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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166907/quantifying-seasonal-and-diel-variation-in-anopheline-and-culex-human-biting-rates-in-southern-ecuador
#1
Sadie J Ryan, Catherine A Lippi, Philipp H Boersch-Supan, Naveed Heydari, Mercy Silva, Jefferson Adrian, Leonardo F Noblecilla, Efraín B Ayala, Mayling D Encalada, David A Larsen, Jesse T Krisher, Lyndsay Krisher, Lauren Fregosi, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: Quantifying mosquito biting rates for specific locations enables estimation of mosquito-borne disease risk, and can inform intervention efforts. Measuring biting itself is fraught with ethical concerns, so the landing rate of mosquitoes on humans is often used as a proxy measure. Southern coastal Ecuador was historically endemic for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax), although successful control efforts in the 2000s eliminated autochthonous transmission (since 2011)...
November 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165651/functional-conservation-of-the-ama1-host-cell-invasion-ligand-between-p-falciparum-and-p-vivax-a-novel-platform-to-accelerate-vaccine-and-drug-development
#2
Damien R Drew, Paul R Sanders, Gretchen Weiss, Paul R Gilson, Brendan S Crabb, James G Beeson
P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria species have diverged significantly in receptor-ligand interactions and host-cell invasion. One protein common to both is the merozoite invasion ligand AMA1. While the general structure of AMA1 is similar between species, their sequences are divergent. Surprisingly, it was possible to genetically replace PfAMA1 with PvAMA1 in P. falciparum parasites. PvAMA1 could complement PfAMA1 function and supported efficient invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum. Genetically-modified P...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162101/ivermectin-susceptibility-sporontocidal-effect-and-inhibition-of-time-to-re-feed-in-the-amazonian-malaria-vector-anopheles-darlingi
#3
Kevin C Kobylinski, Karín S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Salomón Durand, Edward S Smith, G Christian Baldeviano, Robert V Gerbasi, Sara-Blythe Ballard, Craig A Stoops, Gissella M Vásquez
BACKGROUND: Outdoor malaria transmission hinders malaria elimination efforts in the Amazon region and novel vector control tools are needed. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans kills wild Anopheles, targets outdoor-feeding vectors, and can suppress malaria parasite transmission. Laboratory investigations were performed to determine ivermectin susceptibility, sporontocidal effect and inhibition of time to re-feed for the primary Amazonian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161011/the-design-of-plasmodium-vivax-hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase-inhibitors-as-potential-antimalarial-therapeutics
#4
Dianne T Keough, Dominik Rejman, Radek Pohl, Eva Zborníková, Dana Hockova, Tristan Croll, Michael D Edstein, Geoff W Birrell, Marina Chavchich, Lieve M J Naesens, Gregory K Pierens, Ian M Brereton, Luke W Guddat
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) are the foremost causative agents of malaria. Due to the development of resistance to current antimalarial medications, new drugs for this parasitic disease need to be discovered. The activity of hypoxanthine-guanine-[xanthine]-phosphoribosyltransferase, HG[X]PRT, is reported to be essential for the growth of both of these parasites, making it an excellent target for antimalarial drug discovery. Here, we have used rational structure-based methods to design an inhibitor, [3R,4R]-4-guanin-9-yl-3-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-phosphonoethyl)oxy-1-N-(phosphonopropionyl)pyrrolidine, of PvHGPRT and PfHGXPRT which has Ki values of 8 nM and 7 nM, respectively for these two enzymes...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153587/advancing-research-models-and-technologies-to-overcome-biological-barriers-to-plasmodium-vivax-control
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer S Armistead, John H Adams
Malaria prevalence has declined in the past 10 years, especially outside of sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proportion of cases due to Plasmodium vivax is increasing, accounting for up to 90-100% of the malaria burden in endemic regions. Nonetheless, investments in malaria research and control still prioritize Plasmodium falciparum while largely neglecting P. vivax. Specific biological features of P. vivax, particularly invasion of reticulocytes, occurrence of dormant liver forms of the parasite, and the potential for transmission of sexual-stage parasites prior to onset of clinical illness, promote its persistence and hinder development of research tools and interventions...
