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asymptomatic malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029179/sustained-malaria-control-over-an-eight-year-period-in-papua-new-guinea-the-challenge-of-low-density-asymptomatic-infections
#1
Cristian Koepfli, Maria Ome-Kaius, Shadrach Jally, Elisheba Malau, Samuel Maripal, Jason Ginny, Lincoln Timinao, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Thomas Obadia, Michael White, Patricia Rarau, Nicolas Senn, Alyssa E Barry, James W Kazura, Ivo Mueller, Leanne J Robinson
Background: The scale-up of effective malaria control in the last decade has resulted in a substantial decline in the incidence of clinical malaria in many countries. The effects on the proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections, and on transmission potential are yet poorly understood. Methods: In Papua New Guinea, vector control has been intensified since 2008, and improved diagnosis and treatment introduced in 2012. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Madang Province in 2006 (n=1280), 2010 (n=2117) and 2014 (n=2516)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025399/plasmodium-falciparum-epcr-binding-pfemp1-expression-increases-with-malaria-disease-severity-and-is-elevated-in-retinopathy-negative-cerebral-malaria
#2
Estela Shabani, Benjamin Hanisch, Robert O Opoka, Thomas Lavstsen, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: Expression of group A and the A-like subset of group B Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is associated with severe malaria (SM). The diversity of var sequences combined with the challenges of distinct classification of patient pathologies has made studying the role of distinct PfEMP1 variants on malaria disease severity challenging. The application of retinopathy in the recent years has provided a further method to clinically evaluate children with cerebral malaria (CM)...
October 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017499/imported-malaria-in-spain-2009-2016-results-from-the-redivi-collaborative-network
#3
Francesca F Norman, Ana López-Polín, Fernando Salvador, Begoña Treviño, Eva Calabuig, Diego Torrús, Antonio Soriano-Arandes, Jose-Manuel Ruíz-Giardín, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Jose-Antonio Pérez-Molina, Ana Perez-Ayala, Magdalena García, Azucena Rodríguez, María Martínez-Serrano, Miren Zubero, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is a frequent diagnosis in travellers and migrants. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with imported malaria within a Spanish collaborative network registering imported diseases (+REDIVI). In addition, the possible association between malaria and type of case, gender, age or area of exposure was explored. METHODS: Cases of imported malaria were identified among all cases registered in the +REDIVI database during the period October 2009-October 2016...
October 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016343/passively-versus-actively-detected-malaria-similar-genetic-diversity-but-different-complexity-of-infection
#4
Zuleima Pava, Irene Handayuni, Leily Trianty, Retno A S Utami, Yusrifar K Tirta, Agatha M Puspitasari, Faustina Burdam, Enny Kenangalem, Grennady Wirjanata, Steven Kho, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Nicholas Anstey, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Rintis Noviyanti, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt, Sarah Auburn
The surveillance of malaria is generally undertaken on the assumption that samples passively collected at health facilities are comparable to or representative of the broader Plasmodium reservoir circulating in the community. Further characterization and comparability of the hidden asymptomatic parasite reservoir are needed to inform on the potential impact of sampling bias. This study explores the impact of sampling strategy on molecular surveillance by comparing the genetic make-up of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax isolates collected by passive versus active case detection...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016341/prevalence-of-clinical-and-subclinical-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-two-remote-rural-communities-on-the-china-myanmar-border
#5
Fang Huang, Shannon Takala-Harrison, Hui Liu, Jian-Wei Xu, Heng-Lin Yang, Matthew Adams, Biraj Shrestha, Gillian Mbambo, Demian Rybock, Shui-Sen Zhou, Zhi-Gui Xia, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Christopher V Plowe, Myaing M Nyunt
Malaria infections may be symptomatic, leading to treatment, or "asymptomatic," typically detected through active surveillance, and not leading to treatment. Malaria elimination may require purging both types of infection. Using detection methods with different sensitivities, we conducted a cross-sectional study in two rural communities located along the border between China's Yunnan Province and Myanmar's Shan and Kachin States, to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria. In Mong Pawk, all infections detected were asymptomatic, and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum was 0...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991911/associations-between-an-igg3-polymorphism-in-the-binding-domain-for-fcrn-transplacental-transfer-of-malaria-specific-igg3-and-protection-against-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-during-infancy-a-birth-cohort-study-in-benin
#6
