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asymptomatic malaria

Thomas J Peto, Rupam Tripura, Nou Sanann, Bipin Adhikari, James Callery, Mark Droogleever, Chhouen Heng, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Chan Davoeung, Chea Nguon, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher Pell
Background: Mass drug administrations (MDAs) are part of the World Health Organization's Plasmodium falciparum elimination strategy for the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). In Cambodia, a 2015-2017 clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of MDA. This article explores factors that influence the feasibility and acceptability of MDA, including seasonal timing, financial incentives and the delivery model. Methods: Quantitative data were collected through structured questionnaires from the heads of 163 households...
June 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ruth Ayanful-Torgby, Neils B Quashie, Johnson N Boampong, Kim C Williamson, Linda E Amoah
Plasmodium falciparum infections presenting either as symptomatic or asymptomatic may contain sexual stage parasites (gametocytes) that are crucial to malaria transmission. In this study, the prevalence of microscopic and submicroscopic asexual and gametocyte parasite stages were assessed in asymptomatic children from two communities in southern Ghana. Eighty children aged twelve years and below, none of whom exhibited signs of clinical malaria living in Obom and Cape Coast were sampled twice, one during the rainy (July 2015) and subsequently during the dry (January 2016) season...
2018: PloS One
Jordi Landier, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Smita Das, Kamonchanok Konghahong, Peter Christensen, Jathee Raksuansak, Pase Phattharakokoedbun, Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Ihn Kyung Jang, Mallika Imwong, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Khin Maung Lwin, Clare Ling, Stephane Proux, Gonzalo J Domingo, Gilles Delmas, François H Nosten
Context In the Greater Mekong Subregion, malaria elimination strategies target all Plasmodium falciparum parasites, including those carried asymptomatically. Over 70% of asymptomatic carriers are undetectable by current rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or microscopy. An HRP2-based ultrasensitive RDT (uRDT) developed to improve the detection of low density infections was evaluated during prevalence surveys within a malaria elimination program in a low transmission area of Eastern Myanmar. Methods Surveys were conducted to identify high prevalence villages...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Elizabeth K K Glennon, Dewi Megawati, Brandi K Torrevillas, Isaac Ssewanyana, Liusheng Huang, Fran Aweeka, Bryan Greenhouse, L Garry Adams, Shirley Luckhart
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an ancient stress hormone and is detectable in a wide variety of organisms where it regulates innate immunity and inflammation. Previously, we showed that oral supplementation with ABA decreased parasitemia in a mouse model of malaria, decreased liver and spleen pathology and reduced parasite transmission to mosquitoes. Here, we report that higher circulating ABA levels were associated with a reduced risk of symptomatic malaria in a cohort of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Ugandan children...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Frederica D Partey, Filip C Castberg, Edem W Sarbah, Sarah E Silk, Gordon A Awandare, Simon J Draper, Nicholas Opoku, Margaret Kweku, Michael F Ofori, Lars Hviid, Lea Barfod
Plasmodium falciparum PfRH5 protein binds Ripr, CyRPA and Pf113 to form a complex that is essential for merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. The inter-genomic conservation of the PfRH5 complex proteins makes them attractive blood stage vaccine candidates. However, little is known about how antibodies to PfRH5, CyRPA and Pf113 are acquired and maintained in naturally exposed populations, and the role of PfRH5 complex proteins in naturally acquired immunity. To provide such data, we studied 206 Ghanaian children between the ages of 1-12 years, who were symptomatic, asymptomatic or aparasitemic and healthy...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Rizawati Binti Mahpot, Shairah Dzul, Hairul Anuar Bin Abdul Razak, Noor Asmah Binti Ahmad Shah Azizi, Marina Binti Kamarudin, Bruce Russell, Khai Lone Lim, Jeremy Ryan de Silva, Bing Sheng Lim, Jenarun Jelip, Rose Nani Binti Mudin, Yee Ling Lau
Although Plasmodium vivax infections in Malaysia are usually imported, a significant autochthonous outbreak of vivax malaria was detected in a remote indigenous (Orang Asli) settlement located in northern peninsular Malaysia. Between November 2016 and April 2017, 164 cases of P. vivax infection were detected. Although 83.5% of the vivax cases were identified through passive case detection and contact screening during the first 7 weeks, subsequent mass blood screening (combination of rapid diagnostic tests, blood films, and polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) of the entire settlement ( N = 3,757) revealed another 27 P...
