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asymptomatic malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650007/malaria-incidence-and-prevalence-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-nanoro-burkina-faso-a-birth-cohort-study
#1
Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, M Athanase Somé, Serge Henri Zango, Hermann Sorgho, Pieter Guetens, Maminata Coulibaly-Traoré, Innocent Valea, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Infants are thought to be protected against malaria during the first months of life mainly due to passage of maternal antibodies. However, in high transmission settings, malaria in early infancy is not uncommon and susceptibility to the infections varies between individuals. This study aimed to determine malaria morbidity and infection during early childhood in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: Malariometric indices were determined over 1-year follow-up in a birth cohort of 734 infants living in Nanoro health district...
April 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649317/-i-could-not-join-because-i-had-to-work-for-pay-a-qualitative-evaluation-of-falciparum-malaria-pro-active-case-detection-in-three-rural-cambodian-villages
#2
Pierluigi Taffon, Gabriele Rossi, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Rafael Van den Bergh, Chea Nguon, Mark Debackere, Lieven Vernaeve, Martin De Smet, Emilie Venables
BACKGROUND: Pro-active case detection (Pro-ACD), in the form of voluntary screening and treatment (VSAT) following community mobilisation about 'asymptomatic malaria', is currently being evaluated as a tool for Plasmodium falciparum elimination in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted to explore community understanding, perceptions, expectations and acceptability of the Pro-ACD intervention in order to identify aspects that could be improved in future Pro-ACD activities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604304/a-mathematical-model-for-malaria-transmission-with-asymptomatic-carriers-and-two-age-groups-in-the-human-population
#3
Edoardo Beretta, Vincenzo Capasso, Dario G Garao
In this paper a conceptual mathematical model of malaria transmission proposed in a previous paper has been analyzed in a deeper detail. Among its key epidemiological features of this model, two-age-classes (child and adult) and asymptomatic carriers have been included. The extra mortality of mosquitoes due to the use of long-lasting treated mosquito nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) has been included too. By taking advantage of the natural double time scale of the parasite and the human populations, it has been possible to provide interesting threshold results...
March 28, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558985/high-proportions-of-asymptomatic-and-submicroscopic-plasmodium-vivax-infections-in-a-peri-urban-area-of-low-transmission-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#4
Anne C G Almeida, Andrea Kuehn, Arthur J M Castro, Sheila Vitor-Silva, Erick F G Figueiredo, Larissa W Brasil, Marcelo A M Brito, Vanderson S Sampaio, Quique Bassat, Ingrid Felger, Wanderli P Tadei, Wuelton M Monteiro, Ivo Mueller, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies conducted in Latin America have shown a high proportion of asymptomatic and submicroscopic malarial infections. Considering efforts aiming at regional elimination, it is important to investigate the role of this asymptomatic reservoir in malaria transmission in peri-urban areas. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and gametocyte burden on symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in the Brazilian Amazon. RESULTS: Two cross-sectional household surveys (CS) were conducted including all inhabitants in a peri-urban area of Manaus, western Amazonas State, Brazil...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555909/differential-expression-pattern-of-co-inhibitory-molecules-on-cd4-t-cells-in-uncomplicated-versus-complicated-malaria
#5
Annemieke Abel, Christiane Steeg, Francis Aminkiah, Otchere Addai-Mensah, Marylyn Addo, Nicola Gagliani, Christian Casar, Denis Dekugmen Yar, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Thomas Jacobs, Maria Sophia Mackroth
The immune response of malaria patients is a main factor influencing the clinical severity of malaria. A tight regulation of the CD4+ T cell response or the induction of tolerance have been proposed to contribute to protection from severe or clinical disease. We therefore compared the CD4+ T cell phenotypes of Ghanaian children with complicated malaria, uncomplicated malaria, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection or no infection. Using flow cytometric analysis and automated multivariate clustering, we characterized the expression of the co-inhibitory molecules CTLA-4, PD-1, Tim-3, and LAG-3 and other molecules implicated in regulatory function on CD4+ T cells...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554901/micro-epidemiology-of-malaria-in-an-elimination-setting-in-central-vietnam
#6
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Nguyen Xuan Xa, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Nguyen Van Van, Vu Khac Anh Dung, Truong Minh Hieu, Nguyen Van Hong, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Nguyen Thanh Thao, Tran Thanh Duong, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Koen Peeters Grietens, Annette Erhart
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria persists in remote forested regions where infections are spatially heterogeneous, mostly asymptomatic and with low parasite density. Previous studies in Vietnam have investigated broad behavioural concepts such as 'engaging in forest activities' as risk factors for malaria infection, which may not explain heterogeneity in malaria risk, especially in malaria elimination settings. METHODS: A mixed methods study combining ethnographic research and a cross-sectional survey was embedded in a 1-year malariometric cohort study in three ethnic minority villages in South Tra My district, Quang Nam Province in Central Vietnam...
