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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531196/co-inheritance-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-mutations-and-hemoglobin-e-in-a-kachin-population-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-of-southeast-asia
#1
Zeshuai Deng, Fang Yang, Yao Bai, Lijun He, Qing Li, Yanrui Wu, Lan Luo, Hong Li, Limei Ma, Zhaoqing Yang, Yongshu He, Liwang Cui
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobin E (HbE, β26 Glu-Lys) are two common red cell disorders in Southeast Asia. G6PD deficiency produces hemolytic anemia, which can be triggered by certain drugs or infections. HbE is asymptomatic or is manifested as microcytic, minimally hemolytic anemia. The association between G6PD deficiency and HbE is little understood. This study aimed to investigate G6PD deficiency and HbE in a Kachin ethnic group in the China-Myanmar border area. G6PD enzyme activity was measured using a quantitative G6PD assay, G6PD variants genotyped by the SNaPshot assay, and an HbE gene mutation identified by an amplification refractory mutation system and subsequently confirmed by using a reverse dot blot hybridization assay from 100 unrelated individuals in the study area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526019/mass-anti-malarial-administration-in-western-cambodia-a-qualitative-study-of-factors-affecting-coverage
#2
Christopher Pell, Rupam Tripura, Chea Nguon, Phaikyeong Cheah, Chan Davoeung, Chhouen Heng, Lim Dara, Ma Sareth, Arjen Dondorp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Thomas J Peto
BACKGROUND: Mass anti-malarial administration has been proposed as a key component of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategy in the Greater Mekong sub-Region. Its effectiveness depends on high levels of coverage in the target population. This article explores the factors that influenced mass anti-malarial administration coverage within a clinical trial in Battambang Province, western Cambodia. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with villagers, in-depth interviews with study staff, trial drop-outs and refusers, and observations in the communities...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498860/genetic-micro-epidemiology-of-malaria-in-papua-indonesia-extensive-p-vivax-diversity-and-a-distinct-subpopulation-of-asymptomatic-p-falciparum-infections
#3
Zuleima Pava, Rintis Noviyanti, Irene Handayuni, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Leily Trianty, Faustina H Burdam, Enny Kenangalem, Retno A S Utami, Yusrifar K Tirta, Farah Coutrier, Jeanne R Poespoprodjo, Ric N Price, Jutta Marfurt, Sarah Auburn
BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of Plasmodium have potential to inform on transmission dynamics, but few studies have evaluated this on a local spatial scale. We used microsatellite genotyping to characterise the micro-epidemiology of P. vivax and P. falciparum diversity to inform malaria control strategies in Timika, Papua Indonesia. METHODS: Genotyping was undertaken on 713 sympatric P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates from a cross-sectional household survey and clinical studies conducted in Timika...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486979/mediation-of-the-effect-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-on-stillbirth-and-neonatal-death-in-an-area-of-low-transmission-observational-data-analysis
#4
Kerryn A Moore, Freya J I Fowkes, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Nan San Wai, Moo Kho Paw, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Verena I Carrara, Jathee Raksuansak, Julie A Simpson, Nicholas J White, François Nosten, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is preventable and contributes significantly to the estimated 5.5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths that occur annually. The contribution of malaria in pregnancy in areas of low transmission has not been quantified, and the roles of maternal anaemia, small-for-gestational-age status, and preterm birth in mediating the effect of malaria in pregnancy on stillbirth and neonatal death are poorly elucidated. METHODS: We analysed observational data routinely collected at antenatal clinics on the Thai-Myanmar border (1986-2015)...
May 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465550/in-vivo-efficacy-of-chloroquine-to-clear-asymptomatic-infections-in-mozambican-adults-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-with-implications-for-elimination-strategies
#5
Beatriz Galatas, Lidia Nhamussua, Baltazar Candrinho, Lurdes Mabote, Pau Cisteró, Himanshu Gupta, Regina Rabinovich, Clara Menéndez, Eusebio Macete, Francisco Saute, Alfredo Mayor, Pedro Alonso, Quique Bassat, Pedro Aide
Recent reports regarding the re-emergence of parasite sensitivity to chloroquine call for a new consideration of this drug as an interesting complementary tool in malaria elimination efforts, given its good safety profile and long half-life. A randomized (2:1), single-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Manhiça, Mozambique, to assess the in-vivo efficacy of chloroquine to clear plasmodium falciparum (Pf) asymptomatic infections. Primary study endpoint was the rate of adequate and parasitological response (ACPR) to therapy on day 28 (PCR-corrected)...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460834/asymptomatic-plasmodial-infection-in-colombian-pregnant-women
#6
Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Olga M Agudelo, Eliana M Arango
Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department...
