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Sensory gating

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430708/the-somatosensory-evoked-potential-in-reaction-time-is-gated-and-elicited-earlier-when-the-motor-response-to-a-somatosensory-cue-is-faster
#1
Koichi Hiraoka, Chisato Kori, Kana Sato
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) is gated and elicited earlier when a motor response to a somatosensory stimulus is faster. In healthy humans, the left index finger and thumb were pinched in response to a somatosensory stimulus administered over the left median nerve. The SEP elicited by this stimulus when producing a fast motor response was compared with that when producing a slow motor response. The amplitudes of N18 and frontal P40 when producing a fast motor response were smaller than those when producing a slow motor response...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424991/expression-and-role-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-human-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-with-special-focus-on-nav1-7-species-differences-and-regulation-by-paclitaxel
#2
Wonseok Chang, Temugin Berta, Yong Ho Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Seok-Yong Lee, Ru-Rong Ji
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play an important role in human pain sensation. However, the expression and role of Nav subtypes in native human sensory neurons are unclear. To address this issue, we obtained human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) tissues from healthy donors. PCR analysis of seven DRG-expressed Nav subtypes revealed that the hDRG has higher expression of Nav1.7 (~50% of total Nav expression) and lower expression of Nav1.8 (~12%), whereas the mouse DRG has higher expression of Nav1.8 (~45%) and lower expression of Nav1...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420967/organization-and-plasticity-of-sodium-channel-expression-in-the-mouse-olfactory-and-vomeronasal-epithelia
#3
Florian Bolz, Stephanie Kasper, Bernd Bufe, Frank Zufall, Martina Pyrski
To understand the molecular basis of neuronal excitation in the mammalian olfactory system, we conducted a systematic analysis of the organization of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subunits in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) of adult mice. We also analyzed changes in Nav channel expression during development in these two systems and during regeneration of the MOE. Quantitative PCR shows that Nav1.7 is the predominant isoform in both adult MOE and VNO. We detected pronounced immunoreactivity for Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416443/astrocytes-modulate-thalamic-sensory-processing-via-mglu2-receptor-activation
#4
C S Copeland, T M Wall, R E Sims, S A Neale, E Nisenbaum, H R Parri, T E Salt
Astrocytes possess many of the same signalling molecules as neurons. However, the role of astrocytes in information processing, if any, is unknown. Using electrophysiological and imaging methods, we report the first evidence that astrocytes modulate neuronal sensory inhibition in the rodent thalamus. We found that mGlu2 receptor activity reduces inhibitory transmission from the thalamic reticular nucleus to the somatosensory ventrobasal thalamus (VB): mIPSC frequencies in VB slices were reduced by the Group II mGlu receptor agonist LY354740, an effect potentiated by mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) LY487379 co-application (30 nM LY354740: 10...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#5
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404687/selective-calcium-dependent-inhibition-of-atp-gated-p2x3-receptors-by-bisphosphonates-induced-endogenous-atp-analogue-apppi
#6
Yevheniia Ishchenko, Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Raisa Giniatullina, Andrei Skorinkin, Geneviev Bart, Petri Turhanen, Jorma Maatta, Jukka Monkkonen, Rashid Giniatullin
Pain is the most unbearable symptom accompanying primary bone cancers and bone metastases. Bone resorptive disorders are often associated with hypercalcemia contributing to the pathological process. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBP) are efficiently used to treat bone-cancers and metastases. NBP, apart from their toxic effect on cancer cells, also provide analgesia via poorly understood mechanisms. We have previously shown, that NBP, by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway, induced the formation of the novel ATP-analogues such as ApppI which can potentially be involved in NBP analgesia...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403143/a-novel-mechanism-of-cone-photoreceptor-adaptation
#7
Marcus H C Howlett, Robert G Smith, Maarten Kamermans
An animal's ability to survive depends on its sensory systems being able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, by maximizing the information extracted and reducing the noise transmitted. The visual system does this by adapting to luminance and contrast. While luminance adaptation can begin at the retinal photoreceptors, contrast adaptation has been shown to start at later stages in the retina. Photoreceptors adapt to changes in luminance over multiple time scales ranging from tens of milliseconds to minutes, with the adaptive changes arising from processes within the phototransduction cascade...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401750/the-ciliary-transition-zone-finding-the-pieces-and-assembling-the-gate
#8
João Gonçalves, Laurence Pelletier
Eukaryotic cilia are organelles that project from the surface of cells to fulfill motility and sensory functions. In vertebrates, the functions of both motile and immotile cilia are critical for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Importantly, a multitude of human diseases is caused by abnormal cilia biogenesis and functions which rely on the compartmentalization of the cilium and the maintenance of its protein composition. The transition zone (TZ) is a specialized ciliary domain present at the base of the cilium and is part of a gate that controls protein entry and exit from this organelle...