November 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153070/-the-importance-of-the-contribution-of-rapid-test-serological-and-molecular-methods-in-the-diagnosis-of-two-imported-malaria-cases-with-atypical-microscopy
#6
Orçun Zorbozan, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Esra Atalay Şahar, Muhammet Karakavuk, Hüseyin Can, Varol Tunali, Mert Döşkaya, Nevin Turgay, Seray Töz, Ahmet Özbilgin
Malaria is a widespread and life-threatening disease in tropical and subtropical regions. In patients with typical clinical symptoms, malaria is considered as a preliminary diagnosis if there is a travel history to malaria-endemic areas. The basis of the laboratory diagnosis of malaria is the microscopic examination of Giemsa stained smears. On the other hand, the diagnosis and differentiation of Plasmodium species with microscopic examination may have some difficulties. In the first case, adifferent appearance from the classical Plasmodium vivax erythrocytic forms in infected erythrocytes were detected in 1% of all erythrocytes in thin smear blood preparations of a 26-year-old male with complaints of fever and chills and a story of travel to Nigeria...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147042/insecticide-treated-nets-and-malaria-prevalence-papua-new-guinea-2008-2014
#7
Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Yangta Ura, Sharon Jamea-Maiasa, Anthony Tandrapah, Nandao Tarongka, Lina Lorry, Leanne J Robinson, Ken Lilley, Leo Makita, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller
Objective: To investigate changes in malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea after the distribution of long-lasting Insecticide-treated nets, starting in 2004, and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2011. Methods: Two malaria surveys were conducted in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. They included 77 and 92 randomly selected villages, respectively. In each village, all members of 30 randomly selected households gave blood samples and were assessed for malaria infection by light microscopy...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145859/singapore-s-anopheles-sinensis-form-a-is-susceptible-to-plasmodium-vivax-isolates-from-the-western-thailand-myanmar-border
#8
Sook-Cheng Pang, Chiara Andolina, Benoit Malleret, Peter R Christensen, Sai-Gek Lam-Phua, Muhammad Aliff Bin Abdul Razak, Chee-Seng Chong, Daiqin Li, Cindy S Chu, Bruce Russell, Laurent Rénia, Lee-Ching Ng, Francois Nosten
BACKGROUND: Singapore has been certified malaria-free by the World Health Organization since November 1982. However, sporadic autochthonous malaria outbreaks do occur. In one of the most recent outbreaks of vivax malaria, an entomological investigation identified Anopheles sinensis as the most probable vector. As metaphase karyotype studies divided An. sinensis into two forms, A and B, with different vector competence: the investigation of vector competence of An. sinensis found in Singapore was thus pursued using Plasmodium vivax field isolates from the Thailand-Myanmar border...
November 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141760/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-genetic-variants-in-malaria-patients-in-southwestern-ethiopia
#9
Tamar E Carter, Seleshi Kebede Mekonnen, Karen Lopez, Victoria Bonnell, Lambodhar Damodaran, Abraham Aseffa, Daniel A Janies
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked erythrocyte enzyme disorder with relevance to malaria treatment policy. Treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can result in hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients. With increased interest in primaquine use, it is important to identify G6PD variants in Ethiopia to inform malaria treatment policy. In the present study, mutations in the G6PD gene are identified in a sample of patients with malaria in Jimma town in southwest Ethiopia. Plasmodium species of infection were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141719/chloroquine-primaquine-versus-chloroquine-alone-to-treat-vivax-malaria-in-afghanistan-an-open-randomized-superiority-trial
#10
Ghulam Rahim Awab, Mallika Imwong, Germana Bancone, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Charles J Woodrow
Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140229/epidemiology-of-imported-malaria-cases-in-japan-2006-2014-a-sentinel-traveler-surveillance-approach
#11
Atsuhiro Kanayama, Yuzo Arima, Tamano Matsui, Koki Kaku, Hitomi Kinoshita, Kazunori Oishi
Malaria continues to be imported into Japan. To better assess the risk of imported malaria, we describe malaria species, suspected country/area of infection (accounting for the number of travelers), demographic characteristics, clinical manifestation, and healthcare access, based on the national surveillance data from 2006 to 2014. Among 557 cases, the median age was 33 years (range: 1-83 years), and 76% were male; 306 (55%) were classified as Japanese based on the reported name. The majority were Plasmodium falciparum infections (58%), followed by Plasmodium vivax infections (30%)...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138004/development-of-an-empirical-model-to-predict-malaria-outbreaks-based-on-monthly-case-reports-and-climate-variables-in-hefei-china-1990-2011
#12
J X Zhai, Q Lu, W B Hu, S L Tong, B Wang, F T Yang, Z W Xu, S P Xun, X H Shen, Zhiwei Xu
Malaria remains a significant public health concern in developing countries. Drivers of malaria transmission vary across different geographical regions. Climatic variables are major risk factor in seasonal and secular patterns of P. vivax malaria transmission along Anhui province. The study aims to forecast malaria outbreaks using empirical model developed in Hefei, China. Data on the monthly numbers of notified malaria cases and climatic factors were obtained for the period of January 1st 1990 to December 31st 2011 from the Hefei CDC and Anhui Institute of Meteorological Sciences, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132978/intensive-care-in-severe-malaria-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129317/the-genetic-legacy-of-the-indian-ocean-slave-trade-recent-admixture-and-post-admixture-selection-in-the-makranis-of-pakistan
