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Sensory gating

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639246/atp-gated-p2x3-receptors-are-specialised-sensors-of-the-extracellular-environment
#1
Elsa Fabbretti
P2X3 receptors are ion channels expressed by autonomic and sensory nerves and specialised in transducing extracellular ATP signals. Structural data, together with functional and biochemical studies, suggest that conformational changes of P2X3 receptors upon agonist binding influence downstream intracellular molecular mechanisms relevant for neuronal responses. Activity of P2X3 receptors is implicated in pain, itch, asthma, cardiovascular dysfunction and other pathologies. The study of these receptors has therefore a large potential in the field of drug development and interdisciplinary efforts could clarify molecular mechanisms controlling P2X3 receptor function in different physiological or pathological contexts...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639215/regulation-of-t-type-ca-2-channel-expression-by-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-in-sensory-like-nd7-cells
#2
Qiaojuan Zhang, Shao-Chung Hsia, Miguel Martin-Caraballo
Infection of sensory neurons by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 disrupts electrical excitability, altering pain sensory transmission. Because of their low threshold for activation, functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels regulates various cell functions, including neuronal excitability and neuronal communication. In this study, we have tested the effect of HSV-1 infection on the functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in differentiated ND7-23 sensory-like neurons. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents were measured using whole cell patch clamp recordings in differentiated ND7-23 neurons under various culture conditions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635081/understanding-and-improving-photo-control-of-ion-channels-in-nociceptors-with-azobenzene-photoswitches
#3
Alexandre Mourot, Christian Herold, Michael A Kienzler, Richard H Kramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We previously developed a photoisomerizable local anaesthetic, named QAQ, to gain rapid, optical control over pain signaling without involving genetic modification. In darkness or in green light, trans-QAQ blocks voltage-gated K(+) and Na(+) channels and silences action potentials in pain-sensing neurons. Upon photoisomerization to cis with near UV light, QAQ blockade is rapidly relieved and neuronal activity is restored. However, the molecular mechanism of cis and trans QAQ blockade is not known...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634466/abnormal-temporal-coupling-of-tactile-perception-and-motor-action-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Antonella Conte, Daniele Belvisi, Matteo Tartaglia, Francesca Natalia Cortese, Viola Baione, Emanuele Battista, Xiao Y Zhu, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
Evidence shows altered somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) in Parkinson's disease in comparison to normal subjects. In healthy subjects, movement execution modulates STDT values through mechanisms of sensory gating. We investigated whether STDT modulation during movement execution in patients with Parkinson's disease differs from that in healthy subjects. In 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and 20 healthy subjects, we tested STDT at baseline and during index finger abductions (at movement onset "0", 100, and 200 ms thereafter)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634208/ligand-and-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-differentially-regulate-the-mode-of-vesicular-neuropeptide-release-in-mammalian-sensory-neurons
#5
Yeshi Wang, Qihui Wu, Meiqin Hu, Bin Liu, Zuying Chai, Rong Huang, Yuan Wang, Huadong Xu, Li Zhou, Lianghong Zheng, Changhe Wang, Zhuan Zhou
Neuropeptides released from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons play essential roles in the neurotransmission of sensory inputs, including those underlying nociception and pathological pain. Neuropeptides are released from intracellular vesicles through two modes: a partial release mode called "kiss-and-run" (KAR) and a full release mode called "full fusion-like" (FFL). Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we traced the release of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein-tagged neuropeptide Y (pHluorin-NPY) from individual dense-core vesicles in the soma and axon of single DRG neurons after Ca(2+) influx through either voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) or ligand-gated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614299/homeostatic-circuits-selectively-gate-food-cue-responses-in-insular-cortex
#6
Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Christian R Burgess, Kirsten M Levandowski, Joseph C Madara, Henning Fenselau, Glenn J Goldey, Veronica E Diaz, Nick Jikomes, Jon M Resch, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is 'hijacked' by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how 'cognitive' cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612144/fast-calcium-transients-translate-the-distribution-and-conduction-of-neural-activity-in-different-regions-of-a-single-sensory-neuron
#7
Nuhan Purali
In the present study, cytosolic calcium concentration changes were recorded in response to various forms of excitations, using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye OG-BAPTA1 together with the current or voltage clamp methods in stretch receptor neurons of crayfish. A single action potential evoked a rise in the resting calcium level in the axon and axonal hillock, whereas an impulse train or a large saturating current injection would be required to evoke an equivalent response in the dendrite region. Under voltage clamp conditions, amplitude differences between axon and dendrite responses vanished completely...
