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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217416/identification-of-target-proteins-of-clinical-immunity-to-plasmodium-falciparum-in-a-region-of-low-malaria-transmission
#1
Hirokazu Sakamoto, Satoru Takeo, Eizo Takashima, Kazutoyo Miura, Bernard N Kanoi, Takamasa Kaneko, Eun-Taek Han, Mayumi Tachibana, Kazuhiro Matsuoka, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
The target molecules of antibodies against falciparum malaria remain largely unknown. Recently we have identified multiple proteins as targets of immunity against Plasmodium falciparum using African serum samples. To investigate whether potential targets of clinical immunity differ with transmission intensity, we assessed immune responses in residents of low malaria transmission region in Thailand. Malaria asymptomatic volunteers (Asy: n=19) and symptomatic patients (Sym: n=21) were enrolled into the study...
December 4, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211247/immunoproteomics-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infected-red-blood-cell-membrane-fractions
#2
Fernanda J Cabral, Luciana G Vianna, Marcia M Medeiros, Bianca Cechetto Carlos, Rosimeire D Martha, Nadia Maria Silva, Luiz Hildebrando P da Silva, Rodrigo G Stabeli, Gerhard Wunderlich
BACKGROUND: The surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) has been widely investigated because of the molecular complexity and pathogenesis mechanisms involved. Asymptomatic individuals are important in the field because they can perpetuate transmission as natural reservoirs and present a challenge for diagnosing malaria because of their low levels of circulating parasites. Recent studies of iRBC antibody recognition have shown that responses are quantitatively similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, but no studies have characterised the plasmodial proteins targeted by this response...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210351/seasonal-dynamics-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-west-africa-evidence-for-carriage-of-infections-acquired-before-pregnancy-until-first-contact-with-antenatal-care
#3
Isha Berry, Patrick Walker, Harry Tagbor, Kalifa Bojang, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Kassoum Kayentao, John Williams, Abraham Oduro, Paul Milligan, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Matthew Cairns
In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence is often high in young women because of 1) low use of insecticide-treated nets before their first pregnancy and 2) acquired immunity, meaning infections are asymptomatic and thus untreated. Consequently, a common source of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) may be infected women becoming pregnant, rather than pregnant women becoming infected. In this study, prevalence of infection was determined by microscopy at first antenatal care (ANC) visit in primigravidae and secundigravidae in Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, and The Gambia, four countries with strong seasonal variations in transmission...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203846/sero-catalytic-and-antibody-acquisition-models-to-estimate-differing-malaria-transmission-intensities-in-western-kenya
#4
Grace E Weber, Michael T White, Anna Babakhanyan, Peter Odada Sumba, John Vulule, Dylan Ely, Chandy John, Evelina Angov, David Lanar, Sheetij Dutta, David L Narum, Toshihiro Horii, Alan Cowman, James Beeson, Joseph Smith, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent
We sought to identify a subset of Plasmodium falciparum antibody targets that would inform monitoring efforts needed to eliminate malaria in high transmission settings. IgG antibodies to 28 recombinant Pf antigens were measured in residents of two communities in western Kenya examined in 2003 and 2013, when the respective prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia among children was 81 and 15 percent by microscopy. Annual seroconversion rates based on a sero-catalytic model that dichotomised antibody values to negative versus positive showed that rates were higher in 2003 than 2013 for 1 pre-erythrocytic and 7 blood-stage antigens...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190279/malera-an-updated-research-agenda-for-characterising-the-reservoir-and-measuring-transmission-in-malaria-elimination-and-eradication
#5
(no author information available yet)
This paper summarises key advances in defining the infectious reservoir for malaria and the measurement of transmission for research and programmatic use since the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) publication in 2011. Rapid and effective progress towards elimination requires an improved understanding of the sources of transmission as well as those at risk of infection. Characterising the transmission reservoir in different settings will enable the most appropriate choice, delivery, and evaluation of interventions...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175392/genetic-ancestry-effects-on-the-distribution-of-toll-like-receptors-tlrs-gene-polymorphisms-in-a-population-of-the-atlantic-forest-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#6
Lilian O Guimarães, Miklos Maximiliano Bajay, Eliana F Monteiro, Gerhard Wunderlich, Sidney E Santos, Karin Kirchgatter
The innate immune system governed by toll-like receptors (TLRs) provides the first line of defense against pathogens. Surface-localized TLR1 and TLR6 are known to detect parasite components. TLR encoding genes were shown to display signatures of recent positive selection in Europeans and might be involved in local adaptation at immune-related genes. To verify the influence of Brazilian population admixture on the distribution of polymorphisms in TLRs, we analyzed the genotype frequencies of 24 polymorphisms distributed across five TLR genes in a Southeastern Brazilian population where autochthonous cases of malaria occur in small foci of transmission...
