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Sensory gating

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326172/diversity-and-connectivity-of-layer-5-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#1
Nigro Maximiliano José, Yoshiko Hashikawa, Bernardo Rudy
Inhibitory interneurons represent 10-15% of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex, and their activity powerfully shapes sensory processing. Three major groups of GABAergic interneurons have been defined according to developmental, molecular, morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic features. Dendritic-targeting somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) have been shown to display diverse morphological, electrophysiological and molecular properties and activity patterns in vivo. However, the correlation between these properties and SST-IN subtype is unclear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325873/auditory-sensory-gating-predicts-acceptable-noise-level
#2
Sharon E Miller, Kaci Wathen, Elizabeth Cash, Teresa Pitts, Lynzee Cornell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319456/comt-genotype-and-sensory-and-sensorimotor-gating-in-high-and-low-hypnotizable-subjects
#3
Zinaida I Storozheva, Anna V Kirenskaya, Mikhail N Gordeev, Maria E Kovaleva, Vladimir Yu Novototsky-Vlasov
We investigated the association between hypnotizability, COMT polymorphism, P50 suppression ratio, and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (ASR) in 21 high (HH) and 19 low (LH) hypnotizable subjects. The frequency of Met/Met carriers of COMT polymorphysm was higher in HH than in LH group (33.3% versus 10.6%, p = .049). Increased ASR amplitude and latency and decreased prepulse inhibition at 120 ms lead interval were found in the HH compared to the LH group. The effect of COMT genotype on prepulse inhibition was observed in LH group only...
January 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311674/the-gating-mechanism-in-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-ion-channels
#4
Monica Mazzolini, Manuel Arcangeletti, Arin Marchesi, Luisa M R Napolitano, Debora Grosa, Sourav Maity, Claudio Anselmi, Vincent Torre
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels mediate transduction in several sensory neurons. These channels use the free energy of CNs' binding to open the pore, a process referred to as gating. CNG channels belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated channels, where the motion of the α-helix S6 controls gating in most of its members. To date, only the open, cGMP-bound, structure of a CNG channel has been determined at atomic resolution, which is inadequate to determine the molecular events underlying gating. By using electrophysiology, site-directed mutagenesis, chemical modification, and Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy, we demonstrate that opening of CNGA1 channels is initiated by the formation of salt bridges between residues in the C-linker and S5 helix...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306662/ciguatoxins-activate-the-calcineurin-signalling-pathway-in-yeasts-potential-for-development-of-an-alternative-detection-tool
#5
Hélène Martin-Yken, Camille Gironde, Sylvain Derick, Hélène Taiana Darius, Christophe Furger, Dominique Laurent, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are lipid-soluble polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Gambierdiscus spp. typically found in tropical and subtropical zones. This endemic area is however rapidly expanding due to environmental perturbations, and both toxic Gambierdiscus spp. and ciguatoxic fishes have been recently identified in the North Atlantic Ocean (Madeira and Canary islands) and Mediterranean Sea. Ciguatoxins bind to Voltage Gated Sodium Channels on the membranes of sensory neurons, causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in humans, a disease characterized by a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological, neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290549/cholinergic-sensorimotor-integration-regulates-olfactory-steering
#6
He Liu, Wenxing Yang, Taihong Wu, Fengyun Duan, Edward Soucy, Xin Jin, Yun Zhang
Sensorimotor integration regulates goal-directed movements. We study the signaling mechanisms underlying sensorimotor integration in C. elegans during olfactory steering, when the sinusoidal movements of the worm generate an in-phase oscillation in the concentration of the sampled odorant. We show that cholinergic neurotransmission encodes the oscillatory sensory response and the motor state of head undulations by acting through an acetylcholine-gated channel and a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288046/taar5-receptor-agonist-affects-sensory-gating-in-rats
#7
Aleksander A Aleksandrov, Elena S Dmitrieva, Anna B Volnova, Veronika M Knyazeva, Andrey S Gerasimov, Raul R Gainetdinov
Trace amines are structurally close to classical monoamines and dysregulation in trace amines and/or their receptors might contribute to pathology of mental disorders. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of recently identified Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 5 (TAAR5) agonist 2-(alpha-naphthoyl)ethyltrimethylammonium iodide (alpha-NETA) on sensory gating (SG) in awake freely moving rats. SG was studied in paired-click paradigm and SG index was calculated as difference in event related potentials component N40 amplitudes to the first and second stimulus in the pair...
