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Auditory cortex schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866447/efficacy-of-fronto-temporal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-refractory-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-double-blind-sham-controlled-study
#1
Anushree Bose, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Sunil V Kalmady, Sonia Shenoy, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) that are refractory to antipsychotic medications are reported in about 20-30% of schizophrenia patients. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive and safe neuromodulatory technique, has attracted significant interest as an add-on treatment for refractory AVH in schizophrenia. Studies examining the efficacy of tDCS for refractory AVH in schizophrenia have reported inconsistent findings. In this study, using a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design (RCT), we sought to examine the effect of add-on tDCS [anode corresponding to left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode to left temporo-parietal junction; 2-mA, twice-daily sessions for 5-days] to treat refractory AVH in schizophrenia patients (N=25); following this RCT phase, patients that had <30% reduction in AVH severity were offered an open-label extension (OLE) active stimulation to evaluate the effect of cross-over to verum tDCS...
August 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779851/a-tale-of-two-sites-differential-impairment-of-frequency-and-duration-mismatch-negativity-across-a-primarily-inpatient-versus-a-primarily-outpatient-site-in-schizophrenia
#2
Migyung Lee, Pejman Sehatpour, Elisa C Dias, Gail S Silipo, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Antigona M Martinez, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the best replicated neurophysiological deficits in schizophrenia, with reduced amplitude reflecting impaired information processing at the level of supratemporal auditory cortex. Differential patterns of MMN dysfunction according to deviant types have been reported across studies, with some research groups showing impairment in duration MMN but not frequency MMN, and other research groups reporting both findings. We evaluate the hypothesis that recruitment setting, reflecting current functional status, might be an important determinant of the pattern of MMN dysfunction...
August 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687908/the-effect-of-bilateral-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-early-auditory-processing-in-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study
#3
Walter Dunn, Yuri Rassovsky, Jonathan Wynn, Allan D Wu, Marco Iacoboni, Gerhard Hellemann, Michael F Green
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied bilaterally over the auditory cortex in 12 schizophrenia patients to modulate early auditory processing. Performance on a tone discrimination task (tone-matching task-TMT) and auditory mismatch negativity were assessed after counterbalanced anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS. Cathodal stimulation improved TMT performance (p < 0.03) compared to sham condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a stimulation condition by negative symptom interaction in which greater negative symptoms were associated with a better TMT performance after anodal tDCS...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666633/mismatch-negativity-as-a-biomarker-of-theta-band-oscillatory-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#4
Daniel C Javitt, Migyung Lee, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Antigona Martinez
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is among the best established biomarkers of cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. MMN generators are localized primarily to primary and secondary auditory regions, and are known to reflect activity mediated by cortical N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR). Nevertheless, mechanisms underlying MMN generation at the local circuit level remain incompletely understood. This review synthesizes recent advances in circuit-level conceptualization of MMN based upon neuro-oscillatory findings...
June 27, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619471/oral-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-intake-produces-distinct-and-region-specific-increase-in-cannabinoid-receptor-levels-that-is-prevented-by-high-fat-diet
#5
Foteini Delis, Lauren Rosko, Aditya Shroff, Kenneth E Leonard, Panayotis K Thanos
Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1...
June 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560268/learning-stable-and-predictive-network-based-patterns-of-schizophrenia-and-its-clinical-symptoms
#6
Mina Gheiratmand, Irina Rish, Guillermo A Cecchi, Matthew R G Brown, Russell Greiner, Pablo I Polosecki, Pouya Bashivan, Andrew J Greenshaw, Rajamannar Ramasubbu, Serdar M Dursun
Schizophrenia is often associated with disrupted brain connectivity. However, identifying specific neuroimaging-based patterns pathognomonic for schizophrenia and related symptom severity remains a challenging open problem requiring large-scale data-driven analyses emphasizing not only statistical significance but also stability across multiple datasets, contexts and cohorts. Accurate prediction on previously unseen subjects, or generalization, is also essential for any useful biomarker of schizophrenia. In order to build a predictive model based on functional network feature patterns, we studied whole-brain fMRI functional networks, both at the voxel level and lower-resolution supervoxel level...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556775/glutamatergic-deficit-and-schizophrenia-like-negative-symptoms-new-evidence-from-ketamine-induced-mismatch-negativity-alterations-in-healthy-male-humans
#7
Stephanie Thiebes, Gregor Leicht, Stjepan Curic, Saskia Steinmann, Nenad Polomac, Christina Andreou, Iris Eichler, Lars Eichler, Christian Zöllner, Jürgen Gallinat, Ileana Hanganu-Opatz, Christoph Mulert
BACKGROUND: Targeting the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a major translational approach for treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Ketamine comprehensively produces schizophrenia-like symptoms, such as positive, cognitive and negative symptoms in healthy volunteers. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be significantly reduced not only in patients with schizophrenia, but also in healthy controls receiving ketamine. Accordingly, it was the aim of the present study to investigate whether changes of MMN amplitudes during ketamine administration are associated with the emergence of schizophrenia-like negative symptoms in healthy volunteers...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546056/glutamate-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-1-h-mrs-study
#8
Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, Leonie Bais, Anita Sibeijn-Kuiper, Hendrika Maria Pijnenborg, Henderikus Knegtering, Edith Liemburg, André Aleman
PURPOSE: Glutamatergic models of psychosis propose that dysfunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and associated excess of glutamate, may underlie psychotic experiences in people with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the specific relation between glutamate and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with psychosis. In this study, levels of glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the left lateral prefrontal lobe were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to calculate their association with AVH...
