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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106399/-1-h-nmr-shows-slow-phospholipid-flip-flop-in-gel-and-fluid-bilayers
#1
Drew Marquardt, Frederick A Heberle, Tatiana Miti, Barbara Eicher, Erwin London, John Katsaras, Georg Pabst
We measured the transbilayer diffusion of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in large unilamellar vesicles in both the gel (Lβ') and fluid (Lα) phases. The choline resonance of headgroup-protiated DPPC exchanged into the outer leaflet of headgroup-deuterated DPPC-d13 vesicles was monitored using (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with the addition of a paramagnetic shift reagent. This allowed us to distinguish between the inner and outer leaflet DPPC, and determine the flip-flop rate as a function of temperature...
January 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104921/effects-of-gold-nanoparticles-on-lipid-packing-and-membrane-pore-formation
#2
Anupama Bhat, Lance W Edwards, Xiao Fu, Dillon L Badman, Samuel Huo, Albert J Jin, Qi Lu
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been increasingly integrated in biological systems, making it imperative to understand their interactions with cell membranes, the first barriers to be crossed to enter cells. Herein, liposomes composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) as a model membrane system were treated with citrate stabilized AuNPs from 5 to 30 nm at various concentrations. The fluorescence shifts of Laurdan probes reveal that AuNPs in general made liposomes more fluidic. The increased fluidity is expected to result in an increased surface area, and thus liposome shape changes from circular to less circular, which was further confirmed with fluorescence microscopy...
December 26, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100813/coral-calcifying-fluid-ph-is-modulated-by-seawater-carbonate-chemistry-not-solely-seawater-ph
#3
S Comeau, E Tambutté, R C Carpenter, P J Edmunds, N R Evensen, D Allemand, C Ferrier-Pagès, S Tambutté, A A Venn
Reef coral calcification depends on regulation of pH in the internal calcifying fluid (CF) in which the coral skeleton forms. However, little is known about calcifying fluid pH (pHCF) regulation, despite its importance in determining the response of corals to ocean acidification. Here, we investigate pHCF in the coral Stylophora pistillata in seawater maintained at constant pH with manipulated carbonate chemistry to alter dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and therefore total alkalinity (AT). We also investigate the intracellular pH of calcifying cells, photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates under the same conditions...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097305/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-a-review
#4
Olle Ljungqvist, Michael Scott, Kenneth C Fearon
Importance: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is a paradigm shift in perioperative care, resulting in substantial improvements in clinical outcomes and cost savings. Observations: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery is a multimodal, multidisciplinary approach to the care of the surgical patient. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery process implementation involves a team consisting of surgeons, anesthetists, an ERAS coordinator (often a nurse or a physician assistant), and staff from units that care for the surgical patient...
January 11, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094603/lethal-mechanisms-in-gastric-volvulus
#5
Kimberley J Omond, Roger W Byard
A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087976/the-role-of-diode-array-ultraviolet-detection-for-the-identification-of-synthetic-cathinones
#6
Walter F Rowe, Ioan Marginean, Stephanie Carnes, Ira S Lurie
The utility of diode array UV detection for aiding in the identification of synthetic cathinones, including different sub classes and positional isomers is presented. For 35 synthetic cathinones' unique UV spectra are obtained for seven sub classes including mostly beta ketones, where position and type of substitution on benzene rings give rise to differences in UV maxima and relative intensity of the spectral bands. This aspect is key to distinguishing positional isomers which contain differences in R substitution (mono and di) around the benzene ring, which provides complementary information to electron ionization mass spectrometry, where the latter technique cannot distinguish between these types of positional isomers...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087916/-a-case-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis-presenting-as-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#7
Zhan He, Fang Ding, Jiandong Rong, Yongli Gan
A 26-year-old male presented with a 6-day history of paroxysmal headache which was worsen with nausea and vomiting for 1 day. Head CT on admission revealed left chronic subdural hematoma with midline shift. An emergency Burr hole drainage for hematoma was performed. Headache recurred 6 days later. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse thickening and a gadolinium-enhancement of the falx, cranial dura mater and tentorium cerebelli on the left side with pia mater involved. Lumber puncture showed increased intracranial pressure and elevated IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081158/-i-do-not-take-my-medicine-while-hiding-a-longitudinal-qualitative-assessment-of-hiv-discordant-couples-beliefs-in-discordance-and-art-as-prevention-in-uganda
#8
Rachel King, Jiho Kim, Mastula Nanfuka, Murisho Shafic, Maureen Nyonyitono, Florence Galenda, David Moore
