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Auditory cortex schizophrenia

Hironori Kuga, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Yoji Hirano, Itta Nakamura, Naoya Oribe, Hiroaki Mizuhara, Ryota Kanai, Shigenobu Kanba, Takefumi Ueno
Recent MRI studies have shown that schizophrenia is characterized by reductions in brain gray matter, which progress in the acute state of the disease. Cortical circuitry abnormalities in gamma oscillations, such as deficits in the auditory steady state response (ASSR) to gamma frequency (>30-Hz) stimulation, have also been reported in schizophrenia patients. In the current study, we investigated neural responses during click stimulation by BOLD signals. We acquired BOLD responses elicited by click trains of 20, 30, 40 and 80-Hz frequencies from 15 patients with acute episode schizophrenia (AESZ), 14 symptom-severity-matched patients with non-acute episode schizophrenia (NASZ), and 24 healthy controls (HC), assessed via a standard general linear-model-based analysis...
September 13, 2016: EBioMedicine
Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Vanessa A Palzes, Daniel H Mathalon
Perceptional abnormalities in schizophrenia are associated with hallucinations and delusions, but also with negative symptoms and poor functional outcome. Perception can be studied using EEG-derived event related potentials (ERPs). Because of their excellent temporal resolution, ERPs have been used to ask when perception is affected by schizophrenia. Because of its excellent spatial resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to ask where in the brain these effects are seen. We acquired EEG and fMRI data simultaneously to explore when and where auditory perception is affected by schizophrenia...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Christoph Metzner, Achim Schweikard, Bartosz Zurowski
Despite a significant increase in efforts to identify biomarkers and endophenotypic measures of psychiatric illnesses, only a very limited amount of computational models of these markers and measures has been implemented so far. Moreover, existing computational models dealing with biomarkers typically only examine one possible mechanism in isolation, disregarding the possibility that other combinations of model parameters might produce the same network behavior (what has been termed "multifactoriality"). In this study we describe a step toward a computational instantiation of an endophenotypic finding for schizophrenia, namely the impairment of evoked auditory gamma and beta oscillations in schizophrenia...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Annick Razafimandimby, Pierre-Yves Hervé, Vincent Marzloff, Perrine Brazo, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Sonia Dollfus
BACKGROUND: Functional brain imaging research has already demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia had difficulties with emotion processing, namely in facial emotion perception and emotional prosody. However, the moderating effect of social context and the boundary of perceptual categories of emotion attribution remain unclear. This study investigated the neural bases of emotional sentence attribution in schizophrenia. METHODS: Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy subjects underwent an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm including two tasks: one to classify sentences according to their emotional content, and the other to classify neutral sentences according to their grammatical person...
September 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Joseph J Shaffer, Michael J Peterson, Mary Agnes McMahon, Joshua Bizzell, Vince Calhoun, Theo G M van Erp, Judith M Ford, John Lauriello, Kelvin O Lim, Dara S Manoach, Sarah C McEwen, Daniel H Mathalon, Daniel O'Leary, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, Jessica Turner, Jim Voyvodic, Cynthia G Wible, Aysenil Belger
BACKGROUND: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia include deficits in emotional expression and motivation. These deficits are stable over the course of illness and respond poorly to current medications. Previous studies have focused on negative symptoms as a single category; however, individual symptoms might be related to separate neurological disturbances. We analyzed data from the Functional Biomedical Informatics Research Network dataset to explore the relationship between individual negative symptoms and functional brain activity during an auditory oddball task...
December 2015: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Lynn Mørch-Johnsen, Ragnar Nesvåg, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Elisabeth H Lange, Cecilie B Hartberg, Unn K Haukvik, Kristiina Kompus, René Westerhausen, Kåre Osnes, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Kenneth Hugdahl, Ingrid Agartz
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between smaller auditory cortex volume and auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia. Reduced cortical volume can result from a reduction of either cortical thickness or cortical surface area, which may reflect different neuropathology. We investigate for the first time how thickness and surface area of the auditory cortex relate to AH in a large sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients. METHODS: Schizophrenia spectrum (n = 194) patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging...
September 7, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sarah M Haigh, Brian A Coffman, Timothy K Murphy, Christiana D Butera, Dean F Salisbury
Mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to deviation from physical sound parameters (e.g., pitch, duration) is reduced in individuals with long-term schizophrenia (Sz), suggesting deficits in deviance detection. However, MMN can appear at several time intervals as part of deviance detection. Understanding which part of the processing stream is abnormal in Sz is crucial for understanding MMN pathophysiology. We measured MMN to complex pattern deviants, which have been shown to produce multiple MMNs in healthy controls (HC)...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Amity E Green, Rodney J Croft, Jerome J Maller, Paul B Fitzgerald
Episodic memory (EM) impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are predictive of functional outcome and are a potential endophenotype of the disorder. The current study investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of EM encoding and retrieval in SZ with structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in 22 patients with SZ and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to investigate microstructural alterations in white matter (WM), while FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine abnormalities in grey matter (GM) and WM volumetrics and cortical thickness...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Michael Didriksen, Kim Fejgin, Simon R O Nilsson, Michelle R Birknow, Hannah M Grayton, Peter H Larsen, Jes B Lauridsen, Vibeke Nielsen, Pau Celada, Noemi Santana, Pekka Kallunki, Kenneth V Christensen, Thomas M Werge, Tine B Stensbøl, Jan Egebjerg, Francois Gastambide, Francesc Artigas, Jesper F Bastlund, Jacob Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The hemizygous 22q11.2 microdeletion is a common copy number variant in humans. The deletion confers high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Up to 41% of deletion carriers experience psychotic symptoms. METHODS: We present a new mouse model (Df(h22q11)/+) of the deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and report on, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive study undertaken to date in 22q11.2DS models. The study was conducted in male mice...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jonas Thelin, Pär Halje, Jacob Nielsen, Michael Didriksen, Per Petersson, Jesper F Bastlund
AIM: To date, the understanding and development of novel treatments for mental illness is hampered by inadequate animal models. For instance, it is unclear to what extent commonly used behavioural tests in animals can inform us on the mental and affective aspects of schizophrenia. METHODS: In order to link pathophysiological processes in an animal model to clinical findings, we have here utilized the recently developed Df(h15q13)/+ mouse model for detailed investigations of cortical neuronal engagement during pre-attentive processing of auditory information from two back-translational auditory paradigms...