December 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286627/incorporating-electron-deficient-bipyridinium-chromorphores-to-make-multiresponsive-metal-organic-frameworks
#8
Ning-Ning Yang, Jia-Jia Fang, Qi Sui, En-Qing Gao
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are versatile platforms to design switchable and sensory materials responsive to external stimulus. Copuling the electron-deficient bipyridinium chromorphore with the pore structures of MOFs is a nice strategy to design multiresponsive MOFs. Here we present a proof-of-concept study. Postsynthetic N,N'-cycloalkylation of UiO-67-bpy (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) leads to a novel ionic MOF (UiO-67-DQ) functionalized by the electron-deficient diquat (DQ) chromophore. The combination of porosity, cationic character and electron deficiency imparts UiO-67-DQ with versatile responsive properties...
December 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259539/the-contribution-of-l-type-cav1-3-channels-to-retinal-light-responses
#9
Liheng Shi, Janet Ya-An Chang, Fei Yu, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) regulate tonic neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons including retinal photoreceptors. There are three types of LTCCs (Cav1.2, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4) expressed in the retina. While Cav1.2 is expressed in all retinal cells including the Müller glia and neurons, Cav1.3 and Cav1.4 are expressed in the retinal neurons with Cav1.4 exclusively expressed in the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Mutations in the gene encoding Cav1.4 cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242894/gated-word-recognition-by-postlingually-deafened-adults-with-cochlear-implants-influence-of-semantic-context
#10
Chhayakanta Patro, Lisa Lucks Mendel
Purpose: The main goal of this study was to investigate the minimum amount of sensory information required to recognize spoken words (isolation points [IPs]) in listeners with cochlear implants (CIs) and investigate facilitative effects of semantic contexts on the IPs. Method: Listeners with CIs as well as those with normal hearing (NH) participated in the study. In Experiment 1, the CI users listened to unprocessed (full-spectrum) stimuli and individuals with NH listened to full-spectrum or vocoder processed speech...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229553/human-vs-mouse-nociceptors-similarities-and-differences
#11
Charlotte Rostock, Katrin Schrenk-Siemens, Jörg Pohle, Jan Siemens
The somatosensory system allows us to detect a diverse range of physical and chemical stimuli including noxious ones, which can initiate protective reflexes to prevent tissue damage. However, the sensation of pain can -under pathological circumstances- outlive its usefulness and perpetrate ongoing suffering. Rodent model systems have been tremendously useful to help understand basic mechanisms of pain perception. Unfortunately, the translation of this knowledge into novel therapies has been challenging. We have investigated similarities and differences of human and mouse peptidergic (TRKA expressing) nociceptors using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization of dorsal root ganglia...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225040/differential-neuromodulatory-role-of-endocannabinoids-in-the-rodent-trigeminal-sensory-ganglion-and-cerebral-cortex-relevant-to-pain-processing
#12
Francesca Eroli, Inge C M Loonen, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Else A Tolner, Andrea Nistri
Endocannabinoids are suggested to control pain, even though their clinical use is not fully validated and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. To clarify the targets of endocannabinoid actions, we studied how activation of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) affects neuronal responses in two in vitro preparations of rodents, namely the trigeminal sensory ganglion (TG) in culture and a coronal slice of the cerebral cortex. On TG small-medium size neurons, we tested whether submicromolar concentrations of the endogenous CB1R agonist anandamide (AEA) modulated inhibitory GABAA receptors and excitatory ATP-gated P2X3 receptors...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224725/ror%C3%AE-spinal-interneurons-gate-sensory-transmission-during-locomotion-to-secure-a-fluid-walking-gait
#13
Stephanie C Koch, Marta Garcia Del Barrio, Antoine Dalet, Graziana Gatto, Thomas Günther, Jingming Zhang, Barbara Seidler, Dieter Saur, Roland Schüle, Martyn Goulding
Animals depend on sensory feedback from mechanosensory afferents for the dynamic control of movement. This sensory feedback needs to be selectively modulated in a task- and context-dependent manner. Here, we show that inhibitory interneurons (INs) expressing the RORβ orphan nuclear receptor gate sensory feedback to the spinal motor system during walking and are required for the production of a fluid locomotor rhythm. Genetic manipulations that abrogate inhibitory RORβ IN function result in an ataxic gait characterized by exaggerated flexion movements and marked alterations to the step cycle...