April 12, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400266/eeg-mu-%C3%A2%C2%B5-rhythm-spectra-and-oscillatory-activity-differentiate-stuttering-from-non-stuttering-adults
#9
Tim Saltuklaroglu, Ashley W Harkrider, David Thornton, David Jenson, Tiffani Kittilstved
Stuttering is linked to sensorimotor deficits related to internal modeling mechanisms. This study compared spectral power and oscillatory activity of EEG mu (μ) rhythms between persons who stutter (PWS) and controls in listening and auditory discrimination tasks. EEG data were analyzed from passive listening in noise and accurate (same/different) discrimination of tones or syllables in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Independent component analysis identified left and/or right μ rhythms with characteristic alpha (α) and beta (β) peaks localized to premotor/motor regions in 23 of 27 people who stutter (PWS) and 24 of 27 controls...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381558/gain-of-function-mutation-of-a-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nav1-7-associated-with-peripheral-pain-and-impaired-limb-development
#10
Brian S Tanaka, Phuong T Nguyen, Eray Yihui Zhou, Yong Yang, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Stephen G Waxman
Dominant mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 cause inherited erythromelalgia (IEM), a debilitating pain disorder characterized by severe burning pain and redness of the distal extremities. NaV1.7 is preferentially expressed within peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons. Here, we describe a novel NaV1.7 mutation in an 11-year old male with under-development of the limbs, recurrent attacks of burning pain with erythema and swelling in his feet and hands. Frequency and duration of the episodes gradually increased with age and relief by cooling became less effective...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364174/primate-beta-oscillations-and-rhythmic-behaviors
#11
REVIEW
Hugo Merchant, Ramón Bartolo
The study of non-human primates in complex behaviors such as rhythm perception and entrainment is critical to understand the neurophysiological basis of human cognition. Next to reviewing the role of beta oscillations in human beat perception, here we discuss the role of primate putaminal oscillatory activity in the control of rhythmic movements that are guided by a sensory metronome or internally gated. The analysis of the local field potentials of the behaving macaques showed that gamma-oscillations reflect local computations associated with stimulus processing of the metronome, whereas beta-activity involves the entrainment of large putaminal circuits, probably in conjunction with other elements of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, during internally driven rhythmic tapping...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363781/hyperpolarization-activated-current-ih-in-mouse-trigeminal-sensory-neurons-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-familial-hemiplegic-migraine-type-1
#12
Francesca Eroli, Sandra Vilotti, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Andrea Nistri
Transgenic knock-in (KI) mice that express CaV2.1 channels containing an R192Q gain-of-function mutation in the α1A subunit known to cause familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 in patients, exhibit key disease characteristics and provide a useful tool to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms of pain transduction. Previously, KI trigeminal sensory neurons were shown to exhibit constitutive hyperexcitability due to up-regulation of ATP-gated P2X3 receptors that trigger spike activity at a more negative threshold...