April 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459219/a-combined-strategy-for-screening-a-clustered-mobile-population-returning-from-highly-endemic-areas-for-plasmodium-falciparum
#7
Mei Li, Jun Li, Zhigui Xia, Ning Xiao, Weikang Jiang, Yongkang Wen
INTRODUCTION: Early and accurate diagnosis of imported malaria cases in clusters is crucial for protecting the health of patients and local populations, especially confirmed parasitic persons who are asymptomatic. METHODOLOGY: A total of 226 gold miners who had stayed in highly endemic areas of Ghana for more than six months and returned in clusters were selected randomly. Blood samples from them were tested with microscopy, nest polymerase chain reaction, and rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
April 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454880/expression-of-negative-immune-regulatory-molecules-pro-inflammatory-chemokine-and-cytokines-in-immunopathology-of-ecm-developing-mice
#8
Ashwin V Khandare, Deepali Bobade, Mangesh Deval, Tushar Patil, Bhaskar Saha, D Prakash
The pathological events in human cerebral malaria are mimicked in the experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PBA)-infected C57BL/6 mice. Although previously implied in ECM, the kinetics of cytokines and chemokines expression-an essential functional feature for defining causality in ECM development-remained untested. Herein, we characterized the immunopathological changes and the expression of negative immune regulatory molecules, cytokines and chemokines through asymptomatic (3days after infection, 3dpi), symptomatic (5dpi) and ECM (7dpi) stages in PBA-infected C57BL/6 mice...
April 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454546/asymptomatic-plasmodium-vivax-infections-induce-robust-igg-responses-to-multiple-blood-stage-proteins-in-a-low-transmission-region-of-western-thailand
#9
Rhea J Longley, Camila T França, Michael T White, Chalermpon Kumpitak, Patiwat Sa-Angchai, Jakub Gruszczyk, Jessica B Hostetler, Anjali Yadava, Christopher L King, Rick M Fairhurst, Julian C Rayner, Wai-Hong Tham, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: Thailand is aiming to eliminate malaria by the year 2024. Plasmodium vivax has now become the dominant species causing malaria within the country, and a high proportion of infections are asymptomatic. A better understanding of antibody dynamics to P. vivax antigens in a low-transmission setting, where acquired immune responses are poorly characterized, will be pivotal for developing new strategies for elimination, such as improved surveillance methods and vaccines. The objective of this study was to characterize total IgG antibody levels to 11 key P...
April 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448988/anaemia-following-artemisinin-based-combination-treatments-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-children-temporal-patterns-of-haematocrit-and-the-use-of-uncomplicated-hyperparasitaemia-as-a-model-for-evaluating-late-appearing-anaemia
#10
Akin Sowunmi, Kazeem Akano, Godwin Ntadom, Adejumoke Ayede, Stephen Oguche, Chimere Agomo, Henrietta Okafor, Ismaila Watila, Martin Meremikwu, William Ogala, Philip Agomo, Elsie Adowoye, Bayo Fatunmbi, Temitope Aderoyeje, Christian Happi, Grace Gbotosho, Onikepe Folarin
BACKGROUND: In severe malaria, intravenous artesunate may cause delayed haemolytic anaemia but there has been little evaluation of the propensity of oral artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) to cause late-appearing anaemia. METHODS: The frequency of anaemia (haematocrit <30%), and temporal changes in haematocrit were evaluated in 1,191 malarious children following ACTs. "Haematocrit conservation" was evaluated by using the fall in haematocrit/1,000 asexual parasites cleared from the peripheral blood (FIH/1,000 asexual parasites cpb), and the ratio of the average haematocrit (on the first 3 days of starting treatment):total parasitaemia cleared...
April 28, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#11
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438159/prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-non-p-falciparum-infections-in-a-highland-district-in-ghana-and-the-influence-of-hiv-and-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Ewurama D A Owusu, Charles A Brown, Martin P Grobusch, Petra Mens
BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, there has been a reported decline in malaria in Ghana and the rest of the world; yet it remains the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and sickle cell disease (SCD) share a common geographical space with malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and an interaction between these three conditions has been suggested. This study determined the Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum status of symptomatic and non-symptomatic residents of Mpraeso in the highlands of Kwahu-South district of Ghana based on evidence of current national decline...