Celia Dechavanne, Sebastien Dechavanne, Ibrahim Sadissou, Adjimon Gatien Lokossou, Fernanda Alvarado, Magalie Dambrun, Kabirou Moutairou, David Courtin, Gregory Nuel, Andre Garcia, Florence Migot-Nabias, Christopher L King
BACKGROUND: Transplacental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the fetus helps to protect against malaria and other infections in infancy. Recent studies have emphasized the important role of malaria-specific IgG3 in malaria immunity, and its transfer may reduce the risk of malaria in infancy. Human IgGs are actively transferred across the placenta by binding the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) expressed within the endosomes of the syncytiotrophoblastic membrane. Histidine at position 435 (H435) provides for optimal Fc-IgG binding...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982374/relationships-between-infection-with-plasmodium-falciparum-during-pregnancy-measures-of-placental-malaria-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#7
James Kapisi, Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan, Mary K Muhindo, Paul Natureeba, Patricia Awori, Miriam Nakalembe, Richard Ssekitoleko, Peter Olwoch, John Ategeka, Patience Nayebare, Tamara D Clark, Gabrielle Rizzuto, Atis Muehlenbachs, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Stephanie L Gaw
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy has been associated with maternal morbidity, placental malaria, and adverse birth outcomes. However, data are limited on the relationships between longitudinal measures of malaria during pregnancy, measures of placental malaria, and birth outcomes. METHODS: This is a nested observational study of data from a randomized controlled trial of intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy among 282 participants with assessment of placental malaria and delivery outcomes...
October 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982155/loop-mediated-isothermal-dna-amplification-for-asymptomatic-malaria-detection-in-challenging-field-settings-technical-performance-and-pilot-implementation-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#8
Elisa Serra-Casas, Paulo Manrique, Xavier C Ding, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Freddy Alava, Anthony Gave, Hugo Rodriguez, Juan Contreras-Mancilla, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Niko Speybroeck, Iveth J González, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Dionicia Gamboa
BACKGROUND: Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) methodology offers an opportunity for point-of-care (POC) molecular detection of asymptomatic malaria infections. However, there is still little evidence on the feasibility of implementing this technique for population screenings in isolated field settings. METHODS: Overall, we recruited 1167 individuals from terrestrial ('road') and hydric ('riverine') communities of the Peruvian Amazon for a cross-sectional survey to detect asymptomatic malaria infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977585/a-study-of-malaria-parasite-density-in-hiv-1-positive-under-fives-in-benin-city-nigeria
#9
Ikechukwu Okonkwo, Michael Ibadin, Wilson Sadoh, Austine Omoigberale
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among under-fives in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection could affect development of antimalarial immunity by impaired parasite clearance with predisposition to higher malaria parasitaemia. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess asymptomatic malaria parasite density (AMPD) in HIV-1-infected under-fives in a holoendemic zone. Methods: HIV-1-positive and -negative children <5 years on follow-up care were recruited and AMPD and CD4 counts were determined...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973672/detecting-malaria-hotspots-a-comparison-of-rapid-diagnostic-test-microscopy-and-polymerase-chain-reaction
#10
Polycarp Mogeni, Thomas N Williams, Irene Omedo, Domtila Kimani, Joyce M Ngoi, Jedida Mwacharo, Richard Morter, Christopher Nyundo, Juliana Wambua, George Nyangweso, Melissa Kapulu, Gregory Fegan, Philip Bejon
Background: Malaria control strategies need to respond to geographical hotspots of transmission. Detection of hotspots depends on the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 3 sites within Kilifi County, Kenya, that had variable transmission intensities. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect asymptomatic parasitemia, and hotspots were detected using the spatial scan statistic...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970738/genetic-diversity-of-cd14-promoter-gene-polymorphism-rs2569190-is-associated-with-regulation-of-malaria-parasitemia-and-susceptibility-to-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#11
Olusola Ojurongbe, Roland I Funwei, Tara J Snyder, Najihah Aziz, Yi Li, Catherine O Falade, Bolaji N Thomas
CD14 is a multifunctional receptor expressed on many cell types and has been shown to mediate immune response resulting in the activation of an inflammatory cascade, with polymorphism of its promoter (rs2569190) found to be associated with susceptibility to several diseases. In malaria infection, the CD14 gene demonstrated a pathogenic profile in regulating experimental cerebral malaria, with reports of elevated levels of soluble CD14 in serum of patients but no definitive conclusion. We present a detailed analysis of genetic diversity of CD14 promoter gene (snp -159 C/T; rs2519190) polymorphism between a malaria-infected group and uninfected controls and its association with clinical parameters of disease...