November 23, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165225/prevalence-of-asymptomatic-parasitemia-and-gametocytemia-in-hiv-infected-children-on-differing-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Elena Artimovich, Jillian Neal, Ted Hall, Sunil Parikh, Brian Kirmse, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Jingyang Chen, William R Prescott, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky, For The P S Study Team
Laboratory data and prior pediatric reports indicate that HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ARV) kills gametocytes and reduces rates of gametocytemia, but not asymptomatic parasitemia, in a high malaria-transmission area. To determine whether ARV regimen impacts these rates in areas with less-intense malaria transmission, we compared asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia rates in HIV-infected children by ARV regimen in Lilongwe, Malawi, an area of low-to-moderate transmission intensity...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161993/burden-of-asymptomatic-malaria-anemia-and-relationship-with-cotrimoxazole-use-and-cd4-cell-count-among-hiv1-infected-adults-living-in-gabon-central-africa
#8
Marielle Karine Bouyou Akotet, Jeanne Vanessa Koumba Lengongo, Magloire Ondounda, Eric Kendjo, Arnaud Mongo Delis, Magalie Essomeyo Mebale, Jacques Mari Ndong Ngomo, Noé Patrick M Bondoukwe, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Madeleine Okome Nkoumou
 Objective : This study determined the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium (P.) falciparum infection and anemia in adults living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and compared malaria prevalence between 858 HIV-infected (PLHIV) and 272 uninfected individuals in Gabon where such information are lacking. Factors influencing malaria and anemia were also investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were screened for malaria. Available hemoglobin level, socio-demographic and use of prevention or treatment data were compared between both groups...
November 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141722/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-asymptomatic-malaria-bridging-the-gap-between-annual-malaria-resurgences-in-a-sahelian-environment
#9
Drissa Coulibaly, Mark A Travassos, Youssouf Tolo, Matthew B Laurens, Abdoulaye K Kone, Karim Traore, Mody Sissoko, Amadou Niangaly, Issa Diarra, Modibo Daou, Boureima Guindo, Stanislas Rebaudet, Bourema Kouriba, Nadine Dessay, Renaud Piarroux, Christopher V Plowe, Ogobara K Doumbo, Mahamadou A Thera, Jean Gaudart
In areas of seasonal malaria transmission, the incidence rate of malaria infection is presumed to be near zero at the end of the dry season. Asymptomatic individuals may constitute a major parasite reservoir during this time. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of clinical malaria and asymptomatic parasitemia over time in a Malian town to highlight these malaria transmission dynamics. For a cohort of 300 rural children followed over 2009-2014, periodicity and phase shift between malaria and rainfall were determined by spectral analysis...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138642/observation-of-blood-donor-recipient-malaria-parasitaemia-patterns-in-a-malaria-endemic-region
#10
Jamilu Abdullahi Faruk, Gboye Olufemi Ogunrinde, Aisha Indo Mamman
Background: Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. Methodology: A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried out...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125615/towards-lab-on-a-chip-diagnostics-for-malaria-elimination
#11
REVIEW
N Kolluri, C M Klapperich, M Cabodi
Malaria continues to be one of the most devastating diseases impacting global health. Although there have been significant reductions in global malaria incidence and mortality rates over the past 17 years, the disease remains endemic throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has put forth ambitious milestones moving toward a world free of malaria as part of the United Nations Millennium Goals. Mass screening and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infections in endemic regions is integral to these goals and requires diagnostics that are both sensitive and affordable...