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431115/spatial-distribution-of-falciparum-malaria-infections-in-zanzibar-implications-for-focal-drug-administration-strategies-targeting-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers
#13
Anders Björkman, Jackie Cook, Hugh Sturrock, Mwinyi Msellem, Abdullah Ali, Weiping Xu, Fabrizio Molteni, Roly Gosling, Chris Drakeley, Andreas Mårtensson
Background.: Optimal use of mass/targeted screen-and-treat or mass or focal drug administration as malaria elimination strategies remains unclear. We therefore studied spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum infections to compare simulated effects of these strategies on reducing the parasite reservoir in a pre-elimination setting. Methods.: P. falciparum rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) and serological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) analyses were performed on finger-prick blood samples from a population-based survey in 3 adjacent communities...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427455/comparison-of-methods-for-detecting-asymptomatic-malaria-infections-in-the-china-myanmar-border-area
#14
Yonghong Zhao, Yan Zhao, Yanmin Lv, Fei Liu, Qinghui Wang, Peipei Li, Zhenjun Zhao, Yingjie Liu, Liwang Cui, Qi Fan, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Sensitive methods for detecting asymptomatic malaria infections are essential for identifying potential transmission reservoirs and obtaining an accurate assessment of malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas aiming to eliminate malaria. PCR techniques to detect parasite nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are among the most commonly used molecular methods. However, most of these methods are of low throughput and cannot be used for large-scale molecular epidemiological studies...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423028/four-human-plasmodium-species-quantification-using-droplet-digital-pcr
#15
Suttipat Srisutham, Naowarat Saralamba, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a partial PCR based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a highly sensitive method for detecting and delineating minor alleles from complex backgrounds and provides absolute quantification of DNA targets. The ddPCR technology has been applied for detection of many pathogens. Here the sensitive assay utilizing ddPCR for detection and quantification of Plasmodium species was investigated. The assay was developed for two levels of detection, genus specific for all Plasmodium species and for specific Plasmodium species detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420399/distinct-parasite-populations-infect-individuals-identified-through-passive-and-active-case-detection-in-a-region-of-declining-malaria-transmission-in-southern-zambia
#16
Kelly M Searle, Ben Katowa, Tamaki Kobayashi, Mwiche N S Siame, Sungano Mharakurwa, Giovanna Carpi, Douglas E Norris, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in the burden of malaria have been documented in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, with elimination strategies and goals being formulated in some regions. Within this context, understanding the epidemiology of low-level malaria transmission is crucial to achieving and sustaining elimination. A 24 single-nucleotide-polymorphism Plasmodium falciparum molecular barcode was used to characterize parasite populations from infected individuals identified through passive and active case detection in an area approaching malaria elimination in southern Zambia...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404504/burden-of-asymptomatic-malaria-among-a-tribal-population-in-a-forested-village-of-central-india-a%C3%A2-hidden-challenge-for-malaria-control-in-india
#17
M K Chourasia, K Raghavendra, R M Bhatt, D K Swain, N Valecha, I Kleinschmidt
OBJECTIVE: Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections...
March 21, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386613/magnetically-enabled-biomarker-extraction-and-delivery-system-towards-integrated-assured-diagnostic-tools
#18
Westley S Bauer, Danielle W Kimmel, Nicholas M Adams, Lauren E Gibson, Thomas F Scherr, Kelly A Richardson, Joseph A Conrad, Hellen K Matakala, Frederick R Haselton, David W Wright
Diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria poses a great challenge to global disease elimination efforts. Healthcare infrastructure in rural settings cannot support existing state-of-the-art tools necessary to diagnose asymptomatic malaria infections. Instead, lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs) are widely used as a diagnostic tool in malaria endemic areas. While LFAs are simple and easy to use, they are unable to detect low levels of parasite infection. We have developed a field deployable Magnetically-enabled Biomarker Extraction And Delivery System (mBEADS) that significantly improves limits of detection for several commercially available LFAs...
May 2, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376883/asymptomatic-and-sub-microscopic-malaria-infection-in-kayah-state-eastern-myanmar
#19
Myo Thiha Zaw, Myo Thant, Tin Maung Hlaing, Naing Zin Aung, Min Thu, Kanit Phumchuea, Kanokwan Phusri, Teerawat Saeseu, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Wang Nguitragool, Ingrid Felger, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has the heaviest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections are common in this region and may represent an important reservoir of transmission that must be targeted for malaria elimination. METHODS: A mass blood survey was conducted among 485 individuals from six villages in Kayah State, an area of endemic but low transmission malaria in eastern Myanmar. Malaria infection was screened by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), light microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and its association with demographic factors was explored...
April 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369085/defining-the-next-generation-of-plasmodium-vivax-diagnostic-tests-for-control-and-elimination-target-product-profiles
#20
Xavier C Ding, Maria Paz Ade, J Kevin Baird, Qin Cheng, Jane Cunningham, Mehul Dhorda, Chris Drakeley, Ingrid Felger, Dionicia Gamboa, Matthias Harbers, Socrates Herrera, Naomi Lucchi, Alfredo Mayor, Ivo Mueller, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Arsène Ratsimbason, Jack Richards, Marcel Tanner, Iveth J González
The global prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past fifteen years, but similar gains have not been realized against Plasmodium vivax because this species is less responsive to conventional malaria control interventions aimed principally at P. falciparum. Approximately half of all malaria cases outside of Africa are caused by P. vivax. This species places dormant forms in human liver that cause repeated clinical attacks without involving another mosquito bite. The diagnosis of acute patent P. vivax malaria relies primarily on light microscopy...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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