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Sensory gating

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769622/a-simple-power-law-governs-many-sensory-amplifications-and-multisensory-enhancements
#1
Vincent A Billock, Paul R Havig
When one sensory response occurs in the presence of a different sensory stimulation, the sensory response is often amplified. The variety of sensory enhancement data tends to obscure the underlying rules, but it has long been clear that weak signals are usually amplified more than strong ones (the Principle of Inverse Effectiveness). Here we show that for many kinds of sensory amplification, the underlying law is simple and elegant: the amplified response is a power law of the unamplified response, with a compressive exponent that amplifies weak signals more than strong...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769152/startle-habituation-sensory-and-sensorimotor-gating-in-trauma-affected-refugees-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Hanieh Meteran, Erik Vindbjerg, Sigurd Wiingaard Uldall, Birte Glenthøj, Jessica Carlsson, Bob Oranje
BACKGROUND: Impairments in mechanisms underlying early information processing have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, findings in the existing literature are inconsistent. This current study capitalizes on technological advancements of research on electroencephalographic event-related potential and applies it to a novel PTSD population consisting of trauma-affected refugees. METHODS: A total of 25 trauma-affected refugees with PTSD and 20 healthy refugee controls matched on age, gender, and country of origin completed the study...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761601/postnatal-development-of-cholinergic-input-to-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-mouse
#3
Guela Sokhadze, Peter Whitney Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755320/mechanically-gated-ion-channels-in-mammalian-hair-cells
#4
REVIEW
Xufeng Qiu, Ulrich Müller
Hair cells in the inner ear convert mechanical stimuli provided by sound waves and head movements into electrical signal. Several mechanically evoked ionic currents with different properties have been recorded in hair cells. The search for the proteins that form the underlying ion channels is still in progress. The mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel near the tips of stereociliary in hair cells, which is responsible for sensory transduction, has been studied most extensively. Several components of the sensory mechanotransduction machinery in stereocilia have been identified, including the multi-transmembrane proteins tetraspan membrane protein in hair cell stereocilia (TMHS)/LHFPL5, transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) and transmembrane channel-like proteins 1 and 2 (TMC1/2)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752414/ligand-binding-and-activation-properties-of-the-purified-bacterial-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-sthk
#5
Philipp A M Schmidpeter, Xiaolong Gao, Vikrant Uphadyay, Jan Rheinberger, Crina M Nimigean
Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels play several essential physiological roles. They are involved in signal transduction in photoreceptors and olfactory sensory neurons as well as pacemaking activity in the heart and brain. Investigations of the molecular mechanism of their actions, including structural and electrophysiological characterization, are restricted by the availability of stable, purified protein obtained from accessible systems. Here, we establish that SthK, a cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel from Spirochaeta thermophila , is an excellent model for investigating the gating of eukaryotic CNG channels at the molecular level...
May 11, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740356/behavioural-pharmacokinetic-metabolic-and-hyperthermic-profile-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-the-wistar-rat
#6
Rachel R Horsley, Eva Lhotkova, Katerina Hajkova, Barbara Feriancikova, Michal Himl, Martin Kuchar, Tomas Páleníček
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent pyrovalerone cathinone that is substituted for amphetamines by recreational users. We report a comprehensive and detailed description of the effects of subcutaneous MDPV (1-4 mg/kg) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism, acute effects on thermoregulation under isolated and aggregated conditions, locomotion (open field) and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI). All studies used male Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics after single dose of 2 mg/kg MDPV was measured over 6 h in serum, brain and lungs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740287/inhibition-of-glur-current-in-microvilli-of-sensory-neurons-via-na-microdomain-coupling-among-glur-hcn-channel-and-na-k-pump
#7
Yasuhiro Kawasaki, Mitsuru Saito, Jonghwa Won, Jin Young Bae, Hajime Sato, Hiroki Toyoda, Eriko Kuramoto, Mikihiko Kogo, Takuma Tanaka, Takeshi Kaneko, Seog Bae Oh, Yong Chul Bae, Youngnam Kang
Glutamatergic dendritic EPSPs evoked in cortical pyramidal neurons are depressed by activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels expressed in dendritic spines. This depression has been attributed to shunting effects of HCN current ( I h ) on input resistance or I h deactivation. Primary sensory neurons in the rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN) have the somata covered by spine-like microvilli that express HCN channels. In rat MTN neurons, we demonstrated that I h enhancement apparently diminished the glutamate receptor (GluR) current ( I GluR ) evoked by puff application of glutamate/AMPA and enhanced a transient outward current following I GluR (OT- I GluR )...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739879/chemical-synapses-without-synaptic-vesicles-purinergic-neurotransmission-through-a-calhm1-channel-mitochondrial-signaling-complex
#8
Roman A Romanov, Robert S Lasher, Brigit High, Logan E Savidge, Adam Lawson, Olga A Rogachevskaja, Haitian Zhao, Vadim V Rogachevsky, Marina F Bystrova, Gleb D Churbanov, Igor Adameyko, Tibor Harkany, Ruibiao Yang, Grahame J Kidd, Philippe Marambaud, John C Kinnamon, Stanislav S Kolesnikov, Thomas E Finger
Conventional chemical synapses in the nervous system involve a presynaptic accumulation of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles, which fuse with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitters that activate postsynaptic receptors. In taste buds, type II receptor cells do not have conventional synaptic features but nonetheless show regulated release of their afferent neurotransmitter, ATP, through a large-pore, voltage-gated channel, CALHM1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CALHM1 was localized to points of contact between the receptor cells and sensory nerve fibers...
