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Telomere glia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24967945/shortened-telomere-length-in-white-matter-oligodendrocytes-in-major-depression-potential-role-of-oxidative-stress
#1
Attila Szebeni, Katalin Szebeni, Timothy DiPeri, Michelle J Chandley, Jessica D Crawford, Craig A Stockmeier, Gregory A Ordway
Telomere shortening is observed in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this finding and its biological causes impact the health of the brain in MDD is unknown. Brain cells have differing vulnerabilities to biological mechanisms known to play a role in accelerating telomere shortening. Here, two glia cell populations (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) known to have different vulnerabilities to a key mediator of telomere shortening, oxidative stress, were studied...
October 2014: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909307/molecular-targeting-of-trf2-suppresses-the-growth-and-tumorigenesis-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#2
Yun Bai, Justin D Lathia, Peisu Zhang, William Flavahan, Jeremy N Rich, Mark P Mattson
Glioblastoma is the most prevalent primary brain tumor and is essentially universally fatal within 2 years of diagnosis. Glioblastomas contain cellular hierarchies with self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) that are often resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. GSCs express high amounts of repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (REST), which may contribute to their resistance to standard therapies. Telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) stablizes telomeres and REST to maintain self-renewal of neural stem cells and tumor cells...
October 2014: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23061730/platelets-in-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-cellular-senescence-and-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Tiziana Casoli, Marta Balietti, Belinda Giorgetti, Moreno Solazzi, Osvaldo Scarpino, Patrizia Fattoretti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex degenerative disorder of the brain, associated with a progressive cognitive decline. Age is the main risk factor with almost half of the population above 90 years affected by this pathology. AD and brain aging share common molecular changes, so it has been hypothesized that AD could be a form of accelerated brain aging. In this context, senescenceassociated mechanisms could be a valuable target of investigation both to analyze the causes of this disease and to define therapeutic strategies...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18007617/retrovirally-mediated-telomerase-immortalization-of-neural-progenitor-cells
#4
Neeta S Roy, Devin Chandler-Militello, Gang Lu, Su Wang, Steven A Goldman
Traditional methods of generating immortalized lines of both somatic cells and their progenitors have relied on the use of oncogenes. However, the resulting lines are typically anaplastic in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo, and hence of limited utility. The overexpression of telomerase, as mediated by the induced overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), has permitted the generation of stable, non-oncogenic lines of a variety of cell types. This strategy for immortalization has found special utility in the central nervous system, as few stable lines are available for the study of either human neural progenitor cells, or of neurons or glia of restricted phenotype...
2007: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15142431/telomeres-shorten-with-age-in-rat-cerebellum-and-cortex-in-vivo
#5
Barry E Flanary, Wolfgang J Streit
Normal somatic cells have a finite replicative capacity. With each cell division, telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, progressively shorten until they reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter replicative senescence. Some cells maintain their telomeres by the action of the telomerase enzyme. Glia, particularly microglia, are the only adult cell type in the central nervous system (CNS) that exhibit a significant mitotic potential, and are thus susceptible to telomere shortening. Previous research in our laboratory has found that telomeres shorten in rat microglia with increasing time in vitro...
2003: Journal of Anti-aging Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14648548/progressive-telomere-shortening-occurs-in-cultured-rat-microglia-but-not-astrocytes
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Barry E Flanary, Wolfgang J Streit
Normal somatic cells have a finite replicative capacity. With each cell division, telomeres shorten progressively until they reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter replicative senescence. Some cells maintain their telomeres by the action of the telomerase enzyme. Glia, particularly microglia, are the only adult cell types in the central nervous system (CNS) that exhibit a significant mitotic potential, and are thus susceptible to telomere shortening. In this study, we show that telomere shortening accompanied by low to moderate telomerase activity, and ultimately senescence, occurs in rat microglia in vitro...
January 1, 2004: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11157166/lack-of-replicative-senescence-in-normal-rodent-glia
#7
N F Mathon, D S Malcolm, M C Harrisingh, L Cheng, A C Lloyd
Replicative senescence is thought to be an intrinsic mechanism for limiting the proliferative life-span of normal somatic cells. We show here that rat Schwann cells can be expanded indefinitely in culture while maintaining checkpoints normally lost during the immortalization process. These findings demonstrate that senescence is not an inevitable consequence of extended proliferation in culture.
February 2, 2001: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3219911/reproducible-compartmentalization-of-individual-chromosome-domains-in-human-cns-cells-revealed-by-in-situ-hybridization-and-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#8
L Manuelidis, J Borden
Specific chromosome domains in interphase nuclei of neurons and glia were studied by three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of serial optical sections from in situ hybridized human CNS tissue. Overall patterns of centromere organization, delineated with alphoid repeats, were comparable to those seen in mouse, and are clearly conserved in mammalian evolution. Cloned probes from other individual chromosome domains were used to define interphase organization more precisely. Homologous chromosomes were spatially separated in nuclei...
1988: Chromosoma
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