BACKGROUND: HIV negative members of serostatus discordant couples are at high risk for HIV acquisition, but few interventions are in place to target them in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In this study, we interviewed 28 couples, 3 times over a period of one year to understand their perceptions and attitudes around discordance, their relationship dynamics, their HIV risk behaviour, their beliefs and attitudes about antiretroviral therapy (ART) and their views of the community perceptions of discordance and treatment for HIV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077518/th17-cytokine-responses-in-lyme-disease-correlate-with-borreliaburgdorferi-antibodies-during-early-infection-in-patients-with-erythema-migrans-and-with-autoantibodies-late-in-the-illness-in-patients-with-antibiotic-refractory-lyme-arthritis
#9
Klemen Strle, Katherine B Sulka, Annalisa Pianta, Jameson T Crowley, Sheila L Arvikar, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Allen C Steere
BACKGROUND: Control of Lyme disease is attributed predominantly to innate and adaptive TH1 immune responses, whereas the role of TH17 responses is less clear. Here we characterized these inflammatory responses in patients with erythema migrans (EM) or Lyme arthritis (LA) to elucidate their role early and late in the infection. METHODS: Levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines, representative of innate, TH1, and TH17 immune responses, were assessed by Luminex in acute and convalescent sera from 91 EM patients, in serum and synovial fluid from 141 LA patients, and in serum from 57 healthy subjects...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058428/incorporation-of-aspirin-modulates-the-dynamical-and-phase-behavior-of-the-phospholipid-membrane
#10
V K Sharma, E Mamontov, M Ohl, M Tyagi
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most widely used medications in the world for their analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory actions, despite a well-known incidence of a wide spectrum of their adverse effects. To a great extent, beneficial action and side effects of NSAIDs are associated with the interaction of these drugs at the cell membrane level. Here, we use neutron scattering to combine elastic intensity scans, quasielastic and neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements to understand the effect of aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, on the dynamical and phase behavior of the membrane of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), a prominent representative of phospholipids residing in the outer leaflet of the human erythrocyte membrane...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057850/investigation-of-the-link-between-fluid-shift-and-airway-collapsibility-as-a-mechanism-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-congestive-heart-failure
#11
Tom Carlisle, Neil R Ward, Angela Atalla, Martin R Cowie, Anita K Simonds, Mary J Morrell
The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in congestive heart failure (CHF) may be associated with rostral fluid shift. We investigated the effect of overnight rostral fluid shift on pharyngeal collapsibility (Pcrit), pharyngeal caliber (APmean), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in CHF patients. Twenty-three optimally treated systolic CHF patients were studied. Neck circumference was measured immediately prior to sleep in the evening and immediately after waking in the morning as a marker of rostral fluid shift...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054515/method-validation-of-nanoparticle-tracking-analysis-to-measure-pulmonary-nanoparticle-content-the-size-distribution-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-depends-on-occupational-exposure
#12
Jean-Jacques Sauvain, Guillaume Suarez, Jean-Louis Edmé, Olivia Maria de Paula Alvez Bezerra, Keller Silveira, Lenio Amaral, Ana Paula Carneiro, Natalie Cherot-Kornobis, Annie Sobaszek, Sébastien Hulo
A particle exposure assessment based on the dose deposited in the lungs would be the gold standard for the evaluation of any resulting health effects. Measuring particles in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)-a matrix containing water and airway lining fluid-could help to evaluate particle retention in the lungs. This study aimed to (1) validate a nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) method for determining the particle number concentration and their hydrodynamic size distribution in EBC, and (2) apply this method to EBC collected from workers exposed to soapstone (n = 55) or quartz dust (n = 12) and controls (n = 11)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046802/su-f-i-46-optimizing-dose-reduction-in-adult-head-ct-protocols-while-maintaining-image-quality-in-postmortem-head-scans
#13
I Lipnharski, C Carranza, N Quails, N Correa, D Rajderkar, J Bennett, L Rill, M Arreola
PURPOSE: To optimize adult head CT protocol by reducing dose to an appropriate level while providing CT images of diagnostic quality. METHODS: Five cadavers were scanned from the skull base to the vertex using a routine adult head CT protocol (120 kVp, 270 mA, 0.75 s rotation, 0.5 mm × 32 detectors, 70.8 mGy CTDIvol) followed by seven reduced-dose protocols with varying combinations of reduced tube current, reduced rotation time, and increased detectors with CTDIvol ranging from 38...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040004/oscillatory-fluid-flow-in-deformable-tubes-implications-for-pore-scale-hydromechanics-from-comparing-experimental-observations-with-theoretical-predictions
#14
Patrick Kurzeja, Holger Steeb, Marc A Strutz, Jörg Renner