May 8, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706545/dendritic-integration-of-sensory-evidence-in-perceptual-decision-making
#9
Lukas N Groschner, Laura Chan Wah Hak, Rafal Bogacz, Shamik DasGupta, Gero Miesenböck
Perceptual decisions require the accumulation of sensory information to a response criterion. Most accounts of how the brain performs this process of temporal integration have focused on evolving patterns of spiking activity. We report that subthreshold changes in membrane voltage can represent accumulating evidence before a choice. αβ core Kenyon cells (αβc KCs) in the mushroom bodies of fruit flies integrate odor-evoked synaptic inputs to action potential threshold at timescales matching the speed of olfactory discrimination...
April 25, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704750/active-mechanosensory-feedback-during-locomotion-in-the-zebrafish-spinal-cord
#10
REVIEW
Steven Knafo, Claire Wyart
The investigation of mechanosensory feedback to locomotion has been hindered by the challenge of recording neurons in motion. Genetic accessibility and optical transparency of zebrafish larvae provide means to revisit this question. Glutamatergic Rohon-Beard (RB) and GABAergic CSF-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) are spinal mechanosensory neurons. Recent studies combining bioluminescence, silencing and optogenetic activation show that mechanosensory neurons enhance speed and stabilize posture during locomotion...
April 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697531/mice-lacking-kcns1-in-peripheral-neurons-show-increased-basal-and-neuropathic-pain-sensitivity
#11
Christoforos Tsantoulas, Franziska Denk, Massimo Signore, Mohammed A Nassar, Kensuke Futai, Stephen B McMahon
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are increasingly recognised as key regulators of nociceptive excitability. Kcns1 is one of the first potassium channels to be associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and mechanical sensitivity in the rat, as well as pain intensity and risk of developing chronic pain in humans. Here, we show that in mice Kcns1 is predominantly expressed in the cell body and axons of myelinated sensory neurons positive for neurofilament-200, including Aδ-fiber nociceptors and low-threshold Aβ mechanoreceptors...
April 24, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694903/p2y12r-dependent-translocation-mechanisms-gate-the-changing-microglial-landscape
#12
Ukpong B Eyo, Mingshu Mo, Min-Hee Yi, Madhuvika Murugan, Junting Liu, Rohan Yarlagadda, David J Margolis, Pingyi Xu, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia are an exquisitely tiled and self-contained population in the CNS that do not receive contributions from circulating monocytes in the periphery. While microglia are long-lived cells, the extent to which their cell bodies are fixed and the molecular mechanisms by which the microglial landscape is regulated have not been determined. Using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging to follow the microglial population in young adult mice, we document a daily rearrangement of the microglial landscape. Furthermore, we show that the microglial landscape can be modulated by severe seizures, acute injury, and sensory deprivation...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687712/chitosan-based-polysaccharide-gated-flexible-indium-tin-oxide-synaptic-transistor-with-learning-abilities
#13
Fei Yu, Li Qiang Zhu, Wan Tian Gao, Yang Ming Fu, Hui Xiao, Jian Tao, Ju Mei Zhou
Recently, surrounding friendly electronic devices are attracting increasing interests. "Green" artificial synapses with learning abilities are also interesting for neuromorphic platforms. Here, solution processed chitosan-based polysaccharide electrolyte gated indium tin oxide (ITO) synaptic transistors are fabricated on PET substrate. Good transistor performances against mechanical stress are observed. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed ITO synaptic transistor. When applying pre-synaptic and post-synaptic spikes on gate electrode and drain electrode respectively, spiking timing dependent plasticity function is mimicked on the synaptic transistor...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678876/rapid-disinhibition-by-adjustment-of-pv-intrinsic-excitability-during-whisker-map-plasticity-in-mouse-s1
#14
Melanie A Gainey, Joseph W Aman, Daniel E Feldman
Rapid plasticity of layer (L) 2/3 inhibitory circuits is an early step in sensory cortical map plasticity, but its cellular basis is unclear. We show that, in mice of either sex, 1 day whisker deprivation drives rapid loss of L4-evoked feedforward inhibition and more modest loss of feedforward excitation in L2/3 pyramidal (PYR) cells, increasing E-I conductance ratio. Rapid disinhibition was due to reduced L4-evoked spiking by L2/3 parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, caused by reduced PV intrinsic excitability. This included elevated PV spike threshold, associated with an increase in low-threshold, voltage activated delayed rectifier (presumed Kv1) and A-type potassium currents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643351/synaptically-silent-sensory-hair-cells-in-zebrafish-are-recruited-after-damage
#15
Qiuxiang Zhang, Suna Li, Hiu-Tung C Wong, Xinyi J He, Alisha Beirl, Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Katie S Kindt
Analysis of mechanotransduction among ensembles of sensory hair cells in vivo is challenging in many species. To overcome this challenge, we used optical indicators to investigate mechanotransduction among collections of hair cells in intact zebrafish. Our imaging reveals a previously undiscovered disconnect between hair-cell mechanosensation and synaptic transmission. We show that saturating mechanical stimuli able to open mechanically gated channels are unexpectedly insufficient to evoke vesicle fusion in the majority of hair cells...