March 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362415/physiological-preparation-of-hair-cells-from-the-sacculus-of-the-american-bullfrog-rana-catesbeiana
#13
Julien B Azimzadeh, Joshua D Salvi
The study of hearing and balance rests upon insights drawn from biophysical studies of model systems. One such model, the sacculus of the American bullfrog, has become a mainstay of auditory and vestibular research. Studies of this organ have revealed how sensory cells hair can actively detect signals from the environment. Because of these studies, we now better understand the mechanical gating and localization of a hair cell's transduction channels, calcium's role in mechanical adaptation, and the identity of hair cell currents...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350294/mechanotransduction-current-is-essential-for-stability-of-the-transducing-stereocilia-in-mammalian-auditory-hair-cells
#14
A Catalina Vélez-Ortega, Mary J Freeman, Artur A Indzhykulian, Jonathan M Grossheim, Gregory I Frolenkov
Mechanotransducer channels at the tips of sensory stereocilia of inner ear hair cells are gated by the tension of 'tip links' interconnecting stereocilia. To ensure maximal sensitivity, tip links are tensioned at rest, resulting in a continuous influx of Ca(2+) into the cell. Here we show that this constitutive Ca(2+) influx, usually considered as potentially deleterious for hair cells, is in fact essential for stereocilia stability. In the auditory hair cells of young postnatal mice and rats, a reduction in mechanotransducer current, via pharmacological channel blockers or disruption of tip links, leads to stereocilia shape changes and shortening...
March 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348394/the-g2a-receptor-gpr132-contributes-to-oxaliplatin-induced-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity
#15
Stephan W Hohmann, Carlo Angioni, Sorin Tunaru, Seungkyu Lee, Clifford J Woolf, Stefan Offermanns, Gerd Geisslinger, Klaus Scholich, Marco Sisignano
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain (CIPN) is a common and severe debilitating side effect of many widely used cytostatics. However, there is no approved pharmacological treatment for CIPN available. Among other substances, oxaliplatin causes CIPN in up to 80% of treated patients. Here, we report the involvement of the G-protein coupled receptor G2A (GPR132) in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in mice. We found that mice deficient in the G2A-receptor show decreased mechanical hypersensitivity after oxaliplatin treatment...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#16
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338073/veratridine-produces-distinct-calcium-response-profiles-in-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#17
Zainab A Mohammed, Ciara Doran, David Grundy, Mohammed A Nassar
Nociceptors are a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that detect noxious stimuli and signal pain. Veratridine (VTD) is a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) modifier that is used as an "agonist" in functional screens for VGSC blockers. However, there is very little information on VTD response profiles in DRG neurons and how they relate to neuronal subtypes. Here we characterised VTD-induced calcium responses in cultured mouse DRG neurons. Our data shows that the heterogeneity of VTD responses reflects distinct subpopulations of sensory neurons...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334857/co-cultures-with-stem-cell-derived-human-sensory-neurons-reveal-regulators-of-peripheral-myelination
#18
Alex J Clark, Malte S Kaller, Jorge Galino, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi, David L H Bennett
See Saporta and Shy (doi:10.1093/awx048) for a scientific commentary on this article.Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301742/microbial-rhodopsins-diversity-mechanisms-and-optogenetic-applications
#19
Elena G Govorunova, Oleg A Sineshchekov, Hai Li, John L Spudich
Microbial rhodopsins are a family of photoactive retinylidene proteins widespread throughout the microbial world. They are notable for their diversity of function, using variations of a shared seven-transmembrane helix design and similar photochemical reactions to carry out distinctly different light-driven energy and sensory transduction processes. Their study has contributed to our understanding of how evolution modifies protein scaffolds to create new protein chemistry, and their use as tools to control membrane potential with light is fundamental to optogenetics for research and clinical applications...
March 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294462/disruption-of-white-matter-structural-integrity-and-connectivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-tbss-and-tractography-study
#20
Elizabeth A Olson, Jiaolong Cui, Rena Fukunaga, Lisa D Nickerson, Scott L Rauch, Isabelle M Rosso
BACKGROUND: Most studies of brain white matter (WM) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused on combat trauma, and often were confounded by neurological and substance dependence comorbidity. This study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography to characterize WM microstructure in a mixed-sex community sample of PTSD patients exposed to diverse and multiple traumas, and in trauma-exposed normal comparison (TENC) subjects. METHODS: TBSS compared diffusion measures between 20 adults with DSM-IV PTSD and 17 TENC, using a whole-brain voxel-wise approach...
March 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
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