March 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551393/influence-of-polymorphisms-in-toll-like-receptors-tlrs-on-malaria-susceptibility-in-low-endemic-area-of-the-atlantic-forest-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#7
Lilian O Guimarães, Francisco Fernandes, Eliana F Monteiro, Izilda Curado, Marcia M Holcman, Gerhard Wunderlich, Sidney E Santos, Júlia M Soler, Karin Kirchgatter
In low-endemic areas for malaria transmission, asymptomatic individuals play an important role as reservoirs for malarial infection. Understanding the dynamics of asymptomatic malaria is crucial for its efficient control in these regions. Genetic host factors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms may play a role in the maintenance or elimination of infection. In this study, the effect of TLR polymorphisms on the susceptibility to malaria was investigated among individuals living in the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo, Southern Brazil...
March 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540186/assessment-of-asymptomatic-plasmodium-spp-infection-by-detection-of-parasite-dna-in-residents-of-an-extra-amazonian-region-of-brazil
#8
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte, Antonio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: The hypotheses put forward to explain the malaria transmission cycle in extra-Amazonian Brazil, an area of very low malaria incidence, are based on either a zoonotic scenario involving simian malaria, or a scenario in which asymptomatic carriers play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of asymptomatic infection by detecting Plasmodium spp. DNA and its role in residual malaria transmission in a non-Amazonian region of Brazil. METHODS: Upon the report of the first malaria case in 2010 in the Atlantic Forest region of the state of Espírito Santo, inhabitants within a 2 km radius were invited to participate in a follow-up study...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534709/reactive-case-detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-western-kenya-highlands-effective-in-identifying-additional-cases-yet-limited-effect-on-transmission
#9
Ebenezer K Aidoo, Yaw A Afrane, Maxwell Gesuge Machani, Winnie Chebore, Bernard Walter Lawson, Harrysone Atieli, Simon Kariuki, Ming-Chieh Lee, Cristian Koepfli, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic reservoirs of malaria parasites using index cases as entry points into the community is potentially a cost-effective way towards achieving malaria elimination. METHODS: Within 1 year, 1430 confirmed malaria cases were identified in Marani hospital, western Kenya. Fifty cases were followed up, and 108 index case household members and 612 neighbours within a 100 m radius were screened. As controls, samples were collected from 510 individuals matched with index cases and located at a distance of ≥ 500 m from them...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529847/an-alternative-method-for-extracting-plasmodium-dna-from-edta-whole-blood-for-malaria-diagnosis
#10
Krongkaew Seesui, Kanokwan Imtawil, Phimphakon Chanetmahun, Porntip Laummaunwai, Thidarut Boonmars
Molecular techniques have been introduced for malaria diagnosis because they offer greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examinations. Therefore, DNA isolation methods have been developed for easy preparation and cost effectiveness. The present study described a simple protocol for Plasmodium DNA isolation from EDTA-whole blood. This study demonstrated that after heating infected blood samples with Tris-EDTA buffer and proteinase K solution, without isolation and purification steps, the supernatant can be used as a DNA template for amplification by PCR...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463288/reactive-community-based-self-administered-treatment-against-residual-malaria-transmission-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Joseph Okebe, Joan Muela Ribera, Julie Balen, Fatou Jaiteh, Yoriko Masunaga, Davis Nwakanma, John Bradley, Shunmay Yeung, Koen Peeters Grietens, Umberto D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: Systematic treatment of all individuals living in the same compound of a clinical malaria case may clear asymptomatic infections and possibly reduce malaria transmission, where this is focal. High and sustained coverage is extremely important and requires active community engagement. This study explores a community-based approach to treating malaria case contacts. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a cluster-randomized trial to determine whether, in low-transmission areas, treating individuals living in the same compound of a clinical malaria case with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine can reduce parasite carriage and thus residual malaria transmission...