May 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532686/mismatch-negativity-mmn-to-spatial-deviants-and-behavioral-spatial-discrimination-ability-in-the-etiology-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia
#9
Megan A Perrin, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Gail Silipo, Elisa Dias, Omar Jabado, Daniel C Javitt
Persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are increasingly tied to dysfunction at the level of auditory cortex. AVH may reflect in part misattribution of internally generated thoughts to external spatial locations. Here, we investigated the association between persistent AVH and spatial localization abilities assessed both behaviorally and by mismatch negativity (MMN) to location deviants. METHODS: Spatial- and tonal- discrimination abilities were assessed in patients (n=20) and controls (n=20) using free-field tones...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516807/neurofeedback-based-enhancement-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-feasibility-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Kathryn Rieger, Marie-Helene Rarra, Nicolas Moor, Laura Diaz Hernandez, Anja Baenninger, Nadja Razavi, Thomas Dierks, Daniela Hubl, Thomas Koenig
Previous studies showed a global reduction of the event-related potential component N100 in patients with schizophrenia, a phenomenon that is even more pronounced during auditory verbal hallucinations. This reduction assumingly results from dysfunctional activation of the primary auditory cortex by inner speech, which reduces its responsiveness to external stimuli. With this study, we tested the feasibility of enhancing the responsiveness of the primary auditory cortex to external stimuli with an upregulation of the event-related potential component N100 in healthy control subjects...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424401/-the-map-of-auditory-function
#11
So Fujimoto, Yutaka Komura
Brodmann areas 41 and 42 are located in the superior temporal gyrus and regarded as auditory cortices. The fundamental function in audition is frequency analysis; however, the findings on tonotopy maps of the human auditory cortex were not unified until recently when they were compared to the findings on inputs and outputs of the monkey auditory cortex. The auditory cortex shows plasticity after conditioned learning and surgery of cochlear implant. It is also involved in speech perception, music appreciation, and auditory hallucination in schizophrenia through interactions with other brain areas, such as the thalamus, frontal cortex, and limbic systems...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359200/selective-loss-of-smaller-spines-in-schizophrenia
#12
Matthew L MacDonald, Jamil Alhassan, Jason T Newman, Michelle Richard, Hong Gu, Ryan M Kelly, Alan R Sampson, Kenneth N Fish, Peter Penzes, Zachary P Wills, David A Lewis, Robert A Sweet
OBJECTIVE: Decreased density of dendritic spines in adult schizophrenia subjects has been hypothesized to result from increased pruning of excess synapses in adolescence. In vivo imaging studies have confirmed that synaptic pruning is largely driven by the loss of large or mature synapses. Thus, increased pruning throughout adolescence would likely result in a deficit of large spines in adulthood. Here, the authors examined the density and volume of dendritic spines in deep layer 3 of the auditory cortex of 20 schizophrenia and 20 matched comparison subjects as well as aberrant voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression linked to spine loss...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339164/are-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders-dissociable-on-the-basis-of-neuroimaging-morphological-findings-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis
#13
Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Andrea Nani, Luciano Fava, Sara Palermo, Francesca Bianco, Sergio Duca, Karina Tatu, Roberto Keller
Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD) are considered as three separate psychiatric conditions with, supposedly, different brain alterations patterns. From a neuroimaging perspective, this meta-analytic study aimed to address whether this nosographical differentiation is actually supported by different brain patterns of gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) morphological alterations. We explored two possibilities: (a) to find out whether GM alterations are specific for SCZD, ASD, and OCSD; and (b) to associate the identified brain alteration patterns with cognitive dysfunctions by means of an analysis of lesion decoding...
