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Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Khadim Diongue, Mame Cheikh Seck, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Ibrahima Diallo, Younouss Diedhiou, Tolla Ndiaye, Yaye Die Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malaria diagnosis relies on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In Senegal, national malaria control program (NMCP) regularly conducts supervisory visits in health services where malaria microscopy is performed. In this study, expert microscopists assessed the performance of laboratory technicians in malaria microscopy. METHODS: The present external quality assessment (EQA) was conducted in three different areas of malaria transmission...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Zaira Hellen Villa, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Stephan Meister, Gregory M LaMonte, Brice Campo, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler
To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region...
March 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte, Antonio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: The hypotheses put forward to explain the malaria transmission cycle in extra-Amazonian Brazil, an area of very low malaria incidence, are based on either a zoonotic scenario involving simian malaria, or a scenario in which asymptomatic carriers play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of asymptomatic infection by detecting Plasmodium spp. DNA and its role in residual malaria transmission in a non-Amazonian region of Brazil. METHODS: Upon the report of the first malaria case in 2010 in the Atlantic Forest region of the state of Espírito Santo, inhabitants within a 2 km radius were invited to participate in a follow-up study...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Zhou Hua-Yun, Wang Wei-Ming, Zhu Guo-Ding, Cao Yuan-Yuan, Gu Ya-Ping, Xu Sui, Zhang Chao, Lu Feng, Cao Jun
OBJECTIVE: To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting the strategy and measures for malaria elimination. METHODS: The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2016 were collected from China's Routine Diseases Surveillance Information System (CRD-SIS) and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Totally, 308 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2016, and the cases decreased by 23...
February 26, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Suparak Para, Punchalee Mungkalasut, Makamas Chanda, Issarang Nuchprayoon, Srivicha Krudsood, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn
Background: The protective effect of α-thalassemia, a common hematological disorder in Southeast Asia, against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been well established. However, there is much less understanding of the effect of α-thalassemia against P. vivax . Here, we aimed to investigate the proportion of α-thalassemia including the impact of α-thalassemia and HbE on the parasitemia of P. vivax in Southeast Asian malaria patients in Thailand. Methods: A total of 210 malaria patients, admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Thailand during 2011-2012, consisting of 159 Myanmeses, 13 Karens, 26 Thais, 3 Mons, 3 Laotians, and 6 Cambodians were recruited...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Karthigayan Gunalan, Amadou Niangaly, Mahamadou A Thera, Ogobara K Doumbo, Louis H Miller
Plasmodium vivax is the main cause of malarial disease in Asia and South America. Plasmodium vivax infection was thought to be absent in African populations who are Duffy blood group antigen negative (Duffy-negative). However, many cases of P. vivax infection have recently been observed in Duffy-negative Africans. This raises the question: were P. vivax infections in Duffy-negative populations previously missed or has P. vivax adapted to infect Duffy-negative populations? This review focuses on recent P. vivax findings in Africa and reports views on the parasite ligands that may play a role in Duffy-negative P...
March 9, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Krongkaew Seesui, Kanokwan Imtawil, Phimphakon Chanetmahun, Porntip Laummaunwai, Thidarut Boonmars
Molecular techniques have been introduced for malaria diagnosis because they offer greater sensitivity and specificity than microscopic examinations. Therefore, DNA isolation methods have been developed for easy preparation and cost effectiveness. The present study described a simple protocol for Plasmodium DNA isolation from EDTA-whole blood. This study demonstrated that after heating infected blood samples with Tris-EDTA buffer and proteinase K solution, without isolation and purification steps, the supernatant can be used as a DNA template for amplification by PCR...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Ling-Ling Zhang, Li-Nong Yao, Hua-Liang Chen, Qiao-Yi Lu, Wei Ruan
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax remains a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for people living where it is endemic. Understanding the regional genetic diversity of P. vivax is valuable for studying population dynamics and tracing the origins of parasites. The Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite gene (PvCSP) is highly polymorphic and has been used previously as a marker in P. vivax population studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of the PvCSP, to provide more genetic polymorphism data for further studies on P...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Nitika Pradhan, Prakash Pradhan, Sanghamitra Pati, Rupenangshu K Hazra
A retrospective analysis of malaria incidence, patterns and trends in Bargarh, a western district of Odisha, India, over five consecutive years (2012 to 2016) among various socio-demographic components was established from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Bargarh, as well as from district survey reports. The increasing trend in malariometric indices such as the Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER), the Annual Parasite index (API) as well as the Total Positive Rate (TPR) reveals a better surveillance activity but an alarming situation for malaria...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Mavuto Mukaka, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Mehul Dhorda, Cholrawee Promnarate, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Huy Rekol, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: The increase in multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administrations (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission. Methods: Four malaria-endemic villages in western Cambodia were randomized to three rounds of MDA (a three-day course of dihydroartemisinin with piperaquine-phosphate), administered in either early or at the end of the study-period...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Djane Clarys Baia-da-Silva, Luis Carlos Salazar Alvarez, Omaira Vera Lizcano, Fabio Trindade Maranhão Costa, Stefanie Costa Pinto Lopes, Alessandra Silva Orfanó, Denner Oliveira Pascoal, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Iria Cabral Rodriguez, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães Lacerda, Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is predominant in the Amazon region, and enhanced knowledge of its development inside a natural vector, Anopheles aquasalis, is critical for future strategies aimed at blocking parasite development. The peritrophic matrix (PM), a chitinous layer produced by the mosquito midgut in response to blood ingestion, is a protective barrier against pathogens. Plasmodium can only complete its life-cycle, and consequently be transmitted to a new host, after successfully passing this barrier...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Norbert Steinkamp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: The use of placebos in randomised controlled trials is a subject of considerable ethical debate. In this paper we present a set of considerations to evaluate the ethics of placebo controlled trials that includes: social value of the study; need for a randomised controlled trial and placebo; standards of care; risks of harm due to administration of placebo and the harm benefit balance; clinical equipoise; and double standards. We illustrate the application of these considerations using a case study of a large ongoing multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial to determine primaquine anti-relapse efficacy in vivax malaria...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
W Xue-Dong, J Ling, L Bin
Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Zhangjiagang City. Methods The epidemiological data were collected and retrospectively analyzed for the distribution, cost, and exit-entry mode and port of imported malaria cases in Zhangjiagang City from 2005 to 2015. Results There were 25 imported malaria cases in Zhangjiagang City from 2005 to 2015, and among them, there were 16 cases of falciparum malaria (64%), 6 cases of vivax malaria (24%), and 3 cases of ovale malaria (12%); there was 1 cases of critically ill (4%), there were 8 cases of serious ill (32%) and 16 cases of mild ill (64%)...