July 1, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Yadira Roa Romero, Julian Keil, Johanna Balz, Jürgen Gallinat, Daniel Senkowski
Our brain generates predictions about forthcoming stimuli and compares predicted with incoming input. Failures in predicting events might contribute to hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia (SZ). When a stimulus violates prediction, neural activity that reflects prediction error (PE) processing is found. While PE processing deficits have been reported in unisensory paradigms, it is unknown whether SZ patients (SZP) show altered crossmodal PE processing. We measured high-density electroencephalography and applied source estimation approaches to investigate crossmodal PE processing generated by audiovisual speech...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Koji Inui, Kei Nakagawa, Makoto Nishihara, Eishi Motomura, Ryusuke Kakigi
Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observed by inserting a weak (5 dB increase for 1 ms) prepulse...
2016: PloS One
Hiroshi Kimura, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masayuki Takase, Taisuke Yoshida, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Masaomi Iyo
Chronic auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in patients with schizophrenia are sometimes resistant to standard pharmacotherapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may be a promising treatment modality for AVHs, but the best protocol has yet to be identified. We used a double-blind randomized sham-controlled design aimed at 30 patients (active group N=16 vs. sham group N=14) with chronic AVHs that persisted regardless of adequate pharmacotherapy. The protocol was a total of four sessions of high-frequency (20-Hz) rTMS targeting the left temporoparietal cortex over 2 days (total 10,400 stimulations) administered to each patient...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Motomu Suga, Yukika Nishimura, Yuki Kawakubo, Masato Yumoto, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and its magnetoencephalographic (MEG) counterpart (MMNm) are an established biological index in schizophrenia research. MMN in response to duration and frequency deviants may have differential relevance to the pathophysiology and clinical stages of schizophrenia. MEG has advantage in that it almost purely detects MMNm arising from the auditory cortex. However, few previous MEG studies on schizophrenia have simultaneously assessed MMNm in response to duration and frequency deviants or examined the effect of chronicity on the group difference...
July 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Walter Dunn, Yuri Rassovsky, Jonathan K Wynn, Allan D Wu, Marco Iacoboni, Gerhard Hellemann, Michael F Green
This study used bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to target neural generators of auditory Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and oddball P300 in schizophrenia patients. tDCS was applied to the pre-frontal cortex in a parallel between-group design. There was a significant main effect of stimulation resulting in modulation of MMN amplitude. This effect was mainly driven by a non-significant, but large, effect-size decrease in MMN amplitude with anodal stimulation. This is the first study to demonstrate that tDCS is able to engage and modulate an EEG-based auditory processing measure in schizophrenia...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Natalia Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Alexander Sartorius, Robert Becker, Michael Didriksen, Tine Bryan Stensbøl, Jesper Frank Bastlund, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Adam J Schwarz
The 15q13.3 microdeletion copy number variation is strongly associated with schizophrenia and epilepsy. The CHRNA7 gene, encoding nicotinic acetylcholine alpha 7 receptors (nAChA7Rs), is hypothesized to be one of the main genes in this deletion causing the neuropsychiatric phenotype. Here we used a recently developed 15q13.3 microdeletion mouse model to explore whether an established schizophrenia-associated connectivity phenotype is replicated in a murine model, and whether positive modulation of nAChA7 receptor might pharmacologically normalize the connectivity patterns...
July 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Miriam S Dyck, Krystyna A Mathiak, Susanne Bergert, Pegah Sarkheil, Yury Koush, Eliza M Alawi, Mikhail Zvyagintsev, Arnim J Gaebler, Sukhi S Shergill, Klaus Mathiak
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients' emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF) emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region - even in patients with schizophrenia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Long-Biao Cui, Kang Liu, Chen Li, Liu-Xian Wang, Fan Guo, Ping Tian, Yu-Jing Wu, Li Guo, Wen-Ming Liu, Yi-Bin Xi, Hua-Ning Wang, Hong Yin
OBJECTIVE: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ). Cerebral dysfunction may represent pathophysiological underpinnings behind AVHs in SZ. However, regional and network functional deficits for AVHs in SZ remain to be identified. METHODS: Seventeen medication-naïve first-episode SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were studied using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2016: Schizophrenia Research
J Zhang, L Ma, W Li, P Yang, L Qin
As disturbance in auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been consistently found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, there is considerable interest in the development of translational rat models to elucidate the underlying neural and neurochemical mechanisms involved in ASSR. This is the first study to investigate the effects of the non-selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (also in combination with scopolamine) on ASSR...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
You Xu, Hao Chai, Bingren Zhang, Qianqian Gao, Hongying Fan, Leilei Zheng, Hongjing Mao, Yonghua Zhang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: The exact cerebral structural and functional mechanisms under the auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia are still unclear. The Deutsch "high-low" word illusion might trigger attentional responses mimicking those under AVHs. METHODS: We therefore have invited 16 patients with first-episode, paranoid schizophrenia, and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers to undergo the "oddball" event-related potentials elicited by the illusion...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
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