June 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Pilar Martín-Dávila, Francesca Norman, Jesus Fortún-Abete, Miguel Píris, Ruben Lovatti, Jose Miguel Rubio, Adolfo Martinez-Pérez, Javier Graus, Gema Ta, Jesus Villarubia, Beatriz Mahillo, Rogelio López-Vélez
A 57-year-old man was admitted with fever and thrombocytopenia one month after renal transplantation. He had never received a blood transfusion or travelled outside Spain. A peripheral blood smear revealed Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale parasites, diagnosis confirmed later by malaria PCR. The donor, from Equatorial Guinea, had negative thick and thin blood smears and rapid malaria antigen test prior to organ donation. Peripheral blood malaria PCR was not performed during donor screening. The second renal recipient and the liver recipient were evaluated and were found to be asymptomatic...
June 4, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Andrew A Lover, Emily Dantzer, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Keobouphaphone Chindavongsa, Susie Welty, Tania Reza, Nimol Khim, Didier Menard, Adam Bennett
BACKGROUND: Lao People Democratic Republic (PDR; Laos), a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, has made important progress in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in the past 5-6 years, and the northern provinces have very low reported incidence. To support national progress towards elimination, it is critical to verify and understand these changes in disease burden. METHODS: A two-stage cluster cross-sectional survey was conducted in four districts within four northern provinces (Khua, Phongsaly Province; Paktha, Bokeo Province; Nambak, Luang Prabang, and Muang Et, Huaphanh Province)...
June 1, 2018: Malaria Journal
Gihoon Choi, Theodore Prince, Jun Miao, Liwang Cui, Weihua Guan
The effectiveness of malaria screening and treatment highly depends on the low-cost access to the highly sensitive and specific malaria test. We report a real-time fluorescence nucleic acid testing device for malaria field detection with automated and scalable sample preparation capability. The device consists a compact analyzer and a disposable microfluidic reagent compact disc. The parasite DNA sample preparation and subsequent real-time LAMP detection were seamlessly integrated on a single microfluidic compact disc, driven by energy efficient non-centrifuge based magnetic field interactions...
May 19, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Andrea G Buchwald, Alick Sixpence, Mabvuto Chimenya, Milius Damson, John D Sorkin, Mark L Wilson, Karl Seydel, Sarah Hochman, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Miriam K Laufer
Background: Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in Malawi, however, the implications of these infections for the burden of malaria illness are unknown. Whether asymptomatic infections eventually progress to malaria illness, persist without causing symptoms, or clear spontaneously remains undetermined. We identified asymptomatic infections and evaluated the associations between persistent asymptomatic infections and malaria illness. Methods: Children and adults (N = 120) who presented at a health facility with uncomplicated malaria were followed monthly for two years...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Thato Motshoge, Grace Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, Sajini Souda, Charles Waithaka Muthoga, Naledi Mutukwa, Leabaneng Tawe, Pleasure Ramatlho, Lesego Gabaitiri, Simon Chihanga, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Shimeles Hamda, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies Ntebela, Elias Peloewetse, Loeto Mazhani, Jeffrey M Pernica, John Read, Isaac K Quaye, Giacomo Maria Paganotti
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly seen in malaria endemic areas as it is known to confer a selective advantage against malaria. Recently, we reported a high proportion of asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana, that calls for intervention with primaquine to achieve radical cure of vivax malaria. Considering that individuals with this enzyme deficiency are at risk of haemolysis following primaquine treatment, assessment of the population for the relative frequency of G6PD deficiency is imperative...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
John D Scott, Catherine M Scott
Human babesiosis caused by Babesia duncani is an emerging infectious disease in Canada. This malaria-like illness is brought about by a protozoan parasite infecting red blood cells. Currently, controversy surrounds which tick species are vectors of B. duncani. Since the availability of a serological or molecular test in Canada for B. duncani has been limited, we conducted a seven-year surveillance study (2011⁻2017) to ascertain the occurrence and geographic distribution of B. duncani infection country-wide...
May 17, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Consuelo M De Moraes, Caroline Wanjiku, Nina M Stanczyk, Hannier Pulido, James W Sims, Heike S Betz, Andrew F Read, Baldwyn Torto, Mark C Mescher
Malaria remains among the world's deadliest diseases, and control efforts depend critically on the availability of effective diagnostic tools, particularly for the identification of asymptomatic infections, which play a key role in disease persistence and may account for most instances of transmission but often evade detection by current screening methods. Research on humans and in animal models has shown that infection by malaria parasites elicits changes in host odors that influence vector attraction, suggesting that such changes might yield robust biomarkers of infection status...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Keillen M Martins-Campos, Andrea Kuehn, Anne Almeida, Ana Paula M Duarte, Vanderson S Sampaio, Íria C Rodriguez, Sara G M da Silva, Claudia María Ríos-Velásquez, José Bento Pereira Lima, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta, Quique Bassat, Ivo Müller, Marcus Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro, Maria das Graças V Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic individuals are one of the major challenges for malaria elimination programs in endemic areas. In the absence of clinical symptoms and with a lower parasite density they constitute silent reservoirs considered important for maintaining transmission of human malaria. Studies from Brazil have shown that infected individuals may carry these parasites for long periods. RESULTS: Patients were selected from three periurban endemic areas of the city of Manaus, in the western Brazilian Amazon...
