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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818998/lower-body-negative-pressure-reduces-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-during-head-down-tilt
#1
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Robert Terlević, Darius A Gerlach, Simone Kuehn, Edwin Mulder, Jörn Rittweger
The microgravity ocular syndrome (MOS) results in significant structural and functional ophthalmic changes during 6-month spaceflight missions consistent with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure compared to the preflight upright position. A ground-based study was performed to assess two of the major hypothesized contributors to MOS, headward fluid shifting and increased ambient CO2, on intracranial and periorbital CSF. In addition, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was assessed as a countermeasure to headward fluid shifting...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818140/dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-during-the-combination-of-mild-hypercapnia-and-cephalad-fluid-shift
#2
Takuya Kurazumi, Yojiro Ogawa, Ryo Yanagida, Hiroshi Morisaki, Ken-Ichi Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Mild hypercapnia combined with a cephalad fluid shift [e.g., that occurring during spaceflight or laparoscopic surgery with head-down tilt (HDT)] might affect cerebral autoregulation. However, no reports have described the effects of the combination on dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the combination of mild hypercapnia and a cephalad fluid shift would attenuate dynamic cerebral autoregulation. METHODS: There were 15 healthy male volunteers who were exposed to 4 10-min protocols in which they received air in the supine position (Placebo/Supine), 3% carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supine position (CO2/Supine), air with -10° HDT (Placebo/HDT) and 3% CO2 with -10° HDT (CO2/HDT)...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815811/study-of-the-effects-of-spray-drying-in-whey-starch-on-the-probiotic-capacity-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-64-in-the-gut-of-mice
#3
L Lavari, P Burns, R Páez, J Reinheimer, G Vinderola
AIMS: To evaluate the effects of spray-drying of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 on its capacity to modulate the gut immune response and on the attenuation of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: L. rhamnosus 64 was spray-dried in cheese whey-starch solution and administered to mice for three, six or ten consecutive days. Peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity, secretory-IgA (S-IgA) levels in the small intestinal fluid and TNFα, IFNγ, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-2 levels in homogenates of the small and large intestine were determined...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815230/elastic-deformation-of-soft-coatings-due-to-lubrication-forces
#4
Yumo Wang, Matthew R Tan, Joelle Frechette
Elastic deformation of rigid materials with soft coatings (stratified materials) due to lubrication forces can alter the interpretation of dynamic surface forces measurements and prevent contact formation between approaching surfaces. Understanding the role of elastic deformation on the process of fluid drainage is necessary, in particular for the case where one (or both) of the interacting materials consists of a rigid substrate with a soft coating. We combine lubrication theory and solid linear elasticity to describe the dynamic of fluid drainage past a compliant stratified boundary...
August 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810281/-hyponatremia-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Heiner Mönig, Alexander Arlt
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospitalized patients, with up to 30 % having a plasma sodium concentration below 135 mmol/l. It is now clear that the clinical problem extends beyond the neurological symptoms, which can be explained by intracerebral osmotic fluid shifts and brain edema. Instead, chronic hyponatremia is associated with impaired gait stability and an increased risk of bone fragility fractures. Moreover, hyponatremia has been demonstrated to be an indicator of poor prognosis in a variety of conditions...
August 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805306/bioprocess-scale-up-down-as-integrative-enabling-technology-from-fluid-mechanics-to-systems-biology-and-beyond
#6
Frank Delvigne, Ralf Takors, Rob Mudde, Walter van Gulik, Henk Noorman
Efficient optimization of microbial processes is a critical issue for achieving a number of sustainable development goals, considering the impact of microbial biotechnology in agrofood, environment, biopharmaceutical and chemical industries. Many of these applications require scale-up after proof of concept. However, the behaviour of microbial systems remains unpredictable (at least partially) when shifting from laboratory-scale to industrial conditions. The need for robust microbial systems is thus highly needed in this context, as well as a better understanding of the interactions between fluid mechanics and cell physiology...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803850/association-of-exposure-to-manganese-and-iron-with-striatal-and-thalamic-gaba-and-other-neurometabolites-neuroimaging-results-from-the-weldox-ii-study
#7
Swaantje Casjens, Urike Dydak, Shalmali Dharmadhikari, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Clara Quetscher, Christoph Stewig, Benjamin Glaubitz, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, David Edmondson, Chien-Lin Yeh, Tobias Weiss, Christoph van Thriel, Lennard Herrmann, Siegfried Muhlack, Dirk Woitalla, Michael Aschner, Thomas Brüning, Beate Pesch
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method to quantify neurometabolite concentrations in the brain. Within the framework of the WELDOX II study, we investigated the association of exposure to manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in the striatum and thalamus of 154 men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GABA-edited and short echo-time MRS at 3T was used to assess brain levels of GABA, glutamate, total creatine (tCr) and other neurometabolites...
