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Erjun Ling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809786/analysis-of-gene-expression-in-the-midgut-of-bombyx-mori-during-the-larval-molting-stage
#1
Bing Yang, Wuren Huang, Jie Zhang, Qiuyun Xu, Shoulin Zhu, Qiaoli Zhang, Brenda T Beerntsen, Hongsheng Song, Erjun Ling
BACKGROUND: Insects can be models for understanding human intestinal infection and pathology. Molting, a special period during which the old insect cuticle is shed and a new one is produced, is crucial for insect development. Holometabolous insects may experience several larva-to-larva moltings to become larger, a pupal molt and adult eclosion to become adults. During the larval molts, they stop feeding and become quiescent. Although the molting larvae become quiescent, it is not known if changes in microbiome, physiology, development and immunity of midguts occur...
November 3, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872544/gut-immunity-in-lepidopteran-insects
#2
Kai Wu, Bing Yang, Wuren Huang, Leonard Dobens, Hongsheng Song, Erjun Ling
Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes...
November 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26592948/plant-phenolics-are-detoxified-by-prophenoloxidase-in-the-insect-gut
#3
Kai Wu, Jie Zhang, Qiaoli Zhang, Shoulin Zhu, Qimiao Shao, Kevin D Clark, Yining Liu, Erjun Ling
Plant phenolics are a group of important secondary metabolites that are toxic to many animals and insects if ingested at high concentrations. Because most insects consume plant phenolics daily, they have likely evolved the capacity to detoxify these compounds. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera as models to study the metabolism of plant phenolics by prophenoloxidases. We found that insect foreguts release prophenoloxidases into the lumen, and that the survival of prophenoloxidase-deletion mutants was impaired when fed several plant phenolics and tea extracts...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25586066/gr33a-modulates-drosophila-male-courtship-preference
#4
Yujia Hu, Yi Han, Yingyao Shao, Xingjun Wang, Yeqing Ma, Erjun Ling, Lei Xue
In any gamogenetic species, attraction between individuals of the opposite sex promotes reproductive success that guarantees their thriving. Consequently, mate determination between two sexes is effortless for an animal. However, choosing a spouse from numerous attractive partners of the opposite sex needs deliberation. In Drosophila melanogaster, both younger virgin females and older ones are equally liked options to males; nevertheless, when given options, males prefer younger females to older ones. Non-volatile cuticular hydrocarbons, considered as major pheromones in Drosophila, constitute females' sexual attraction that act through males' gustatory receptors (Grs) to elicit male courtship...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25368323/functional-analysis-of-insect-molting-fluid-proteins-on-the-protection-and-regulation-of-ecdysis
#5
Jie Zhang, Anrui Lu, Lulu Kong, Qiaoli Zhang, Erjun Ling
Molting fluid accumulates between the old and new cuticles during periodical ecdysis in Ecdysozoa. Natural defects in insect ecdysis are frequently associated with melanization (an immunity response) occurring primarily in molting fluids, suggesting that molting fluid may impact immunity as well as affect ecdysis. To address this hypothesis, proteomic analysis of molting fluids from Bombyx mori during three different types of ecdysis was performed. Many proteins were newly identified, including immunity-related proteins, in each molting fluid...
December 26, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25071597/insect-prophenoloxidase-the-view-beyond-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Anrui Lu, Qiaoli Zhang, Jie Zhang, Bing Yang, Kai Wu, Wei Xie, Yun-Xia Luan, Erjun Ling
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is an important innate immunity protein due to its involvement in cellular and humoral defense. It belongs to a group of type-3 copper-containing proteins that occurs in almost all organisms. Insect PPO has been studied for over a century, and the PPO activation cascade is becoming clearer. The insect PPO activation pathway incorporates several important proteins, including pattern-recognition receptors (PGRP, β GRP, and C-type lectins), serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors (serpins)...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25042057/thermolysin-damages-animal-life-through-degradation-of-plasma-proteins-enhanced-by-rapid-cleavage-of-serpins-and-activation-of-proteases
#7
Lulu Kong, Anrui Lu, Jingmin Guan, Bing Yang, Muwang Li, Julián F Hillyer, Nalini Ramarao, Kenneth Söderhäll, Chaoliang Liu, Erjun Ling
Thermolysin, a metallopeptidase secreted by pathogenic microbes, is concluded as an important virulence factor due to cleaving purified host proteins in vitro. Using the silkworm Bombyx mori as a model system, we found that thermolysin injection into larvae induces the destruction of the coagulation response and the activation of hemolymph melanization, which results in larval death. Thermolysin triggers the rapid degradation of insect and mammalian plasma proteins at a level that is considerably greater than expected in vitro and/or in vivo...