May 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Daibin Zhong, Eugenia Lo, Xiaoming Wang, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Guofa Zhou, Harrysone E Atieli, Andrew Githeko, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Ming-Chieh Lee, Yaw Afrane, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Parasite genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) affect clinical outcomes, response to drug treatment and naturally-acquired or vaccine-induced immunity. Traditional methods often underestimate the frequency and diversity of multiclonal infections due to technical sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing techniques provide a novel opportunity to study complexity of parasite populations and molecular epidemiology. METHODS: Symptomatic and asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax samples were collected from health centres/hospitals and schools, respectively, from 2011 to 2015 in Ethiopia...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
Tian-Mu Chen, Shao-Sen Zhang, Jun Feng, Zhi-Gui Xia, Chun-Hai Luo, Xu-Can Zeng, Xiang-Rui Guo, Zu-Rui Lin, Hong-Ning Zhou, Shui-Sen Zhou
BACKGROUND: The China-Myanmar border region presents a great challenge in malaria elimination in China, and it is essential to understand the relationship between malaria vulnerability and population mobility in this region. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in five villages of Yingjiang county during September 2016. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to identify asymptomatic infections, and imported cases were identified in each village (between January 2013 and September 2016)...
April 29, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Annette Erhart, Minh Hieu Truong, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Khac Anh Dung Vu, Thi Hong Ngoc Nguyen, Van Hong Nguyen, Van Van Nguyen, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Michael Theisen, Adam Bennet, Andrew A Lover, Thanh Duong Tran, Xuan Xa Nguyen, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria transmission has been reduced to very low levels over the past 20 years, and as a consequence, the country aims to eliminate malaria by 2030. This study aimed to characterize the dynamics and extent of the parasite reservoir in Central Vietnam, in order to further target elimination strategies and surveillance. METHODS: A 1-year prospective cohort study (n = 429) was performed in three rural communities in Quang Nam province...
April 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
Luiz G Gardinassi, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera, Regina J Cordy, ViLinh Tran, Matthew R Smith, Michelle S Johnson, Balu Chacko, Ken H Liu, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones, Mary R Galinski, Shuzhao Li
Almost invariably, humans become ill during primary infections with malaria parasites which is a pathology associated with oxidative stress and perturbations in metabolism. Importantly, repetitive exposure to Plasmodium results in asymptomatic infections, which is a condition defined as clinical tolerance. Integration of transcriptomics and metabolomics data provides a powerful way to investigate complex disease processes involving oxidative stress, energy metabolism and immune cell activation. We used metabolomics and transcriptomics to investigate the different clinical outcomes in a P...
July 2018: Redox Biology
Constant G N Gbalégba, Hampâté Ba, Kigbafori D Silué, Ousmane Ba, Emmanuel Tia, Mouhamadou Chouaibou, Nathan T Y Tian-Bi, Grégoire Y Yapi, Brama Koné, Jürg Utzinger, Benjamin G Koudou
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria worldwide. However, some countries in West Africa remain a hotspot for malaria with all age groups at risk. Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. are important sources of infections for malaria vectors and thus contribute to the anchoring of the disease in favourable eco-epidemiological settings. The objective of this study was to assess the asymptomatic malaria case rates in Korhogo and Kaedi, two urban areas in northern Côte d'Ivoire and southern Mauritania, respectively...
April 25, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Laurence Vachot-Ganée, Nimol Khim, Alexandra Iannello, Eric Legrand, Saorin Kim, Rotha Eam, Chanra Khean, Malen Ken, Elizabeth Ashley, Kyaw Myo Tun, Mehul Dhorda, François Nosten, Issa Mahamat Souleymane, Sophie Blein, Alexandre Pachot, Frédéric Ariey, Karine Kaiser, Didier Ménard
BACKGROUND: Given the risk of artemisinin resistance spreading from the Greater Mekong sub-region, prospective monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa should be expedited. Molecular biology techniques used for monitoring rely on the detection of k13 validated mutants by using PCR and Sanger sequencing approach, usually not available in malaria endemic areas. METHODS: A semi-automated workflow based on the easyMAG® platform and the Argene Solution® (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) as a field-based surveillance tool operable at national level was developed in four steps...
April 24, 2018: Malaria Journal
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