June 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291864/sex-specific-cognitive-abnormalities-in-early-onset-psychosis
#14
Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Josefa Moreno-Granados, Maria D Salcedo-Marin, Maria L Barrigon, Maria J Blanco-Morales, Evelio Igunza, Anselmo Cañabate, Maria D Garcia, Teresa Guijarro, Francisco Diaz-Atienza, Maite Ferrin
Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274168/resting-state-effective-connectivity-allows-auditory-hallucination-discrimination
#15
Manuel Graña, Leire Ozaeta, Darya Chyzhyk
Hallucinations are elusive phenomena that have been associated with psychotic behavior, but that have a high prevalence in healthy population. Some generative mechanisms of Auditory Hallucinations (AH) have been proposed in the literature, but so far empirical evidence is scarce. The most widely accepted generative mechanism hypothesis nowadays consists in the faulty workings of a network of brain areas including the emotional control, the audio and language processing, and the inhibition and self-attribution of the signals in the auditive cortex...
August 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224285/abnormal-effective-connectivity-in-the-brain-is-involved-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#16
Baojuan Li, Long-Biao Cui, Yi-Bin Xi, Karl J Friston, Fan Guo, Hua-Ning Wang, Lin-Chuan Zhang, Yuan-Han Bai, Qing-Rong Tan, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu
Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167837/neural-mechanisms-of-mismatch-negativity-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#17
M Lee, P Sehatpour, M J Hoptman, P Lakatos, E C Dias, J T Kantrowitz, A M Martinez, D C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits that reflect impaired cortical information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) indexes pre-attentive information processing dysfunction at the level of primary auditory cortex. This study investigates mechanisms underlying MMN impairments in schizophrenia using event-related potential, event-related spectral decomposition (ERSP) and resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) approaches. For this study, MMN data to frequency, intensity and duration-deviants were analyzed from 69 schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy controls...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139359/altered-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#18
Anna Alonso-Solís, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Maria J Portella, Mireia Rabella, Eva M Grasa, Alexandra Roldán, Alejandro Keymer-Gausset, Conrad Molins, Fidel Núñez-Marín, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Enric Alvarez, Iluminada Corripio
The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in low frequency fluctuation (LFF) values between schizophrenia patients with and without auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Nineteen schizophrenia patients with persistent AVH (HP), fourteen non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients (nHP) and twenty healthy controls (HC) underwent R-fMRI. LFF values were calculated in the slow frequency band (0.01-0.08Hz). By means of group level contrasts, we performed direct voxel-wise group comparisons. Both groups of patients showed decreased amplitude LFF (ALFF) values in the occipital pole and lingual gyrus compared to HC, whereas increased ALFF values were found in the temporal pole and fusifom gyrus...
January 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130005/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-with-and-without-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-a-preliminary-report
#19
Xiao Chang, Guusje Collin, Yibin Xi, Longbiao Cui, Lianne H Scholtens, Iris E Sommer, Huaning Wang, Hong Yin, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia that has been associated with activation in language processing areas, in concert with higher-order cognitive brain networks. It remains to be determined whether, and if so how, the functional dynamics between these brain regions contributes to the emergence of AVH. The current study recruited 36 first-episode medication-naïve schizophrenia patients, including 18 patients with AVH, 18 patients free of AVH and 18 controls matched on age, gender and level of education...
January 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125578/functional-connectivity-anomalies-in-adolescents-with-psychotic-symptoms
#20
Francesco Amico, Erik O'Hanlon, Dominik Kraft, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Mary Clarke, Ian Kelleher, Niamh Higgins, Helen Coughlan, Daniel Creegan, Mark Heneghan, Emmet Power, Lucy Power, Jessica Ryan, Thomas Frodl, Mary Cannon
BACKGROUND: Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research suggests that, prior to the onset of psychosis, high risk youths already exhibit brain abnormalities similar to those present in patients with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to describe the functional organization of endogenous activation in young adolescents who report auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in view of the "distributed network" hypothesis of psychosis. We recruited 20 young people aged 13-16 years who reported AVHs and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender and handedness from local schools...
2017: PloS One
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