January 2015: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24657220/recombinant-drosophila-prophenoloxidase-1-is-sequentially-cleaved-by-%C3%AE-chymotrypsin-during-in-vitro-activation
#8
Anrui Lu, Xuquan Li, Julián F Hillyer, Brenda T Beerntsen, Kenneth Söderhäll, Erjun Ling
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is an essential innate immunity protein to induce pathogen into melanization. In Bombyx mori, pro-phenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) can directly cleave and activate PPO. However, PPO in Manduca sexta cannot be cleaved into active phenoloxidase (PO) by serine proteases unless cofactors are involved, which indicates that PPO activation is complicated. Here we use recombinant Drosophila melanogaster prophenoloxidase 1 (rPPO1) to study the mechanism of PPO activation induced by a typical serine protease, α-chymotrypsin...
July 2014: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24480295/formation-of-disulfide-bonds-in-insect-prophenoloxidase-enhances-immunity-through-improving-enzyme-activity-and-stability
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anrui Lu, Qin Peng, Erjun Ling
Type 3 copper proteins, including insect prophenoloxidase (PPO), contain two copper atoms in the active site pocket and can oxidize phenols. Insect PPO plays an important role in immunity. Insects and other invertebrates show limited recovery from pathogen invasion and wounds if phenoloxidase (PO) activity is low. In most insect PPOs, two disulfide bonds are present near the C-terminus. However, in Pimpla hypochondriaca (a parasitoid wasp), each PPO contains one disulfide bond. We thus questioned whether the formation of two sulfide bonds in insect PPOs improved protein stability and/or increased insect innate immunity over time...
June 2014: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23717543/activity-of-fusion-prophenoloxidase-gfp-and-its-potential-applications-for-innate-immunity-study
#10
Bing Yang, Anrui Lu, Qin Peng, Qing-Zhi Ling, Erjun Ling
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is essential for physiological functions such as melanization of invading pathogens, wound healing and cuticle sclerotization. The insect PPO activation pathway is well understood. However, it is not very clear how PPO is released from hemocytes and how PPO takes part in cellular immunity. To begin to assess this, three Drosophila melanogaster PPO genes were separately fused with GFP at the C-terminus (rPPO-GFP) and were over-expressed in S2 cells. The results of staining and morphological observation show that rPPO-GFP expressed in S2 cells has green fluorescence and enzyme activity if Cu(2+) was added during transfection...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23325479/expression-of-cry1aa-in-cassava-improves-its-insect-resistance-against-helicoverpa-armigera
#11
Xiaoguang Duan, Jia Xu, Erjun Ling, Peng Zhang
Lepidopteran insects affect cassava production globally, especially in intercropping system. The expression of Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests, leading to a significant reduction in chemical insecticide usage. Helicoverpa armigera is a Lepidopteran pest that feeds on a wide range of plants like cotton and cassava. In the present study, transgenic cassava plants over-expressing Cry1Aa, which we named as Bt cassava, were developed and used to evaluate its efficacy against H...
September 2013: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22937093/transcriptional-profiling-of-midgut-immunity-response-and-degeneration-in-the-wandering-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#12
Qiuyun Xu, Anrui Lu, Guohua Xiao, Bing Yang, Jie Zhang, Xuquan Li, Jingmin Guan, Qimiao Shao, Brenda T Beerntsen, Peng Zhang, Chengshu Wang, Erjun Ling
BACKGROUND: Lepidoptera insects have a novel development process comprising several metamorphic stages during their life cycle compared with vertebrate animals. Unlike most Lepidoptera insects that live on nectar during the adult stage, the Bombyx mori silkworm adults do not eat anything and die after egg-laying. In addition, the midguts of Lepidoptera insects produce antimicrobial proteins during the wandering stage when the larval tissues undergo numerous changes. The exact mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unclear...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22848488/existence-of-prophenoloxidase-in-wing-discs-a-source-of-plasma-prophenoloxidase-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#13
Yupu Diao, Anrui Lu, Bing Yang, Wenli Hu, Qing Peng, Qing-Zhi Ling, Brenda T Beerntsen, Kenneth Söderhäll, Erjun Ling
In insects, hemocytes are considered as the only source of plasma prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO also exists in the hemocytes of the hematopoietic organ that is connected to the wing disc of Bombyx mori. It is unknown whether there are other cells or tissues that can produce PPO and release it into the hemolymph besides circulating hemocytes. In this study, we use the silkworm as a model to explore this possibility. Through tissue staining and biochemical assays, we found that wing discs contain PPO that can be released into the culture medium in vitro...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22579944/specific-amino-acids-affecting-drosophila-melanogaster-prophenoloxidase-activity-in-vitro
#14
Yang Chen, Fei Liu, Bing Yang, Anrui Lu, Shiwei Wang, Jingfang Wang, Qing-Zhi Ling, Xuan Li, Brenda T Beerntsen, Erjun Ling
Insect prophenoloxidase (PPO) is a key enzyme that induces melanization around invading pathogens and at wounds to prevent further infection. Drosophila melanogaster has three PPO genes which have different biochemical properties following over-expression in S2 cells. As shown by automatic melanization of S2 cells, recombinant PPO3 (rPPO3) became activated upon Cu(2+) addition (Cu(2+)-aided cells melanization without ethanol activation and substrate addition: +Cu(2+); -DOPA, -Ethanol). The exact reasons for this phenomenon are still unknown...