April 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620434/transient-receptor-potential-polymorphism-and-haplotype-associate-with-crisis-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#16
Ellie H Jhun, Xiaoyu Hu, Nilanjana Sadhu, Yingwei Yao, Ying He, Diana J Wilkie, Robert E Molokie, Zaijie J Wang
AIM: Episodes of acute pain crisis contribute to considerable morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). Incomprehensive understanding of the underlying pain heterogeneity results in inadequate pain management. The transient receptor potential (TRP) family of voltage-gated ion channels acts as sensory transducers of diverse noxious stimuli. We performed an association study of polymorphisms in candidate genes TRPV1 and TRPA1 with pain in SCD patients. METHODS: Utilization rate, in other words, number of emergency department/acute care center admissions over 12 months as a result of pain crisis, served as a marker for acute pain...
April 5, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618546/attention-selectively-gates-afferent-signal-transmission-to-area-v4
#17
Iris Grothe, David Rotermund, Simon David Neitzel, Sunita Mandon, Udo Alexander Ernst, Andreas K Kreiter, Klaus Richard Pawelzik
Selective attention allows focusing on only part of the incoming sensory information. Neurons in the extrastriate visual cortex reflect such selective processing when different stimuli are simultaneously present in their large receptive fields. Their spiking response then resembles the response to the attended stimulus when presented in isolation. Unclear is where in the neuronal pathway attention intervenes to achieve such selective signal routing and processing. To investigate this question, we tagged two equivalent visual stimuli by independent broadband luminance noise and used the spectral coherence of these behaviorally irrelevant signals with the field potential of a local neuronal population in male macaque monkeys' area V4 as a measure for their respective causal influences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614291/sleep-helicon-cells-charge-the-circuit
#18
Maria E Yurgel, Alex C Keene
A new study in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has identified a neural circuitry that connects regions that control sleep with those that encode sleep pressure. These novel cells, termed helicon cells for their unique morphology, are modulated by sleep control centers and integrate sensory information, providing a novel mechanism for gating of sleep.
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604295/cannabinoid-receptor-mediated-disruption-of-sensory-gating-and-neural-oscillations-a-translational-study-in-rats-and-humans
#19
Patrick D Skosnik, Mihály Hajós, Jose A Cortes-Briones, Chad R Edwards, Brian P Pittman, William E Hoffmann, Andrew R Sewell, Deepak C D'Souza, Mohini Ranganathan
Cannabis use has been associated with altered sensory gating and neural oscillations. However, it is unclear which constituent in cannabis is responsible for these effects, or whether these are cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) mediated. Therefore, the present study in humans and rats examined whether cannabinoid administration would disrupt sensory gating and evoked oscillations utilizing electroencephalography (EEG) and local field potentials (LFPs), respectively. Human subjects (n = 15) completed four test days during which they received intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9 -THC + CBD, or placebo...
March 28, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588412/palmitoylation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-promotes-kinesin-mediated-membrane-trafficking-of-na-v-1-6-in-sensory-neurons-to-promote-neuropathic-pain
#20
Xiao-Long Zhang, Huan-Huan Ding, Ting Xu, Meng Liu, Chao Ma, Shao-Ling Wu, Jia-You Wei, Cui-Cui Liu, Su-Bo Zhang, Wen-Jun Xin
Palmitoylation of δ-catenin is critical to synapse plasticity and memory formation. We found that δ-catenin palmitoylation is also instrumental in the development of neuropathic pain. The abundances of palmitoylated δ-catenin and the palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC3 were increased in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons in rat models of neuropathic pain. Inhibiting palmitoyl acyltransferases or decreasing δ-catenin abundance in the DRG by intrathecal injection of 2-bromopalmitate or shRNA, respectively, alleviated oxaliplatin or nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in the rats...
March 27, 2018: Science Signaling
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