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Sensory gating

István Z Bátai, Ádám Horváth, Erika Pintér, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Gábor Pozsgai
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) non-selective ligand-gated cation channels are mostly expressed in primary sensory neurons. Polysulfides (POLYs) are Janus-faced substances interacting with numerous target proteins and associated with both protective and detrimental processes. Activation of TRPA1 in sensory neurons, consequent somatostatin (SOM) liberation and action on sst4 receptors have recently emerged as mediators of the antinociceptive effect of organic trisulfide dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Carolyn Berryman, Brenton Hordacre, Flavia Di Pietro
It is well established that motor tasks are associated with gating of irrelevant sensory input from the contralateral side of the body. In a recent issue of the Journal of Physiology, Lei and Perez (2017) present novel findings that suggest the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (iS1) is also likely to contribute to sensorimotor integration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Yu-Zhang Liu, Yao Wang, Wei Tang, Jun-Yi Zhu, Zhiru Wang
Hippocampal processing of environmental information is critical for hippocampus-dependent brain functions that result from experience-induced hippocampal plasticity, such as memory acquisition and storage. Hippocampal responses to sensory stimulation have been extensively investigated, particularly with respect to spike activity. However, the synaptic mechanism for hippocampal processing of sensory stimulation has been much less understood. Here, we performed in vivo whole-cell recording on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) from adult rodents to examine CA1 responses to a flash of visual stimulation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Hans Straka, John Simmers, Boris P Chagnaud
Adaptive behavior relies on complex neural processing in multiple interacting networks of both motor and sensory systems. One such interaction employs intrinsic neuronal signals, so-called 'corollary discharge' or 'efference copy', that may be used to predict the sensory consequences of a specific behavioral action, thereby enabling self-generated (reafferent) sensory information and extrinsic (exafferent) sensory inflow to be dissociated. Here, by using well-established examples, we seek to identify the distinguishing features of corollary discharge and efference copy within the framework of predictive motor-to-sensory system coordination...
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Matthew I M Louder, Mark E Hauber, Christopher N Balakrishnan
Amongst an array of stimuli from countless species, animals must recognize salient signals, including those of their own species. In songbirds, behavioral tests have demonstrated that preferences for conspecific male songs are determined by both preexisting biases and social experience with a male 'tutor' during the sensitive period for learning. Although immediate early gene expression (e.g. ZENK) and electrophysiological experiments generally find greater neural responses for conspecific songs, it remains unclear whether distinct mechanisms, such as sensory gating, are engaged to filter out irrelevant heterospecific songs...
March 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Katharina Wolf, Markus Hupp, Susanne Friedl, Reto Sutter, Markus Klarhöfer, Patrick Grabher, Patrick Freund, Armin Curt
STUDY DESIGN: Level-, age-, and gender-matched controlled cross-sectional cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate alterations of spinal cord (SC) motion within cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) across the cervical spinal segments and its relation to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-flow, anatomic conditions, and clinical parameters. SETTING: University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich, Switzerland. METHODS: Overall, 12 patients suffering from CSM at level C5 and 12 controls underwent cardiac-gated 2D phase-contrast-MRI at level C2 and C5 and standard MRI sequences...
