, Abraham Aseffa, Hassen Mamo, Robert Sauerwein, Ingrid Felger, Chris Drakeley, Endalamaw Gadissa, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of low-density asymptomatic infections with concurrent gametocytes may be a stumbling block for malaria elimination. This study investigated the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in schoolchildren from five settings in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in June and November 2015, enrolling 551 students from five schools and 294 students from three schools, respectively...
March 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245264/longitudinal-analysis-of-antibody-responses-in-symptomatic-malaria-cases-do-not-mirror-parasite-transmission-in-peri-urban-area-of-cote-d-ivoire-between-2010-and-2013
#20
David Koffi, Marie-Louise Varela, Cheikh Loucoubar, Sylvain Beourou, Inès Vigan-Womas, Aissatou Touré, Joseph Allico Djaman, André Offianan Touré, Ronald Perraut
BACKGROUND: In the agenda towards malaria eradication, assessment of both malaria exposure and efficacy of anti-vectorial and therapeutic strategies is a key component of management and the follow-up of field interventions. The simultaneous use of several antigens (Ags) as serological markers has the potential for accurate evaluation of malaria exposure. Here we aimed to measure the longitudinal evolution of the background levels of immunity in an urban setting in confirmed clinical cases of malaria...
2017: PloS One
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