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Fluid shift*

Wesley C Kephart, Coree D Pledge, Paul A Roberson, Petey W Mumford, Matthew A Romero, Christopher B Mobley, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Kevin W Huggins, Michael D Roberts
Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80...
January 9, 2018: Sports (Basel)
Hongyan Lu, Sarvesh Chelvanambi, Christophe Poirier, Jacob Saliba, Keith L March, Matthias Clauss, Natalia V Bogatcheva
Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a major worldwide health threat, especially to high-risk populations, including the young and elderly. There is an unmet clinical need for therapy that will protect the lungs from damage caused by lower respiratory infection. Here, we analyzed the role of EMAPII, a stress- and virus-induced pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic factor, in IAV-induced lung injury. First, we demonstrated that IAV induces EMAPII surface translocation, release, and apoptosis in cultured endothelial and epithelial cells...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
Nastaren Abad, Jens T Rosenberg, David C Hike, Michael G Harrington, Samuel C Grant
Under the hypothesis that increased extracellular sodium induces sustained neuronal excitability with the onset and progression of migraine, this study evaluates dynamic in vivo Na fluxes in the brain of a preclinical rodent analogue of migraine. Ultra-high field Na MRI at 21.1 T has demonstrated potential to quantify sodium concentrations with good spatial and temporal resolution following the onset of central sensitization. Sprague-Dawley male rats with implanted intraperitoneal (IP) lines were studied by MRI before and after an in situ injection of 10 mg/kg of nitroglycerin (NTG) versus vehicle and saline controls...
June 12, 2018: Pain
Anat Lavie, Maya Ram, Shaul Lev, Yair Blecher, Uri Amikam, Yael Shulman, Tomer Avnon, Eran Weiner, Ariel Many
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is among the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The clinical utility of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in preeclampsia (e.g., Swan-Ganz catheter) is controversial. Thoracic impedance cardiography (TIC) and Doppler echocardiography are noninvasive techniques but they both have important limitations. NICaS™ (NI Medical, PetachTikva, Israel) is a noninvasive cardiac system for determining cardiac output (CO) that utilizes regional impedance cardiography (RIC) by noninvasively measuring the impedance signal in the periphery...
June 14, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Pavel Seredin, Dmitry Goloshchapov, Yuri Ippolitov, Pimm Vongsvivut
Background: Improving the quality of life is part of the global agenda. The focus is predominantly on prevention of socially significant diseases. Combating dental caries-related diseases is a top priority as it has a huge impact on people's social lives. Therefore, the purpose of the work was to study the changes in the molecular composition of saliva from subjects with multiple caries lesions using spectroscopic methods of analysis to identify potential tissue markers of caries development for predictive, preventive and personalised medical services...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Rozemarijn Dreesen, Annabelle Capt, Regina Oberdoerfer, Isabelle Coats, Kenneth Edward Pallett
By transgenic expression technology, a modified 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase enzyme (HPPD W336) originating from Pseudomonas fluorescens is expressed in MST-FGØ72-2 soybean to confer tolerance to 4-benzoyl isoxazole and triketone type of herbicides1F. Characterization and safety assessment of HPPD W336 were performed. No relevant sequence homologies were found with known allergens or toxins. Although sequence identity to known toxins showed identity to HPPD proteins annotated as hemolysins, the absence of hemolytic activity of HPPD W336 was demonstrated in vitro...
June 9, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Alfredo Amigó, Paula Martinez-Sorribes, Margarita Recuerda
We present a series of 5 consecutive cases in which a small-aperture corneal inlay (Kamra ACI7000PDT) was uneventfully implanted in a corneal pocket created at a depth between 200 μm and 250 μm. Three months after surgery, all patients had good visual results, normal corneal surfaces, and adequate stromal healing. Between 6 months and 19 months after surgery, visually significant refractive changes appeared in the form of a hyperopic shift in 4 cases and a myopic shift in 1 case. Topical steroids were ineffective...
May 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Charles Raybaud, George I Jallo
The metamerically associated normal hindbrain and normal posterior fossa are programmed to grow together in such a way that the tonsils are located above the foramen magnum and surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the cisterna magna. This allows the pulsating CSF to move freely up and down across the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). A developmental mismatch between the rates of growth of the neural tissue and of the bony posterior fossa may result in the cerebellar tonsils being dislocated across the foramen magnum...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Tasneem Kausar, Shahid M Nayeem
GDF-5 mediated signal transduction regulating chondrogenesis and skeletogenesis involves three different type-I receptors viz. Act-RI, BMPRIA and BMPRIB. BMPRIA and BMPRIB generally shows temporal and spatial co-expression but some spatially different expression pattern has also been observed. BMPRIA receptor is the key receptor implicated in BMP signalling during osteogenesis and is expressed in osteoblasts during the course of bone formation. However, BMPRIB appears to be primarily expressed in mesenchymal pre-cartilage condensations and also found in differentiated osteoblast and chondrocytes...
May 26, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
Jayne M Jeffries
The paper explores the concept of recovery; the unexpected material changes that occur to, and within bodies following acquired spinal conditions. The phrase 'acquired spinal conditions' is used as a collective name for the four accounts of recovery that emerged using Participatory Action Research in the north east of England (2010-11). Using two qualitative methods, Photovoice and participatory diagramming, the empirical material examines the role of physiological changes as a way to enrich understandings of disability and the bodily experience of impairment...
April 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Erin T Carey, Janelle K Moulder
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs are a multimodal approach to optimize the surgical experience. Intraoperative and postoperative pain management is essential because the stress of surgery results in significant neurohormonal and metabolic shifts that can influence patient analgesia. Enhanced recovery after surgery programs address the physiologic and psychological factors that contribute to pain outcomes and overall satisfaction scores. A multimodal approach to recovery throughout the perioperative surgical experience is representative of successful pathways...