November 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121963/reassessment-of-asymptomatic-carriers-of-plasmodium-spp-in-an-endemic-area-with-a-very-low-incidence-of-malaria-in-extra-amazonian-brazil
#12
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: Regions with residual transmission are potential obstacles to the elimination of malaria. It is, therefore, essential to understand the factors associated with the maintenance of endemic malaria in these areas. The objective was to investigate whether the status of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. DNA is maintained in the long term in an extra-Amazonian region of Brazil with low incidence, residual malaria transmission. METHODS: Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium DNA detected in a survey carried out between 2001 and 2004 were reassessed between 2010 and 2011 using questionnaires, PCR and thick and thin blood smear tests three times at 3-month intervals...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116127/plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-with-histidine-rich-protein-2-pfhrp2-and-pfhrp3-gene-deletions-in-two-endemic-regions-of-kenya
#13
Khalid B Beshir, Nuno Sepúlveda, Jameel Bharmal, Ailie Robinson, Julian Mwanguzi, Annette Obukosia Busula, Jetske Gudrun de Boer, Colin Sutherland, Jane Cunningham, Heidi Hopkins
Deletions of the Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 and hrp3 genes can affect the performance of HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Such deletions have been reported from South America, India and Eritrea. Whether these parasites are widespread in East Africa is unknown. A total of 274 samples from asymptomatic children in Mbita, western Kenya, and 61 genomic  data from Kilifi, eastern Kenya, were available for analysis. PCR-confirmed samples were investigated for the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115961/plasmodium-falciparum-variant-erythrocyte-surface-antigens-a-pilot-study-of-antibody-acquisition-in-recurrent-natural-infections
#14
Elise Schieck, E Jane Poole, Anja Rippert, Judy Peshu, Philip Sasi, Steffen Borrmann, Peter C Bull
BACKGROUND: During intra-erythrocytic replication Plasmodium falciparum escapes the human host immune system by switching expression of variant surface antigens (VSA). Piecemeal acquisition of variant specific antibody responses to these antigens as a result of exposure to multiple re-infections has been proposed to play a role in acquisition of naturally acquired immunity. METHODS: Immunofluorescence was used to explore the dynamics of anti-VSA IgG responses generated by children to (i) primary malaria episodes and (ii) recurrent P...
November 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114147/malaria-induced-anaemia-and-serum-micronutrients-in-asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-infected-patients
#15
Babamale O Abdulkareem, Abdulkareem O Adam, Akande O Ahmed, Afolayan A Mariam, Ugbomoiko U Samuel
Interaction between malaria, anaemia and malnutrition is poorly understood in asymptomatic malaria patients. This information is important in the management of malaria infection in many endemic regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria parasitaemia, full blood counts and serum levels of essential micronutrients particularly iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) of the patients attending Health Centres in Ilorin, Kwara state were investigated using microscope, auto-haemanalyzer and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110722/molecular-markers-for-artemisinin-and-partner-drug-resistance-in-natural-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-following-increased-insecticide-treated-net-coverage-along-the-slope-of-mount-cameroon-cross-sectional-study
#16
Tobias O Apinjoh, Regina N Mugri, Olivo Miotto, Hanesh F Chi, Rolland B Tata, Judith K Anchang-Kimbi, Eleanor M Fon, Delphine A Tangoh, Robert V Nyingchu, Christopher Jacob, Roberto Amato, Abdoulaye Djimde, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Eric A Achidi, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance is one of the greatest challenges of malaria control programmes, with the monitoring of parasite resistance to artemisinins or to Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) partner drugs critical to elimination efforts. Markers of resistance to a wide panel of antimalarials were assessed in natural parasite populations from southwestern Cameroon. METHODS: Individuals with asymptomatic parasitaemia or uncomplicated malaria were enrolled through cross-sectional surveys from May 2013 to March 2014 along the slope of mount Cameroon...