February 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445365/-babesia-microti-infection-changes-host-spleen-architecture-and-is-cleared-by-a-th1-immune-response
#12
Vitomir Djokic, Lavoisier Akoolo, Nikhat Parveen
Babesia microti is a malaria-like parasite, which infects ∼2000 people annually, such that babesiosis is now a notifiable disease in the United States. Immunocompetent individuals often remain asymptomatic and are tested only after they feel ill. Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show several human-like disease manifestations and are ideal to study pathogenesis of Babesia species. In this study, we examined parasitemia of B. microti at different time points and assessed its impact on hemoglobin levels in blood, on spleen pathology and overall immune response in C3H/HeJ mice...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422384/efficacy-and-safety-of-primaquine-and-methylene-blue-for-prevention-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-in-mali-a-phase-2-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Alassane Dicko, Michelle E Roh, Halimatou Diawara, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Harouna M Soumare, Kjerstin Lanke, John Bradley, Koualy Sanogo, Daouda T Kone, Kalifa Diarra, Sekouba Keita, Djibrilla Issiaka, Sekou F Traore, Charles McCulloch, Will J R Stone, Jimee Hwang, Olaf Müller, Joelle M Brown, Vinay Srinivasan, Chris Drakeley, Roly Gosling, Ingrid Chen, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: Primaquine and methylene blue are gametocytocidal compounds that could prevent Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of primaquine and methylene blue in preventing human to mosquito transmission of P falciparum among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-normal, gametocytaemic male participants. METHODS: This was a phase 2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial done at the Clinical Research Centre of the Malaria Research and Training Centre (MRTC) of the University of Bamako (Bamako, Mali)...
February 5, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403652/high-level-of-specific-anti-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-igg1-antibodies-in-rural-asymptomatic-individuals-of-dienga-south-eastern-gabon
#14
Irène Pegha-Moukandja, Roméo-Karl Imboumy-Limoukou, Nina Tchitoula-Makaya, Augustin-Ghislain Mouinga-Ondeme, Jean Claude Biteghe-Bi-Essone, Dieudonne Nkoghe Mba, Jean-Bernard Lekana-Douki, Fousseyni S Toure Ndouo
Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (PfMAgs) play an essential role in the development of immunity to malaria. Currently, P. falciparum: protein 113 (Pf 113), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), erythrocyte binding antigens (EBA175), and reticulocyte binding protein homologue 5 (RH5) are among the most PfMAgs studied. A comparative analysis of naturally acquired antibodies against these antigens in children would increase our knowledge about the development of protective immunity. Analysis of antibodies to Pf113, PfAMA1, PfEBA175, and PfRH5 was conducted in rural population during 2013 and 2014...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398388/the-persistence-and-oscillations-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-infections-over-time-in-vietnam-an-open-cohort-study
#15
Thuy-Nhien Nguyen, Lorenz von Seidlein, Tuong-Vy Nguyen, Phuc-Nhi Truong, Son Do Hung, Huong-Thu Pham, Tam-Uyen Nguyen, Thanh Dong Le, Van Hue Dao, Mavuto Mukaka, Nicholas Pj Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Guy E Thwaites, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of Plasmodium species infections are asymptomatic with densities too low to be detectable with standard diagnostic techniques. The importance of such asymptomatic plasmodium infections in malaria transmission is probably related to their duration and density. To explore the duration of asymptomatic plasmodium infections and changes in parasite densities over time, a cohort of participants who were infected with Plasmodium parasites was observed over a 2-year follow-up period...
