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asymptomatic malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086864/direct-detection-of-falciparum-and-non-falciparum-malaria-dna-from-a-drop-of-blood-with-high-sensitivity-by-the-dried-lamp-system
#1
Kyoko Hayashida, Kiichi Kajino, Humphrey Simukoko, Martin Simuunza, Joseph Ndebe, Amos Chota, Boniface Namangala, Chihiro Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Because of the low sensitivity of conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria infections, the actual prevalence of the diseases, especially those caused by non-Plasmodium falciparum (non-Pf) species, in asymptomatic populations remain less defined in countries lacking in well-equipped facilities for accurate diagnoses. Our direct blood dry LAMP system (CZC-LAMP) was applied to the diagnosis of malaria as simple, rapid and highly sensitive method as an alternative for conventional RDTs in malaria endemic areas where laboratory resources are limited...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078947/monitoring-of-plasmodium-infection-in-humans-and-potential-vectors-of-malaria-in-a-newly-emerged-focus-in-southern-iran
#2
Mohsen Kalantari, Zahra Soltani, Mostafa Ebrahimi, Masoud Yousefi, Masoumeh Amin, Ayda Shafiei, Kourosh Azizi
Despite control programs, which aim to eliminate malaria from Iran by 2025, transmission of malaria has not been removed from the country. This study aimed to monitor malaria from asymptomatic parasitaemia and clinical cases from about one year of active case surveillance and potential vectors of malaria in the newly emerged focus of Mamasani and Rostam, southern Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were collected and their DNAs were extracted for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers for detection of Plasmodium species...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056979/malaria-epidemiology-in-central-myanmar-identification-of-a-multi-species-asymptomatic-reservoir-of-infection
#3
Isaac Ghinai, Jackie Cook, Teddy Tun Win Hla, Hein Myat Thu Htet, Tom Hall, Inke Nd Lubis, Rosanna Ghinai, Therese Hesketh, Ye Naung, Mya Mya Lwin, Tint Swe Latt, David L Heymann, Colin J Sutherland, Chris Drakeley, Nigel Field
BACKGROUND: The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a global health concern. Myanmar stands at the frontier of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum. Myanmar also has the highest reported malaria burden in Southeast Asia; it is integral in the World Health Organization's plan to eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia, yet few epidemiological data exist for the general population in Myanmar. METHODS: This cross-sectional, probability household survey was conducted in Phyu township, Bago Region (central Myanmar), during the wet season of 2013...
January 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982132/sensitive-and-accurate-quantification-of-human-malaria-parasites-using-droplet-digital-pcr-ddpcr
#4
Cristian Koepfli, Wang Nguitragool, Natalie E Hofmann, Leanne J Robinson, Maria Ome-Kaius, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Ingrid Felger, Ivo Mueller
Accurate quantification of parasite density in the human host is essential for understanding the biology and pathology of malaria. Semi-quantitative molecular methods are widely applied, but the need for an external standard curve makes it difficult to compare parasite density estimates across studies. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allows direct quantification without the need for a standard curve. ddPCR was used to diagnose and quantify P. falciparum and P. vivax in clinical patients as well as in asymptomatic samples...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974541/characterization-and-diagnostic-application-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-trypomastigote-excreted-secreted-antigens-shed-in-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-infected-mammalian-cells
#5
Norma L Bautista-López, Momar Ndao, Fabio Vasquez Camargo, Takeshi Nara, Takeshi Annoura, Darryl B Hardie, Christoph H Borchers, Armando Jardim
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, although endemic in many parts of Central and South America, is emerging as a global health threat through the potential contamination of blood supplies. Consequently, in the absence of a gold standard assay for the diagnosis of Chagas additional antigens or strategies are needed. A proteomic analysis of the trypomastigote excreted secreted antigens (TESA) associated with exosomal vesicles shed by T. cruzi identified ∼80 parasite proteins; with the majority being trans-sialidases...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968827/operational-challenges-to-the-1-3-7-surveillance-strategy-for-malaria-elimination-in-china-a-qualitative-study
#6
Guang-Yu Lu, Yao-Bao Liu, Claudia Beiersmann, Yu Feng, Jun Cao, Olaf Müller
BACKGROUND: China aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. In 2012, China launched its 1-3-7 malaria surveillance strategy, which refers to case reporting within one day, case investigation within three days, and focus investigation and public health actions within seven days. The aim of this study was to identify operational challenges to the 1-3-7 surveillance strategy. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in northwestern (Gansu Province) and southeastern (Jiangsu Province) China...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941968/reactive-case-detection-for-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-elimination-in-rural-amazonia
#7
Pablo S Fontoura, Bruna F Finco, Nathália F Lima, Jaques F de Carvalho, Joseph M Vinetz, Márcia C Castro, Marcelo U Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination. METHODS: We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD) strategy tailored for P...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933559/-contribution-of-nested-pcr-in-the-diagnosis-of-imported-malaria-in-southern-algeria
#8
L Bouiba, B Gassen, M Gasmi, D Hammadi, Z Harrat
The nested PCR was used to estimate its inputs in malaria diagnosis and in the performance of the microscope operators involved in the surveillance of malaria in remote areas of South Algeria. For the period 2010 to 2015, 112 patients (93 febrile and 19 asymptomatic) coming from sub-Saharan Africa were tested for malaria in the hospital of Tamanrasset. One part of the blood taken from fingertip was used for blood smears and the second part was absorbed in filter paper for molecular diagnosis. Overall, the infection was detected by nested PCR in 63 samples versus 53 by direct examination...