September 2012: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22375003/hindgut-innate-immunity-and-regulation-of-fecal-microbiota-through-melanization-in-insects
#15
Qimiao Shao, Bing Yang, Qiuyun Xu, Xuquan Li, Zhiqiang Lu, Chengshu Wang, Yongping Huang, Kenneth Söderhäll, Erjun Ling
Many insects eat the green leaves of plants but excrete black feces in an as yet unknown mechanism. Insects cannot avoid ingesting pathogens with food that will be specifically detected by the midgut immune system. However, just as in mammals, many pathogens can still escape the insect midgut immune system and arrive in the hindgut, where they are excreted out with the feces. Here we show that the melanization of hindgut content induced by prophenoloxidase, a key enzyme that induces the production of melanin around invaders and at wound sites, is the last line of immune defense to clear bacteria before feces excretion...
April 20, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22178920/drosophila-melanogaster-prophenoloxidases-respond-inconsistently-to-cu2-and-have-different-activity-in-vitro
#16
Fei Liu, Yang Chen, Bing Yang, Jingfang Wang, Qin Peng, Qimiao Shao, Xuan Li, Brenda T Beerntsen, Yechun Xu, Jianyong Li, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Erjun Ling
Dipteran insects, like mosquitoes, possess more than two prophenoloxidase (PPO) genes, but it is unclear whether their gene products differ in biochemical properties and physiological functions. Here, we used three Drosophila melanogaster PPOs as models to study their properties through expression in S2 cells. Our data revealed that the PPOs were expressed in the ethanol-activatable conformation: rPPO1 and rPPO2 needed additional Cu(2+) in the medium, but rPPO3 did not. rPPO1 bound Cu(2+) within minutes; rPPO2 did that in hours when Cu(2+) were present at a higher concentration...
March 2012: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22120533/properties-of-drosophila-melanogaster-prophenoloxidases-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Xuquan Li, Miaolian Ma, Fei Liu, Yang Chen, Anrui Lu, Qing-Zhi Ling, Jianyong Li, Brenda T Beerntsen, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Chaoliang Liu, Erjun Ling
Insect prophenoloxidases (PPOs) are a group of important innate immunity proteins. Although there have been numerous studies dealing with the PPO activation cascade, the detailed biochemical behaviors of the PPO family proteins remain to be clearly established. This is due primarily to the difficulty in obtaining adequate amounts of PPO proteins for comprehensive characterization. In this study, we expressed three Drosophila melanogaster PPO genes in Escherichia coli, and extensively evaluated expression conditions for obtaining soluble proteins...
April 2012: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21379317/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-recent-horizontal-transfer-of-a-dna-transposon-between-divergent-mosquitoes
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yupu Diao, Yumin Qi, Yajun Ma, Ai Xia, Igor Sharakhov, Xiaoguang Chen, Jim Biedler, Erjun Ling, Zhijian Jake Tu
Horizontal transfer of genetic material between complex organisms often involves transposable elements (TEs). For example, a DNA transposon mariner has been shown to undergo horizontal transfer between different orders of insects and between different phyla of animals. Here we report the discovery and characterization of an ITmD37D transposon, MJ1, in Anopheles sinensis. We show that some MJ1 elements in Aedes aegypti and An. sinensis contain intact open reading frames and share nearly 99% nucleotide identity over the entire transposon, which is unexpectedly high given that these two genera had diverged 145-200 million years ago...
2011: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20932328/genome-wide-regulation-of-innate-immunity-by-juvenile-hormone-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-in-the-bombyx-fat-body
#19
Ling Tian, Enen Guo, Yupu Diao, Shun Zhou, Qin Peng, Yang Cao, Erjun Ling, Sheng Li
BACKGROUND: Insect innate immunity can be affected by juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), but how innate immunity is developmentally regulated by these two hormones in insects has not yet been elucidated. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, JH and 20E levels are high during the final larval molt (4 M) but absent during the feeding stage of 5(th) instar (5 F), while JH level is low and 20E level is high during the prepupal stage (PP). Fat body produces humoral response molecules and hence is considered as the major organ involved in innate immunity...
2010: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20729248/developmental-regulation-of-glycolysis-by-20-hydroxyecdysone-and-juvenile-hormone-in-fat-body-tissues-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#20
Ling Tian, Enen Guo, Sheng Wang, Shumin Liu, Rong-Jing Jiang, Yang Cao, Erjun Ling, Sheng Li
20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) control a variety of physiological events during insect development and metamorphosis. To understand how 20E and JH developmentally regulate energy metabolism in insects, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of fat body tissues isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Many genes involved in energy metabolism, including genes in the glycolytic pathway, were down-regulated during molting and pupation, when 20E levels are high. Notably, 20E treatment exhibited inhibitory effects on key glycolytic enzyme mRNA levels and activities, and RNA interference of the 20E receptor EcR-USP had the opposite effects to 20E treatment...
October 2010: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
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