2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968664/a-novel-gametocyte-biomarker-for-superior-molecular-detection-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-infectious-reservoirs
#12
Edward Essuman, Bryan Grabias, Nitin Verma, Joanna K Chorazeczewski, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, Ebenezer A Addison, Albert G B Amoah, Isabella Quakyi, Miranda S Oakley, Sanjai Kumar
Background: Complete malaria eradication and optimal use of transmission-reducing interventions requires knowledge of submicroscopic infectious reservoirs among asymptomatic individuals. Even sub-microscopic levels of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes can infect mosquitoes and promote onward transmission. Most efforts to identify gametocyte carriers utilize PCR amplification of the gametocyte-specific transcript Pfs25. Methods: To expand the repertoire of biomarkers available for superior gametocyte detection, we compared the gene expression profiles of gametocytes versus asynchronous blood stage P...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948179/plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein-2-plasma-concentrations-are-higher-in-retinopathy-negative-cerebral-malaria-than-in-severe-malarial-anemia
#13
Gregory S Park, Robert O Opoka, Estela Shabani, Alexis Wypyszynski, Benjamin Hanisch, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: Malaria retinopathy has been proposed as marker of "true" cerebral malaria (CM), ie, coma due to Plasmodium falciparum vs coma due to other causes, with incidental P falciparum parasitemia. Plasma P falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) concentrations distinguish retinopathy-positive (RP) from retinopathy-negative (RN) CM but have not been compared between RN CM and other forms of severe malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia (AP). METHODS: We compared plasma PfHRP2 concentrations in 260 children with CM (247 examined for retinopathy), 228 children with severe malarial anemia (SMA), and 30 community children with AP...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945794/variations-in-the-quality-of-malaria-specific-antibodies-with-transmission-intensity-in-a-seasonal-malaria-transmission-area-of-northern-ghana
#14
Kwadwo A Kusi, Emmanuel A Manu, Theresa Manful Gwira, Eric Kyei-Baafour, Emmanuel K Dickson, Jones A Amponsah, Edmond J Remarque, Bart W Faber, Clemens H M Kocken, Daniel Dodoo, Ben A Gyan, Gordon A Awandare, Frank Atuguba, Abraham R Oduro, Kwadwo A Koram
INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium falciparum induced antibodies are key components of anti-malarial immunity in malaria endemic areas, but their antigen targets can be polymorphic. Induction of a high proportion of strain-specific antibodies will limit the recognition of a broad diversity of parasite strains by these responses. There are indications that circulating parasite diversity varies with malaria transmission intensity, and this may affect the specificity of elicited anti-malarial antibodies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938906/international-survey-to-identify-diagnostic-needs-to-support-malaria-elimination-guiding-the-development-of-combination-highly-sensitive-rapid-diagnostic-tests
#15
Ana Campillo, Jennifer Daily, Iveth J González
BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, the very low levels of transmission now being attained present challenges that demand new strategies to identify and treat low-density infections in both symptomatic and asymptomatic populations. Accordingly, passive case detection activities need to be supplemented by active case detection (ACD) strategies with more sensitive diagnostic tools. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have provided low- and middle-income countries with unprecedented access to malaria diagnostics...