December 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930652/safety-and-reproducibility-of-a-clinical-trial-system-using-induced-blood-stage-plasmodium-vivax-infection-and-its-potential-as-a-model-to-evaluate-malaria-transmission
#9
Paul Griffin, Cielo Pasay, Suzanne Elliott, Silvana Sekuloski, Maggy Sikulu, Leon Hugo, David Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Miles Davenport, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Karen Ivinson, Christian Ockenhouse, James McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Interventions to interrupt transmission of malaria from humans to mosquitoes represent an appealing approach to assist malaria elimination. A limitation has been the lack of systems to test the efficacy of such interventions before proceeding to efficacy trials in the field. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of induced blood stage malaria (IBSM) infection with Plasmodium vivax. In this study, we report further validation of the IBSM model, and its evaluation for assessment of transmission of P...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926919/plasmodium-falciparum-infection-status-among-children-with-schistosoma-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Abraham Degarege, Dawit Degarege, Emir Veledar, Berhanu Erko, Mathieu Nacher, Consuelo M Beck-Sague, Purnima Madhivanan
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that Schistosoma infection may be associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection or related reduction in haemoglobin level, but the nature of this interaction remains unclear. This systematic review synthesized evidence on the relationship of S. haematobium or S. mansoni infection with the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria, Plasmodium density and related reduction in haemoglobin level among children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic review in according with PRISMA guidelines was conducted...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899111/plasmodium-malariae-in-the-colombian-amazon-region-you-don-t-diagnose-what-you-don-t-suspect
#11
Carlos Hernando Niño, Juan Ricardo Cubides, Paola Andrea Camargo-Ayala, Carlos Arturo Rodríguez-Celis, Teódulo Quiñones, Moisés Tomás Cortés-Castillo, Lizeth Sánchez-Suárez, Ricardo Sánchez, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium spp. are the aetiological agent of this disease. The parasite is mainly diagnosed by microscope-based techniques. However, these have limited sensitivity. Many asymptomatic infections are sub-microscopic and can only be detected by molecular methods. This study was aimed at comparing nested PCR results to those obtained by microscope for diagnosing malaria and to present epidemiological data regarding malaria in Colombia's Amazon department...
November 29, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893347/asymptomatic-infections-in-blood-donors-harbouring-plasmodium-an-invisible-risk-detected-by-molecular-and-serological-tools
#12
Giselle F M C Lima, Maria C Arroyo Sanchez, José E Levi, Mahyumi Fujimori, Luiza Da Cruz Caramelo, Arianni Rondelli Sanchez, Eduardo M Ramos-Sanchez, Juliana Inoue, Maria De Jesus Costa-Nascimento, Alfredo Mendrone Junior, Silvia M Di Santi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted malaria due to asymptomatic Plasmodium infections is a challenge for blood banks. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infected blood donors and the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in low endemicity areas worldwide. We estimated the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium in an area in which asymptomatic infections have been reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To estimate the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium we used microscopy and molecular tools...
November 7, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887652/limitations-of-malaria-reactive-case-detection-in-an-area-of-low-and-unstable-transmission-on-the-myanmar-thailand-border
#13
Daniel M Parker, Jordi Landier, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen Dondorp, Lisa White, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Richard J Maude, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection is an approach that has been proposed as a tool for malaria elimination in low-transmission settings. It is an intuitively justified approach based on the concept of space-time clustering of malaria cases. When an index malaria clinical case is detected, it triggers reactive screening and treatment in the index house and neighbouring houses. However, the efficacy of this approach at varying screening radii and malaria prevalence remains ill defined...