March 1, 2018: Spinal Cord
Yuchen Wang, Lanlan Ma, Xuejiao Wang, Ling Qin
Auditory steady state response (ASSR) and inhibitory gating (IG) are electrophysiological examinations commonly used to evaluate the sensory and cognitive functions of the brain. In some clinic examinations and animal experiments, general anesthesia is necessary to conduct electrophysiological recordings. However, the effects of anesthesia on ASSR and IG remain unclear. For this reason, we recorded local field potentials though electrodes implanted in different brain areas of rats: the auditory cortex (AC), hippocampus (HC), amygdala (AMY), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and compared the characteristics of ASSR and IG under anesthetized and conscious conditions...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael E Hasselmo, Chantal E Stern
Humans demonstrate differences in performance on cognitive rule learning tasks which could involve differences in properties of neural circuits. An example model is presented to show how gating of the spread of neural activity could underlie rule learning and the generalization of rules to previously unseen stimuli. This model uses the activity of gating units to regulate the pattern of connectivity between neurons responding to sensory input and subsequent gating units or output units. This model allows analysis of network parameters that could contribute to differences in cognitive rule learning...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Daniel E Knutson, Revathi Kodali, Branka Divovic, Marco Treven, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Nicolas M Zahn, Vladimir Dobričić, Alec T Huber, Matheus A Meirelles, Ranjit S Verma, Laurin Wimmer, Christopher Witzigmann, Leggy A Arnold, Lih-Chu Chiou, Margot Ernst, Marko D Mihovilovic, Miroslav M Savic, Werner Sieghart, James M Cook
Recent reports indicate that α6β2/3γ2 GABAA R selective ligands may be important for the treatment of trigeminal orofacial pain and neuropsychiatric disorders with sensori-motor gating deficits. Based on 3 functionally α6β2/3γ2 GABAA R selective pyrazoloquinolinones, 42 novel analogs were synthesized and their in vitro metabolic stability and cytotoxicity as well as their in vivo pharmacokinetics, basic behavioral pharmacology, and effects on locomotion was investigated. Incorporation of deuterium into the methoxy substituents of the ligands increased their duration of action via improved metabolic stability and bioavailability, while their selectivity for the GABAA R α6 subtype was retained...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yanmei Qi, Norbert Mair, Kai K Kummer, Michael G Leitner, María Camprubí-Robles, Michiel Langeslag, Michaela Kress
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. We have previously reported a S1P-induced nocifensive response in mice by excitation of sensory neurons via activation of an excitatory chloride current. The underlying molecular mechanism for the S1P-induced chloride conductance remains elusive. In the present study, we identified two CLCN voltage-gated chloride channels, CLCN3 and CLCN5, which mediated a S1P-induced excitatory Cl- current in sensory neurons by combining RNA-seq, adenovirus-based gene silencing and whole-cell electrophysiological voltage-clamp recordings...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Edmund Cheung So, Yingwei Wang, Li Qun Yang, Kenny Hsu So, Yi-Ching Lo, Sheng-Nan Wu
GMQ (2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline or N-(4-methyl-2-quinazolinyl)-guanidine hydrochloride), an agonist of acid-sensing ion channel type 3, has been increasingly used for in vivo studies of alternations in nociceptic behavior. In this study, we tried to investigate whether GMQ has any possible effect on other types of ion channels. Addition of GMQ to pituitary GH3 cells raised the amplitude of Ca2+ -activated K+ currents (IK(Ca) ), which was reversed by verruculogen or PF1022A, but not by TRAM-39. Under inside-out current recordings, addition of GMQ into bath enhanced the probability of large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (BKCa ) channels with an EC50 value of 0...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Tamara Timic Stamenic, Slobodan M Todorovic
The central medial nucleus (CeM) is a part of the intralaminar thalamus, which is involved in the control of arousal and sensory processing. However, ionic conductances and mechanisms that regulate the activity of the CeM are not well studied. Here, we used in vitro electrophysiology in acute brain slices from adolescent rats to demonstrate that T-type calcium currents (T-currents) are prominent in the majority of the studied CeM neurons and are critical determinants of low-threshold calcium spikes (LTSs), which in turn regulate excitability of these neurons...