September 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931756/monocyte-dysregulation-and-systemic-inflammation-during-pediatric-falciparum-malaria
#16
Katherine R Dobbs, Paula Embury, John Vulule, Peter S Odada, Bruce A Rosa, Makedonka Mitreva, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and monocytes are thought to be important to human malaria pathogenesis. However, the relationship of inflammation and various monocyte functions to acute malaria, recovery from acute malaria, and asymptomatic parasitemia in endemic populations is poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated plasma cytokine levels, monocyte subsets, monocyte functional responses, and monocyte inflammatory transcriptional profiles of 1- to 10-year-old Kenyan children at the time of presentation with acute uncomplicated malaria and at recovery 6 weeks later; these results were compared with analogous data from asymptomatic children and adults in the same community...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929395/asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-vivax-infection-in-the-neighborhood-of-blondin-saint-georges-de-l-oyapock-district-french-guiana
#17
E Mosnier, M Douine, L Epelboin, S Pelleau, V Pommier de Santi, Y Dangel, M Demar, R Mutricy, B Guarmit, M Nacher, P Brousse, D Davy, F Djossou, L Musset
Optimized elimination strategies are needed to control transmission of malaria. As part of an elimination campaign, active detection of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers by highly sensitive methods is deemed necessary. Asymptomatic carriage leads to complex scientific, ethical, and operational issues regarding individual or collective detection and treatment. To address this issue, a crosssectional study was carried out in French Guiana to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage during an inter-epidemic season in the whole population of a neighborhood of Saint-Georges-de-l'Oyapock, along the Brazilian border...
October 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924741/spectrum-of-infectious-diseases-among-newly-arrived-eritrean-refugees-in-switzerland-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Afona Chernet, Andreas Neumayr, Christoph Hatz, Kerstin Kling, Véronique Sydow, Katharina Rentsch, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Hanspeter Marti, Beatrice Nickel, Niklaus D Labhardt
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at determining the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among recently arrived Eritrean refugees in Switzerland. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, asymptomatic Eritrean migrants aged ≥16 years who arrived <24 months ago were recruited at refugee centres in Switzerland. Infectious disease screening included serology for HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis and schistosomiasis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for malaria, stool microscopy for helminths and intestinal protozoa and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) testing in urine for schistosomiasis...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924231/population-genomics-of-virulence-genes-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-clinical-isolates-from-uganda
#19
Shazia Ruybal-Pesántez, Kathryn E Tiedje, Gerry Tonkin-Hill, Thomas S Rask, Moses R Kamya, Bryan Greenhouse, Grant Dorsey, Michael F Duffy, Karen P Day
Plasmodium falciparum causes a spectrum of malarial disease from asymptomatic to uncomplicated through to severe. Investigations of parasite virulence have associated the expression of distinct variants of the major surface antigen of the blood stages known as Pf EMP1 encoded by up to 60 var genes per genome. Looking at the population genomics of var genes in cases of uncomplicated malaria, we set out to determine if there was any evidence of a selective sweep of specific var genes or clonal epidemic structure related to the incidence of uncomplicated disease in children...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923054/a-novel-method-for-extracting-nucleic-acids-from-dried-blood-spots-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-low-density%C3%A2-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax%C3%A2-infections
#20
Kayvan Zainabadi, Matthew Adams, Zay Yar Han, Hnin Wai Lwin, Kay Thwe Han, Amed Ouattara, Si Thura, Christopher V Plowe, Myaing M Nyunt
BACKGROUND: Greater Mekong Subregion countries are committed to eliminating Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Current elimination interventions target infections at parasite densities that can be detected by standard microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). More sensitive detection methods have been developed to detect lower density "asymptomatic" infections that may represent an important transmission reservoir. These ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (usPCR) tests have been used to identify target populations for mass drug administration (MDA)...
September 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
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