December 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217640/lipid-bilayer-mediates-ion-channel-cooperativity-in-a-model-of-hair-cell-mechanotransduction
#14
Francesco Gianoli, Thomas Risler, Andrei S Kozlov
Mechanoelectrical transduction in the inner ear is a biophysical process underlying the senses of hearing and balance. The key players involved in this process are mechanosensitive ion channels. They are located in the stereocilia of hair cells and opened by the tension in specialized molecular springs, the tip links, connecting adjacent stereocilia. When channels open, the tip links relax, reducing the hair-bundle stiffness. This gating compliance makes hair cells especially sensitive to small stimuli. The classical explanation for the gating compliance is that the conformational rearrangement of a single channel directly shortens the tip link...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216222/cortical-computations-via-transient-attractors
#15
Oliver L C Rourke, Daniel A Butts
The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213241/interaction-of-purinergic-p2x4-and-p2x7-receptor-subunits
#16
Markus Schneider, Kirsten Prudic, Anja Pippel, Manuela Klapperstück, Ursula Braam, Christa E Müller, Günther Schmalzing, Fritz Markwardt
P2X4 and P2X7 are members of the P2X receptor family, comprising seven isoforms (P2X1-P2X7) that form homo- and heterotrimeric non-specific cation channels gated by extracellular ATP. P2X4 and P2X7 are widely coexpressed, particularly in secretory epithelial cells and immune and inflammatory cells, and regulate inflammation and nociception. Although functional heteromerization has been established for P2X2 and P2X3 subunits expressed in sensory neurons, there are contradictory reports regarding a functional interaction between P2X4 and P2X7 subunits...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210178/acute-exposure-to-high-induction-electromagnetic-field-affects-activity-of-model-peripheral-sensory-neurons
#17
Jaroslav Prucha, Jan Krusek, Ivan Dittert, Viktor Sinica, Anna Kadkova, Viktorie Vlachova
Exposure to repetitive low-frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) shows promise as a non-invasive approach to treat various sensory and neurological disorders. Despite considerable progress in the development of modern stimulation devices, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying their biological effects and potential targets at the cellular level. A significant impact of electromagnetic field on voltage-gated calcium channels and downstream signalling pathways has been convincingly demonstrated in many distinct cell types...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202656/clinical-and-cognitive-significance-of-auditory-sensory-processing-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#18
Holly K Hamilton, Terrance J Williams, Joseph Ventura, Leland J Jasperse, Emily M Owens, Gregory A Miller, Kenneth L Subotnik, Keith H Nuechterlein, Cindy M Yee
OBJECTIVE: Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired suppression of the P50 event-related brain potential in response to the second of two identical auditory stimuli during a paired-stimulus paradigm, uncertainty remains over whether this deficit in inhibitory gating of auditory sensory processes has relevance for patients' clinical symptoms or cognitive performance. The authors examined associations between P50 suppression deficits and several core features of schizophrenia to address this gap...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198756/cav2-2-gates-calcium-independent-but-voltage-dependent-secretion-in-mammalian-sensory-neurons
#19
Zuying Chai, Changhe Wang, Rong Huang, Yuan Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qihui Wu, Yeshi Wang, Xi Wu, Lianghong Zheng, Chen Zhang, Wei Guo, Wei Xiong, Jiuping Ding, Feipeng Zhu, Zhuan Zhou
Action potential induces membrane depolarization and triggers intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+)-dependent secretion (CDS) via Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. We report a new type of somatic exocytosis triggered by the action potential per se-Ca2+-independent but voltage-dependent secretion (CiVDS)-in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Here we uncovered the molecular mechanism of CiVDS, comprising a voltage sensor, fusion machinery, and their linker. Specifically, the voltage-gated N-type Ca2+ channel (CaV2...
November 23, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197566/local-subcutaneous-injection-of-chlorogenic-acid-inhibits-the-nociceptive-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-neurons-in-rats
#20
Kaede Kakita, Hirona Tsubouchi, Mayu Adachi, Shiori Takehana, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Acute administration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in vitro was recently shown to modulate potassium channel conductance and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the primary sensory neurons; however, in vivo peripheral effects of CGA on the nociceptive mechanical stimulation of trigeminal neuronal activity remains to be determined. The present study investigated whether local administration of CGA in vivo attenuates mechanical stimulation-induced excitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis neuronal (SpVc) activity in rats...
November 29, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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