February 1, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398387/asymptomatic-low-density-malaria-infections-a-parasite-survival-strategy
#16
Anders B Björkman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395998/treatment-of-uncomplicated-and-severe-malaria-during-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Umberto D'Alessandro, Jenny Hill, Joel Tarning, Christopher Pell, Jayne Webster, Julie Gutman, Esperanca Sevene
Over the past 10 years, the available evidence on the treatment of malaria during pregnancy has increased substantially. Owing to their relative ease of use, good sensitivity and specificity, histidine rich protein 2 based rapid diagnostic tests are appropriate for symptomatic pregnant women; however, such tests are less appropriate for systematic screening because they will not detect an important proportion of infections among asymptomatic women. The effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of antimalarial drugs varies greatly between studies and class of antimalarial drugs, emphasising the need for prospective studies in pregnant and non-pregnant women...
April 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394367/contribution-to-malaria-transmission-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers-in-cambodia
#18
Amélie Vantaux, Reingsey Samreth, Eak Por Piv, Nimol Khim, Saorin Kim, Laura Berne, Sophy Chy, Dysoley Lek, Sovannaroth Siv, Walter R Taylor, Didier Ménard
Background: Eliminating falciparum malaria in Cambodia is a top priority, requiring the implementation of novel tools and strategies to interrupt its transmission. To date, few data are available regarding the contributions to malaria transmission of symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. Methods: Direct-membrane and skin feeding assays (DMFA, SFA) were performed, using Anopheles minimus and An. dirus, to determine infectivity of symptomatic falciparum-infected patients and malaria asymptomatic carriers; a subset of the latter were followed for two months to assess their transmission potential...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389671/a-controlled-human-malaria-infection-model-enabling-evaluation-of-transmission-blocking-interventions
#19
Katharine A Collins, Claire Yt Wang, Matthew Adams, Hayley Mitchell, Melanie Rampton, Suzanne Elliott, Isaie J Reuling, Teun Bousema, Robert Sauerwein, Stephan Chalon, Jörg J Möhrle, James S McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Drugs and vaccines that can interrupt the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum will be important for malaria control and elimination. However, models for early clinical evaluation of candidate transmission-blocking interventions are currently unavailable. Here we describe a new model for evaluating malaria transmission from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes using controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). METHODS: Seventeen healthy malaria-naïve volunteers underwent CHMI by intravenous inoculation of P...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378609/plasmodium-vivax-molecular-diagnostics-in-community-surveys-pitfalls-and-solutions
#20
REVIEW
Maria Gruenberg, Clara Antunes Moniz, Natalie Ellen Hofmann, Rahel Wampfler, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Lacerda, Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Andrea Kuehn, Andre M Siqueira, Ingrid Felger
A distinctive feature of Plasmodium vivax infections is the overall low parasite density in peripheral blood. Thus, identifying asymptomatic infected individuals in endemic communities requires diagnostic tests with high sensitivity. The detection limits of molecular diagnostic tests are primarily defined by the volume of blood analysed and by the copy number of the amplified molecular marker serving as the template for amplification. By using mitochondrial DNA as the multi-copy template, the detection limit can be improved more than tenfold, compared to standard 18S rRNA targets, thereby allowing detection of lower parasite densities...
January 30, 2018: Malaria Journal
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