Oscillatory flow of four fluids (air, water, two aqueous sodium-tungstate solutions) was excited at frequencies up to 250 Hz in tubes of two materials (steel, silicone) covering a wide range in length, diameter, and thickness. The hydrodynamical response was characterized by phase shift and amplitude ratio between pressures in an upstream (pressure excitation) and a downstream reservoir connected by the tubes. The resulting standing flow waves reflect viscosity-controlled diffusive behavior and inertia-controlled wave behavior for oscillation frequencies relatively low and high compared to Biot's critical frequency, respectively...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039409/internal-jugular-pressure-increases-during-parabolic-flight
#15
David S Martin, Stuart M C Lee, Timothy P Matz, Christian M Westby, Jessica M Scott, Michael B Stenger, Steven H Platts
One hypothesized contributor to vision changes experienced by >75% of International Space Station astronauts is elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While no definitive data yet exist, elevated ICP might be secondary to the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, resulting in venous congestion (overfilling and distension) and inhibition of cerebrospinal and lymphatic fluid drainage from the skull. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) during normo- and hypo-gravity as an index of venous congestion...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033066/clinical-immune-and-microbiome-traits-of-gingivitis-and-peri-implant-mucositis
#16
G P Schincaglia, B Y Hong, A Rosania, J Barasz, A Thompson, T Sobue, F Panagakos, J A Burleson, A Dongari-Bagtzoglou, P I Diaz
Tissues surrounding dental implants and teeth develop clinical inflammation in response to microbial stimuli. However, the literature suggests that differences exist in the microbial insult and inflammatory responses leading to gingivitis and peri-implant mucositis. In this pilot study, the authors use for the first time a systems biology approach to comprehensively evaluate clinical parameters, selected inflammatory markers, and the microbiome of subject-matched tooth and implant sites during native inflammation and in response to experimental plaque accumulation...
January 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027953/neurophysiological-assessment-of-neural-network-plasticity-and-connectivity-progress-towards-early-functional-biomarkers-for-disease-interception-therapies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
C Walsh, W H I M Drinkenburg, A Ahnaou
Despite a great deal of research into Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the last 20 years, an effective treatment to halt or slow its progression has yet to be developed. With many aspects of the disease progression still to be elucidated, focus has shifted from reducing levels of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brains of AD patients towards tau, another pathology, which initiates much earlier in deeper brainstem networks and is thought to propagate via cell-to-cell processes prior to the onset of amyloid pathology and cognitive impairments...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027773/ex-vivo-characterization-of-pathologic-fluids-with-quantitative-phase-contrast-computed-tomography
#18
Vivien Richter, Marian S Willner, John Henningsen, Lorenz Birnbacher, Mathias Marschner, Julia Herzen, Melanie A Kimm, Peter B Noe L, Ernst J Rummeny, Franz Pfeiffer, Alexander A Fingerle
PURPOSE: X-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) provides additional information beyond absorption characteristics by detecting the phase shift of the X-ray beam passing through material. The grating-based system works with standard polychromatic X-ray sources, promising a possible clinical implementation. PCI has been shown to provide additional information in soft-tissue samples. The aim of this study was to determine if ex vivo quantitative phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) may differentiate between pathologic fluid collections...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027683/adjustment-modes-in-the-trajectory-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-qualitative-study-and-conceptual-model
#19
Angeliki Bogosian, Myfanwy Morgan, Felicity L Bishop, Fern Day, Rona Moss-Morris
OBJECTIVE: We examined cognitive and behavioural challenges and adaptations for people with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and developed a preliminary conceptual model of changes in adjustment over time. DESIGN: Using theoretical sampling, 34 semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with MS. Participants were between 41 and 77 years of age. Thirteen were diagnosed with primary progressive MS and 21 with secondary progressive MS. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach...
December 27, 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017811/use-of-fitc-inulin-as-a-marker-for-intestinal-ischemic-injury
#20
Abedalrazaq AlKukhun, Giorgio Caturegli, Armando Salim Munoz-Abraham, Sami Judeeba, Roger Patron-Lozano, Raffaella Morotti, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, John P Geibel
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia is observed in conditions such as mesenteric ischemia, or during traumatic events such as intestinal transplantation. Intestinal ischemia leads to pathophysiological disruptions that present as increased fluid secretion into the intestinal lumen. We propose a novel method to detect real-time ischemic injury that is employed in an in vitro model that is applicable to intestinal transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: Small intestine segments from rats were procured...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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