July 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
P Zhong, T Kai-Ke, W Le-Yuan, Z Hong, C Yang, W Jing, Z Bin, Y Yu-Chuan, C Gang, S Zhi-Yong
Objective To understand the malaria epidemic situation in Chengdu City, so as to provide the evidence for effectively carrying out the malaria elimination work. Methods The data of imported malaria in Chengdu City from 2012 to 2016 were collected from the Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and analyzed respectively. Results A total of 240 imported malaria cases were reported in Chengdu City from 2012 to 2016. In detail, 68.75% of the cases were falciparum malaria cases, 20...
May 19, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
C Yan-Qiang, P Zhi-Zhao, L I Yun, J Cai-Xiao, L Li
Objective To analyze the overseas imported malaria situation of Shijiazhuang City from 2012 to 2015, so as to provide the evidence for exploring the prevention and control strategy. Methods The data of overseas imported malaria were collected and analyzed with the descriptive method including Plasmodium species, population characteristics, epidemic focus distribution, onset time, diagnosis and treatment in Shijiazhuang City from 2012 to 2015, and the time from the onset to first medical visit, time from first medical visit to being diagnosed, and time from onset to being diagnosed of different Plasmodium species were analyzed respectively with the statistical analysis method...
July 18, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Z Hua-Yun, W Wei-Ming, Z Guo-Ding, C Yuan-Yuan, L U Feng, G U Ya-Ping, Z Chao, X U Sui, C Jun
Objective To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2015, so as to provide the evidence for malaria elimination. Methods The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2015 were collected from China's routine diseases surveillance information system. Results Totally 405 imported cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2015, and the cases increased by 14.08% compared with those in 2014. All the malaria cases were imported, and 5 cases (1.23%) were from Southeast Asia and 400 (98...
August 11, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Ying Liu, Rui-Min Zhou, Ya-Lan Zhang, Duo-Quan Wang, Su-Hua Li, Cheng-Yun Yang, Dan Qian, Yu-Ling Zhao, Hong-Wei Zhang, Bian-Li Xu
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria has historically been a major source of disease in Henan, China. In the 1970s, the morbidity of malaria was highest in the country. With support from the government and the efforts of healthcare personnel, the reported malaria cases have declined dramatically and a national elimination programme was launched in 2010. To achieve the goal, it is essential to study the diversity of autochthonous malaria and transmission of Plasmodium parasites, which will provide baseline data for disease control and management...
March 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Robert G E Krause, J P Dean Goldring
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is recognised as the main cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia. The disease is often misdiagnosed as P. falciparum or P. malariae infections by microscopy, and the disease is difficult to eliminate due to its presence in both humans and monkeys. P. knowlesi infections can rapidly cause severe disease and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. No protein biomarker exists for the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) detection of P. knowlesi infections. Plasmodium knowlesi infections can be diagnosed by PCR...
2018: PloS One
Denis Pierron, Margit Heiske, Harilanto Razafindrazaka, Veronica Pereda-Loth, Jazmin Sanchez, Omar Alva, Amal Arachiche, Anne Boland, Robert Olaso, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Francois-Xavier Ricaut, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Chantal Radimilahy, Mark Stoneking, Thierry Letellier
While admixed populations offer a unique opportunity to detect selection, the admixture in most of the studied populations occurred too recently to produce conclusive signals. By contrast, Malagasy populations originate from admixture between Asian and African populations that occurred ~27 generations ago, providing power to detect selection. We analyze local ancestry across the genomes of 700 Malagasy and identify a strong signal of recent positive selection, with an estimated selection coefficient >0.2...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Ulrike Böhme, Thomas D Otto, James Cotton, Sascha Steinbiss, Mandy Sanders, Samuel O Oyola, Antoine Nicot, Sylvain Gandon, Kailash P Patra, Colin Herd, Ellen Bushell, Katarzyna K Modrzynska, Oliver Billker, Joseph M Vinetz, Ana Rivero, Chris I Newbold, Matthew Berriman
Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world, and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of high quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species and using amino acid divergence between species, we estimate the avian and mammalian-infective lineages diverged in the order of 10 million years ago...
March 2, 2018: Genome Research
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