September 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606770/p50-suppression-deficits-and-psychopathology-in-han-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Xiao Lin Zhu, Shu Ping Tan, Zhi Ren Wang, Jin Guo Zhang, Dong Li, Feng Mei Fan, Yan Li Zhao, Yi Zhuang Zou, Yun Long Tan, Fu De Yang, Xiang Yang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have reported P50 gating deficits in schizophrenia, though with mixed results. Moreover, few studies have explored the association between P50 gating deficits and psychopathology in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the P50 auditory sensory gating patterns and their correlations with clinical symptoms in a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We assessed P50 sensory gating with a 64-channel electroencephalography system in 133 patients with schizophrenia and 148 healthy controls...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602655/attention-robustly-gates-a-closed-loop-touch-reflex
#9
Dana Sherman, Tess Oram, David Harel, Ehud Ahissar
Rats' large whiskers (macrovibrissae) are used to explore their nearby environment, typically using repetitive protraction-retraction "whisking" motions that are coordinated with head and body movements [1-8]. Once objects are detected, the rat can further explore the object tactually by using both the macrovibrissae and an array of shorter, stationary microvibrissae on the chin, as well as by using the lips [9-11]. When touch occurs during whisking, a fast reflexive response, termed a touch-induced pump (TIP), may be triggered...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591842/children-with-cerebral-palsy-hyper-gate-somatosensory-stimulations-of-the-foot
#10
Max J Kurz, Alex I Wiesman, Nathan M Coolidge, Tony W Wilson
We currently have a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of the sensory perception deficits often reported in the clinic for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In this investigation, we have begun to address this knowledge gap by using magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging to evaluate the sensory gating of neural oscillations in the somatosensory cortices. A cohort of children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System II-III) and typically developing children underwent paired-pulse electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve during MEG...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591583/distinct-thalamic-reticular-cell-types-differentially-modulate-normal-and-pathological-cortical-rhythms
#11
Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Stefanie Ritter Makinson, Bryan Higashikubo, Scott Brovarney, Frances S Cho, Alexander Urry, Stephanie S Holden, Matthew Wimer, Csaba Dávid, Lief E Fenno, László Acsády, Karl Deisseroth, Jeanne T Paz
Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT) gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585087/corticosteroids-and-aldose-reductase-inhibitor-epalrestat-modulates-cardiac-action-potential-via-kv%C3%AE-1-1-akr6a8-subunit-of-voltage-gated-potassium-channel
#12
Jared Tur, Sachin L Badole, Feng Cheng, Aparoop Das, Rakesh C Kukreja, Srinivas M Tipparaju
We previously demonstrated the role of Kvβ1.1 subunit of voltage-activated potassium channel in heart for its sensory roles in detecting changes in NADH/NAD and modulation of ion channel. However, the pharmacological role for the association of Kvβ1 via its binding to ligands such as cortisone and its analogs remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the significance of Kvβ1.1 binding to cortisone analogs and AR inhibitor epalrestat. In addition, the aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor epalrestat was identified as a pharmacological target and modulator of cardiac activity via binding to the Kvβ1 subunit...