#14
Romuald Laso-Jadart, Christine Harmant, Hélène Quach, Nora Zidane, Chris Tyler-Smith, Qasim Mehdi, Qasim Ayub, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Etienne Patin
From the eighth century onward, the Indian Ocean was the scene of extensive trade of sub-Saharan African slaves via sea routes controlled by Muslim Arab and Swahili traders. Several populations in present-day Pakistan and India are thought to be the descendants of such slaves, yet their history of admixture and natural selection remains largely undefined. Here, we studied the genome-wide diversity of the African-descent Makranis, who reside on the Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan, as well that of four neighboring Pakistani populations, to investigate the genetic legacy, population dynamics, and tempo of the Indian Ocean slave trade...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127021/severe-delayed-haemolytic-anaemia-associated-with-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-of-malaria-in-a-japanese-traveller
#15
Chihiro Hasegawa, Masaharu Kudo, Haruhiko Maruyama, Mikio Kimura
Delayed haemolytic anaemia has been reported in association with intravenous artesunate treatment in patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and furthermore, oral artemisinin-based combination therapies including artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have also been incriminated. However, definite cases of delayed haemolytic anaemia associated with AL appear to be scarce, as reported cases were often treated concomitantly with other anti-malarials. In this study, we report a severe case of delayed haemolytic anaemia following AL alone in a Japanese traveller with severe parasitaemia caused by numerous P...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126828/imported-malaria-in-bulgaria-status-and-prognosis-after-eradication-in-1965
#16
Iskra G Rainova, Rumen N Harizanov, Iskren T Kaftandjiev, Ognyan D Mikov, Nina D Tsvetkova
BACKGROUND: This retrospective analysis assessed all recorded malaria cases in Bulgaria after 1965, when the country was certified as malaria-free by the World Health Organization (WHO), and evaluated the readiness of the public health system to interrupt an outbreak of local transmission in case of infection importation. METHODS: The cases were analyzed according to causative species; geographic origin of the imported case; and the citizenship, age, and gender of the infected individuals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126812/infectious-disease-risks-among-refugees-from-north-korea
#17
Hiroshi Nishiura, Hyojung Lee, Baoyin Yuan, Akira Endo, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Gerardo Chowell
OBJECTIVES: Disease characteristics of North Korea including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks have not been openly and widely analyzed. The present study aimed to estimate infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea. METHODS: To statistically estimate risks of infectious diseases among North Korean, literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted. RESULTS: A total of six groups of data from five publications were identified from 2004 to 2014...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125241/seasonal-dynamics-of-anopheles-species-at-three-locations-in-the-republic-of-korea
#18
Desmond H Foley, Terry A Klein, Heung Chul Kim, Myung-Soon Kim, Richard C Wilkerson, Cong Li, Genelle Harrison, Leopoldo M Rueda
Weekly changes in adult Anopheles species were monitored at Camp Humphreys (CH), Ganghwa Island (GH), and Warrior Base (WB), from May-October, 2009-2010 to explore the relationship between Plasmodium vivax development and vector dynamics in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Adult females were trapped and dissected to determine parity for estimating longevity, mortality, and birthrate. A degree-day (DD) method was used to estimate the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of P. vivax and duration of the gonotrophic cycle and other life stages...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121963/reassessment-of-asymptomatic-carriers-of-plasmodium-spp-in-an-endemic-area-with-a-very-low-incidence-of-malaria-in-extra-amazonian-brazil
#19
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: Regions with residual transmission are potential obstacles to the elimination of malaria. It is, therefore, essential to understand the factors associated with the maintenance of endemic malaria in these areas. The objective was to investigate whether the status of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. DNA is maintained in the long term in an extra-Amazonian region of Brazil with low incidence, residual malaria transmission. METHODS: Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium DNA detected in a survey carried out between 2001 and 2004 were reassessed between 2010 and 2011 using questionnaires, PCR and thick and thin blood smear tests three times at 3-month intervals...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121061/a-randomized-double-blind-active-control-trial-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-three-day-course-of-tafenoquine-monotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#20
Mark M Fukuda, Srivicha Krudsood, Khadeeja Mohamed, Justin A Green, Sukhuma Warrasak, Harald Noedl, Ataya Euswas, Mali Ittiverakul, Nillawan Buathong, Sabaithip Sriwichai, R Scott Miller, Colin Ohrt
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine is an investigational 8-aminoquinoline for the prevention of Plasmodium vivax relapse. Tafenoquine has a long half-life and the potential for more convenient dosing, compared with the currently recommended 14-day primaquine regimen. METHODS: This randomized, active-control, double-blind trial was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Seventy patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax were randomized (2:1) to tafenoquine 400 mg once daily for 3 days or 2500 mg total dose chloroquine phosphate (1500 mg chloroquine base) given over 3 days plus primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days...
2017: PloS One
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