November 25, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870874/associations-between-season-and-gametocyte-dynamics-in-chronic-plasmodium-falciparum-infections
#14
Amal A H Gadalla, Petra Schneider, Thomas S Churcher, Elkhansaa Nassir, Abdel-Muhsin A Abdel-Muhsin, Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright, Sarah E Reece, Hamza A Babiker
INTRODUCTION: In a markedly seasonal malaria setting, the transition from the transmission-free dry season to the transmission season depends on the resurgence of the mosquito population following the start of annual rains. The sudden onset of malaria outbreaks at the start of the transmission season suggests that parasites persist during the dry season and respond to either the reappearance of vectors, or correlated events, by increasing the production of transmission stages. Here, we investigate whether Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and the correlation between gametocyte density and parasite density show seasonal variation in chronic (largely asymptomatic) carriers in eastern Sudan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867517/protective-immunity-to-liver-stage-malaria
#15
REVIEW
Lauren E Holz, Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz, William R Heath
Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861509/parasitological-clearance-rates-and-drug-concentrations-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-azithromycin-chloroquine-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-with-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitemia-an-open-label-non-comparative-study-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
Kamija Phiri, Joshua Kimani, George A Mtove, Qinying Zhao, Ricardo Rojo, Jeffery Robbins, Stephan Duparc, Ayman Ayoub, Pol Vandenbroucke
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their newborn babies in sub-Saharan Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the burden of disease and improve maternal and neonatal survival and general health. Due to the growing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the current WHO-recommended drug for IPTp, identification of new and effective drugs is an urgent priority...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842555/low-prevalence-of-laboratory-confirmed-malaria-in-clinically-diagnosed-adult-women-from-the-wakiso-district-of-uganda
#17
Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M Galiwango, Aloysious Ssemaganda, Moses Muwanga, Irene Wesonga, George Miiro, David A Drajole, Kevin C Kain, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S Bagaya, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: The malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has fallen substantially. Nevertheless, malaria remains a serious health concern, and Uganda ranks third in SSA in total malaria burden. Epidemiological studies of adult malaria in Uganda are scarce and little is known about rates of malaria in non-pregnant adult women. This pilot study assessed malaria prevalence among adult women from Wakiso district, historically a highly malaria endemic region. METHODS: Adult women using public health services were screened for malaria, HIV and pregnancy...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842542/asymptomatic-only-at-first-sight-malaria-infection-among-schoolchildren-in-highland-rwanda
#18
Kevin C Sifft, Dominik Geus, Caritas Mukampunga, Jean Claude Mugisha, Felix Habarugira, Kira Fraundorfer, Claude Bayingana, Jules Ndoli, Irenee Umulisa, Corine Karema, George von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Toni Aebischer, Peter Martus, Augustin Sendegeya, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium infection and malaria in school children are increasingly recognized as a relevant public health problem, but data on actual prevalence and health consequences are insufficient. The present study from highland southern Rwanda aimed at estimating infection prevalence among children attending school, at identifying associated factors and at assessing the clinical consequences of these infections. METHODS: In a survey including 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda, 1089 children aged 6-10 years were clinically and anthropometrically examined, malaria parasites were diagnosed by microscopy and PCR, haemoglobin concentrations were measured, and socio-economic and behavioural parameters as well as medical histories were obtained...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829450/post-exposure-serological-responses-to-malaria-parasites-in-potential-blood-donors
#19
Daniela Portugal-Calisto, Ana Raquel Ferreira, Marcelo Sousa Silva, Rosa Teodósio
BACKGROUND: Cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria have been described around the world and highlighted in some studies. Semi-immune individuals are more likely to transmit malaria as they may be asymptomatic. Some countries allow blood donations only based on epidemiological criteria while others reinforce their criteria with serological tests. However, little is known about the longevity of anti-Plasmodium spp. antibodies and its meaning in blood donation. Therefore, this study aims to assess the longevity of different subclasses of anti-Plasmodium spp...
November 9, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825738/the-gametocytocidal-efficacy-of-different-single-doses-of-primaquine-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers-in-the-gambia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Joseph Okebe, Teun Bousema, Muna Affara, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Edgard Dabira, Abdoulaye Gaye, Frank Sanya-Isijola, Henry Badji, Simon Correa, Davis Nwakanma, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Chris Drakeley, Umberto D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic low-density gametocyte carriers represent the majority of malaria-infected individuals. However, the impact of recommended treatment with single low dose of primaquine and an artemisinin-based combination therapy to reduce transmission in this group is unknown. METHODS: This was a four-arm, open label, randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) alone or combined with single dose of primaquine (PQ) at 0...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
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