June 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mariana Camargo, Paula Intasqui, Ricardo Pimenta Bertolla
Seminal plasma is a complex fluid comprised of secretions from the seminal vesicles, the prostate, bulbourethral glands and from the seminiferous tubule lumen / epididymides / vasa deferentia . While it has been established that seminal plasma serves not only as a medium to carry, protect, and nourish sperm after ejaculation up to fertilization, but also as a functional modulator of sperm function, there is still a need to properly characterize the molecular make-up of seminal plasma in fertile men, and to understand how this is altered in different causes of male infertility...
2018: Basic and Clinical Andrology
Per W Moller, Anisa Hana, Paul Philipp Heinisch, Shengchen Liu, Siamak Djafarzadeh, Matthias Haenggi, Andreas Bloch, Jukka Takala, Stephan M Jakob, David Berger
BACKGROUND: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is gaining widespread use in the treatment of severe cardiorespiratory failure. Blood volume expansion is commonly used to increase ECMO flow (QECMO), with risk of positive fluid balance and worsening prognosis. We studied the effects of vasoconstriction on recruitment of blood volume as an alternative for increasing QECMO, based on the concepts of venous return. METHODS: In a closed chest, centrally cannulated porcine preparation (n = 9) in ventricular fibrillation and VA-ECMO with vented left atrium, mean systemic filling pressure (MSFP) and venous return driving pressure (VRdP) were determined in Euvolemia, during Vasoconstriction (norepinephrine 0...
June 5, 2018: Shock
Kohei Yatabe, Risako Tanigawa, Kenji Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Oikawa
Recent development of parallel phase-shifting interferometry (PPSI) enables accurate measurement of time-varying phase maps. By combining a high-speed camera with PPSI, it became possible to observe not only time-varying but also fast phenomena including fluid flow and sound in air. In such observation, one has to remove static phase (time-invariant or slowly-varying phase unrelated to the phenomena of interest) from the observed phase maps. Ordinarily, a signal processing method for eliminating the static phase is utilized after phase unwrapping to avoid the 2π discontinuity which can be a source of error...
May 28, 2018: Optics Express
Zhi-Luo Deng, Cornelia Gottschick, Sabin Bhuju, Clarissa Masur, Christoph Abels, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a prevalent multifactorial disease of women in their reproductive years characterized by a shift from the Lactobacillus species-dominated microbial community toward a taxonomically diverse anaerobic community. For unknown reasons, some women do not respond to therapy. In our recent clinical study, among 37 women diagnosed with BV, 31 were successfully treated with metronidazole, while 6 still had BV after treatment. To discover possible reasons for the lack of response in those patients, we performed a metatranscriptome analysis of their vaginal microbiota, comparing them to the patients who responded...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Sara Ferraris, Martina Cazzola, Veronica Peretti, Barbara Stella, Silvia Spriano
Surface properties of biomaterials (e.g., roughness, chemical composition, charge, wettability, and hydroxylation degree) are key features to understand and control the complex interface phenomena that happens upon contact with physiological fluids. Numerous physico-chemical techniques can be used in order to investigate in depth these crucial material features. Among them, zeta potential measurements are widely used for the characterization of colloidal suspensions, but actually poorly explored in the study of solid surfaces, even if they can give significant information about surface charge in function of pH and indirectly about surface functional groups and reactivity...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Silvia C Trevelin, Victor Fattori, Daniele C Nascimento, Kalil A de Lima, Jacinta S Pelayo, Florêncio Figueiredo, Rubia Casagrande, Sandra Y Fukada, Mauro M Teixeira, Thiago M Cunha, Foo Y Liew, Rene D Oliveira, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Fernando Q Cunha, José C Alves-Filho, Waldiceu A Verri
The ST2 receptor is a member of the Toll/IL-1R superfamily and interleukin-33 (IL-33) is its agonist. Recently, it has been demonstrated that IL-33/ST2 axis plays key roles in inflammation and immune mediated diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of ST2 deficiency in Staphylococcus aureus -induced septic arthritis physiopathology. Synovial fluid samples from septic arthritis and osteoarthritis individuals were assessed regarding IL-33 and soluble (s) ST2 levels. The IL-33 levels in samples from synovial fluid were significantly increased, whereas no sST2 levels were detected in patients with septic arthritis when compared with osteoarthritis individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
John M Edwards, Jeremy P Derrick, Christopher F van der Walle, Alexander P Golovanov
The ability to monitor the behavior of individual proteins in complex mixtures has many potential uses, ranging from analysis of protein interactions in highly-concentrated solutions, modelling biological fluids or the intracellular environment, to optimizing biopharmaceutical co-formulations. Differential labelling NMR approaches, which tradi-tionally use 15 N or 13 C isotope incorporation during recombinant expression, are not always practical in cases when endogenous proteins are obtained from an organism, or where the expression system does not allow for efficient labelling, especially for larger proteins...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Eric D Morris, Ryan G Price, Joshua Kim, Lonni Schultz, M Salim Siddiqui, Indrin Chetty, Carri Glide-Hurst
PURPOSE: Recent advancements in synthetic computed tomography (synCT) from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data have made MRI-only treatment planning feasible in the brain, although synCT performance for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is not well understood. This work compares geometric equivalence of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from CTs and synCTs for brain cancer patients and quantifies performance for partial brain IGRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten brain cancer patients (12 lesions, 7 postsurgical) underwent MR-SIM and CT-SIM...
April 6, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
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