November 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097634/asymptomatic-plasmodial-infection-in-pregnant-women-a-global-scenario
#17
REVIEW
Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Eliana M Arango
Though asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) is well known phenomenon and play an important role in different populations and malaria transmission settings, it has received less attention in malaria intervention strategies. This review was aimed to estimate the prevalence of API in pregnant women across the world. The bibliography records relevant to the study were searched on PubMed and Lilacs, till August 15, 2016, without restriction of language. A total of 78 references were identified, of which 29 met the inclusion criteria...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081992/impact-of-a-malaria-intervention-package-in-schools-on-plasmodium-infection-anaemia-and-cognitive-function-in-schoolchildren-in-mali-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomised-trial
#18
Siân E Clarke, Saba Rouhani, Seybou Diarra, Renion Saye, Modibo Bamadio, Rebecca Jones, Diahara Traore, Klenon Traore, Matthew Ch Jukes, Josselin Thuilliez, Simon Brooker, Natalie Roschnik, Moussa Sacko
BACKGROUND: School-aged children are rarely targeted by malaria control programmes, yet the prevalence of Plasmodium infection in primary school children often exceeds that seen in younger children and could affect haemoglobin concentration and school performance. METHODS: A cluster-randomised trial was carried out in 80 primary schools in southern Mali to evaluate the impact of a school-based malaria intervention package. Intervention schools received two interventions sequentially: (1) teacher-led participatory malaria prevention education, combined with distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), followed 7 months later at the end of the transmission season by (2) mass delivery of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine administered by teachers, termed intermittent parasite clearance in schools (IPCs)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065910/very-high-carriage-of-gametocytes-in-asymptomatic-low-density-plasmodium-falciparum-and-p-vivax-infections-in-western-thailand
#19
Wang Nguitragool, Ivo Mueller, Chalermpon Kumpitak, Teerawat Saeseu, Sirasate Bantuchai, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Surapon Yimsamran, Wanchai Maneeboonyang, Patiwat Sa-Angchai, Wutthichai Chaimungkun, Prasert Rukmanee, Supalarp Puangsa-Art, Nipon Thanyavanich, Cristian Koepfli, Ingrid Felger, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Pratap Singhasivanon
BACKGROUND: Low-density asymptomatic infections of Plasmodium spp. are common in low endemicity areas worldwide, but outside Africa, their contribution to malaria transmission is poorly understood. Community-based studies with highly sensitive molecular diagnostics are needed to quantify the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in Thai communities. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 4309 participants was conducted in three endemic areas in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi provinces of Thailand in 2012...
October 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062913/safety-and-effectiveness-of-mass-drug-administration-to-accelerate-elimination-of-artemisinin-resistant-falciparum-malaria-a-pilot-trial-in-four-villages-of-eastern-myanmar
#20
Jordi Landier, Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Daniel M Parker, Victor Chaumeau, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Mallika Imwong, Olivo Miotto, Krittaya Patumrat, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Dominique Cerqueira, Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Suphak Nosten, Lorenz von Seidlein, Clare Ling, Stéphane Proux, Vincent Corbel, Julie A Simpson, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, François H Nosten
Background: Artemisinin and partner drug-resistant falciparum malaria is expanding over the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Eliminating falciparum malaria in the GMS while drugs still retain enough efficacy could prevent global spread of antimalarial resistance. Eliminating malaria rapidly requires targeting the reservoir of asymptomatic parasite carriers. This pilot trial aimed to evaluate the acceptability, safety, feasibility and effectiveness of mass-drug administration (MDA) in reducing malaria in four villages in Eastern Myanmar...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
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