June 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576943/polysialic-acid-regulates-sympathetic-outflow-by-facilitating-information-transfer-within-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#13
Phillip Bokiniec, Shila Shahbazian, Stuart J McDougall, Britt A Berning, Delfine Cheng, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Peter Gr Burke, Simon McMullan, Martina Mühlenhoff, Herbert Hildebrandt, Filip Braet, Mark Connor, Nicolle H Packer, Ann K Goodchild
Expression of the large, extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia) is restricted, in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodelling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release and behaviour. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both in vitro and in vivo PolySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566000/peripheral-kv7-channels-regulate-visceral-sensory-function-in-mouse-and-human-colon
#14
Madusha Peiris, James Rf Hockley, David E Reed, Ewan St John Smith, David C Bulmer, L Ashley Blackshaw
Background Chronic visceral pain is a defining symptom of many gastrointestinal disorders. The KV7 family (KV7.1-KV7.5) of voltage-gated potassium channels mediates the M current that regulates excitability in peripheral sensory nociceptors and central pain pathways. Here, we use a combination of immunohistochemistry, gut-nerve electrophysiological recordings in both mouse and human tissues, and single-cell qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of gut-projecting sensory neurons, to investigate the contribution of peripheral KV7 channels to visceral nociception...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562598/inhibition-of-insect-olfactory-behavior-by-an-airborne-antagonist-of-the-insect-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-subunit
#15
Devin Kepchia, Scott Moliver, Kunal Chohan, Cameron Phillips, Charles W Luetje
Response to volatile environmental chemosensory cues is essential for insect survival. The odorant receptor (OR) family is an important class of receptors that detects volatile molecules; guiding insects towards food, mates, and oviposition sites. ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, consisting of a variable odorant specificity subunit and a conserved odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit, in an unknown stoichiometry. The Orco subunit possesses an allosteric site to which modulators can bind and noncompetitively inhibit odorant activation of ORs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555099/load-dependent-increases-in-delay-period-alpha-band-power-track-the-gating-of-task-irrelevant-inputs-to-working-memory
#16
Andrew J Heinz, Jeffrey S Johnson
Studies exploring the role of neural oscillations in cognition have revealed sustained increases in alpha-band power (ABP) during the delay period of verbal and visual working memory (VWM) tasks. There have been various proposals regarding the functional significance of such increases, including the inhibition of task-irrelevant cortical areas as well as the active retention of information in VWM. The present study examines the role of delay-period ABP in mediating the effects of interference arising from on-going visual processing during a concurrent VWM task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542290/new-paradigm-for-auditory-paired-pulse-suppression
#17
Nobuyuki Takeuchi, Shunsuke Sugiyama, Koji Inui, Kousuke Kanemoto, Makoto Nishihara
Sensory gating is a mechanism of sensory processing used to prevent an overflow of irrelevant information, with some indexes, such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) and P50 suppression, often utilized for its evaluation. In addition, those are clinically important for diseases such as schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated long-latency paired-pulse suppression of change-related cortical responses using magnetoencephalography. The test change-related response was evoked by an abrupt increase in sound pressure by 15 dB in a continuous sound composed of a train of 25-ms pure tones at 65 dB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541256/modulation-of-brainstem-activity-and-connectivity-by-respiratory-gated-auricular-vagal-afferent-nerve-stimulation-in-migraine-patients
#18
Ronald G Garcia, Richard L Lin, Jeungchan Lee, Jieun Kim, Riccardo Barbieri, Roberta Sclocco, Ajay D Wasan, Robert R Edwards, Bruce R Rosen, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Vitaly Napadow
Migraine pathophysiology includes altered brainstem excitability, and recent neuromodulatory approaches aimed at controlling migraine episodes have targeted key brainstem relay and modulatory nuclei. In this study, we evaluated the impact of respiratory-gated auricular vagal afferent nerve stimulation (RAVANS), a novel neuromodulatory intervention based on an existing transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation approach, in the modulation of brainstem activity and connectivity in migraine patients. We applied 3T-functional magnetic resonance imaging with improved in-plane spatial resolution (2...
April 25, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540738/somatosensory-gating-is-altered-and-associated-with-migraine-chronification-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#19
Fu-Jung Hsiao, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Yung-Yang Lin, Jong-Ling Fuh, Yu-Chieh Ko, Pei-Ning Wang, Wei-Ta Chen
Background Brain excitability is changed in migraine but not fully characterized yet. This study explored if somatosensory gating is altered in migraine and linked to migraine chronification. Methods Paired electrical stimuli were delivered to the left index fingers of 21 patients with migraine without aura (MO), 22 patients with chronic migraine (CM), and 36 controls. The first and second responses to the paired stimuli were obtained from the contralateral primary (cSI), contralateral secondary (cSII) and ipsilateral secondary (iSII) somatosensory cortices to compute the gating ratios (second vs...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533165/analgesic-conopeptides-targeting-g-protein-coupled-receptors-reduce-excitability-of-sensory-neurons
#20
REVIEW
Mahsa Sadeghi, Jeffrey R McArthur, Rocio K Finol-Urdaneta, David J Adams
Conotoxins (conopeptides) are a diverse group of peptides isolated from the venom of marine cone snails. Conus peptides modulate pain by interacting with voltage-gated ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Opiate drugs targeting GPCRs have long been used, nonetheless, many undesirable side effects associated with opiates have been observed including addiction. Consequently, alternative avenues to pain management are a largely unmet need. It has been shown that various voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) respond to GPCR modulation...
May 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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