January 2018: ENeuro
Chun-Hong Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu, Xue-Qi Zhu, Ji-Liang Fang, Shun-Li Lu, Li-Rong Tang, Chuan-Yue Wang, Qing-Quan Liu
Insomnia is characterized by sensory hypersensitivity and cognitive impairments. Recent work has identified the insula as a central brain region involved in both bottom-up gating of sensory information and top-down cognitive control. However, the specific relationships between insular subregion connectivity and emotional and cognitive functions remain unclear. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 25 healthy participants with sleep complaints (HPS) and 25 age-, gender- and educational level-matched healthy participants without insomnia complaints (HP)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Muriel Amsalem, Corinne Poilbout, Géraldine Ferracci, Patrick Delmas, Francoise Padilla
Cholesterol is a major lipid component of the mammalian plasma membrane. While much is known about its metabolism, its transport, and its role in atherosclerotic vascular disease, less is known about its role in neuronal pathophysiology. This study reveals an unexpected function of cholesterol in controlling pain transmission. We show that inflammation lowers cholesterol content in skin tissue and sensory DRG culture. Pharmacological depletion of cellular cholesterol entails sensitization of nociceptive neurons and promotes mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia through the activation of voltage-gated Nav1...
February 19, 2018: EMBO Journal
Silvia Convento, Md Shoaibur Rahman, Jeffrey M Yau
Sensory cortical systems often activate in parallel, even when stimulation is experienced through a single sensory modality [1-3]. Co-activations may reflect the interactive coupling between information-linked cortical systems or merely parallel but independent sensory processing. We report causal evidence consistent with the hypothesis that human somatosensory cortex (S1), which co-activates with auditory cortex during the processing of vibrations and textures [4-9], interactively couples to cortical systems that support auditory perception...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Julia Hennemann, Roman S Iwasaki, Tamara N Grund, Ralph P Diensthuber, Florian Richter, Andreas Möglich
Sensory photoreceptors evoke numerous adaptive responses in Nature and serve as light-gated actuators in optogenetics to enable the spatiotemporally precise, reversible and noninvasive control of cellular events. The output of optogenetic circuits can often be dialed in by varying illumination quality, quantity and duration. Here, we devise a programmable matrix of light-emitting diodes to efficiently probe the response of optogenetic systems to intermittently applied light of varying intensity and pulse frequency...
February 14, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
David J Arpin, James E Gehringer, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
During active movement the somatosensory cortical responses are often attenuated. This attenuation is referred to as movement-related sensory gating. It is well known that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have sensory processing deficits, and recent work has also suggested that these patients display impaired motor control of the ankle musculature. The primary goal of the current study was to: (1) examine the movement-related somatosensory gating in patients with MS and demographically-matched controls, and (2) identify the relationship between the sensory gating and motor control of the ankle musculature...
February 9, 2018: Brain Topography
Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Jean-Sebastien Jouhanneau, Stephanie E Myal, James F A Poulet, Alison L Barth
Sleep, waking, locomotion, and attention are associated with cell-type-specific changes in neocortical activity. The effect of brain state on circuit output requires understanding of how neuromodulators influence specific neuronal classes and their synapses, with normal patterns of neuromodulator release from endogenous sources. We investigated the state-dependent modulation of a ubiquitous feedforward inhibitory motif in mouse sensory cortex, local pyramidal (Pyr) inputs onto somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
David von der Ahe, Petra Huehnchen, Mustafa Balkaya, Sarah Peruzzaro, Matthias Endres, Wolfgang Boehmerle
Suramin is a trypan blue analogon originally developed to treat protozoan infections, which was found to have diverse antitumor effects. One of the most severe side effects in clinical trials was the development of a peripheral sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In this study, we aimed to investigate suramin-induced neuropathy with a focus on calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis as a potential pathomechanism. Adult C57Bl/6 mice treated with a single injection of 250 mg/kg bodyweight suramin developed locomotor and sensory deficits, which were confirmed by electrophysiological measurements showing a predominantly sensory axonal-demyelinating polyneuropathy...
February 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiao-Jing Wang, Guangyu Robert Yang
In the mammalian neocortex, an area typically receives inputs from, and projects to, dozens of other areas. Mechanisms are needed to flexibly route information to the right place at the right time, which we term 'pathway gating'. For instance, a region in your brain that receives signals from both visual and auditory pathways may want to 'gate in' the visual pathway while 'gating out' the auditory pathway when you try to read a book surrounded by people in a noisy café. In this review, we marshall experimental and computational evidence in support of a circuit mechanism for flexible pathway gating realized by a disinhibitory motif...
January 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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