August 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802951/smoke-on-the-water-oral-fluid-analysis-at-sea
#8
Andrew Griffiths, Richard Leonars, Lenore Hadley, Mark Stephenson, Richard Teale
This study outlines the operational challenges and findings of an illicit drug oral fluid testing program carried out on the skippers (those in charge) of water vessels in Queensland, Australia. Between 2010 and 2016, 953 tests of skippers were conducted on water (waterside) for three proscribed illicit drugs; delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), methylamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylendioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). 126 (13%) of the skippers tested returned an on-site positive during waterside testing, 125 were confirmed positive for one or more illicit drug by subsequent laboratory analysis, whilst one skipper did not provide an oral fluid sample for confirmatory analysis...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794530/retrospective-analysis-of-post-operative-coagulopathy-after-major-hepatic-resection-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-northern-india
#9
Shweta A Singh, P Vivekananthan, Ankur Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Kishore Gs Bharathy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic resection is a major surgery associated with intraoperative massive fluid shifts, blood loss, haemodynamic instability and risk of development of post-hepatectomy liver failure. Hepatic resection predisposes the patient to coagulopathy as well as venous thrombosis. However, due to the development of deranged coagulation profile post-operatively, there is a dilemma in starting thromboprophylaxis. Our aim in this study was to determine the incidence of coagulopathy in patients undergoing major hepatectomy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790423/decoupling-between-the-response-of-coral-calcifying-fluid-ph-and-calcification-to-ocean-acidification
#10
S Comeau, C E Cornwall, M T McCulloch
Evaluating the factors responsible for differing species-specific sensitivities to declining seawater pH is central to understanding the mechanisms via which ocean acidification (OA) affects coral calcification. We report here the results of an experiment comparing the responses of the coral Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis to differing pH levels (8.09, 7.81, and 7.63) over an 8-week period. Calcification of A. youngei was reduced by 35% at pH 7.63, while calcification of P. damicornis was unaffected...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790289/-management-of-chest-drain-after-lung-resection
#11
Satoshi Muto, Hiroyuki Suzuki
The aims of chest drainage after pulmonary resection are to evacuate fluid and air that accumulate in the pleural space and to obtain information on problems such as air leakage and postoperative bleeding. Although suction or water seal drainages are commonly used procedures, the use of digital monitoring system (Thopaz) is gaining popularity as an alternative of the procedures. We need to pay attention to postoperative hemorrhage, chylothorax, infection, and air leakage. Chest X-ray is essential to check the position of the drainage tube and lung expansion...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772452/first-row-transition-metal-doping-in-calcium-phosphate-bioceramics-a-detailed-crystallographic-study
#12
Guillaume Renaudin, Sandrine Gomes, Jean-Marie Nedelec
Doped calcium phosphate bioceramics are promising materials for bone repair surgery because of their chemical resemblance to the mineral constituent of bone. Among these materials, BCP samples composed of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO₄)₆(OH)₂) and β-TCP (Ca₃(PO₄)₂) present a mineral analogy with the nano-multi-substituted hydroxyapatite bio-mineral part of bones. At the same time, doping can be used to tune the biological properties of these ceramics. This paper presents a general overview of the doping mechanisms of BCP samples using cations from the first-row transition metals (from manganese to zinc), with respect to the applied sintering temperature...
January 23, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767698/brain-plasticity-and-sensorimotor-deterioration-as-a-function-of-70-days-head-down-tilt-bed-rest
#13
Vincent Koppelmans, Jacob J Bloomberg, Yiri E De Dios, Scott J Wood, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Igor S Kofman, Roy Riascos, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents' sensorimotor brain regions. Understanding the neural correlates of spaceflight-related motor performance changes is important to ultimately develop tailored countermeasures that ensure mission success and astronauts' health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763287/role-of-nadph-oxidase-as-a-mediator-of-oxidative-damage-in-low-dose-irradiated-and-hindlimb-unloaded-mice
#14
Xiao Wen Mao, Nina C Nishiyama, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Peter Gifford, Kristine E Haynes, Daila S Gridley, Michael J Pecaut
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-derived stress can account for unloading- and radiation-induced endothelial damage and neurovascular remodeling in a mouse model. Wild-type (WT, Nox2(+/+)) C57BL/6 mice or Nox2(-/-) (B6.129S6-CYBBM) knockout (KO) mice were placed into one of the following groups: age-matched control; hindlimb unloading (HLU); low-dose/low-dose-rate radiation (LDR); or HLU with LDR simultaneously for 21 days. The mice were then sacrificed one month later...
August 1, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761692/alteration-in-the-gastric-microbiota-and-its-restoration-by-probiotics-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia
#15
Muneki Igarashi, Hirohiko Nakae, Takashi Matsuoka, Shunsuke Takahashi, Takayoshi Hisada, Junko Tomita, Yasuhiro Koga
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to comparatively analyse the gastric fluid (GF) microbiota between patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and healthy controls (HC), and to assess the effect of probiotics on the microbiota. DESIGN: Twenty-four Japanese patients with FD who met the Rome III definition and 21 age-matched and gender-matched HC volunteers were enrolled. The patients with FD had been treated with LG21, a probiotic strain. The GF was sampled after an overnight fast using a nasogastric tube...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750671/adaptive-lymphocyte-profiles-correlate-to-brain-a%C3%AE-burden-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Ann M Stowe, Sara J Ireland, Sterling B Ortega, Ding Chen, Ryan M Huebinger, Takashi Tarumi, Thomas S Harris, C Munro Cullum, Roger Rosenberg, Nancy L Monson, Rong Zhang
BACKGROUND: We previously found that subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment exhibit a pro-inflammatory immune profile in the cerebrospinal fluid similar to multiple sclerosis, a central nervous system autoimmune disease. We therefore hypothesized that early neuroinflammation would reflect increases in brain amyloid burden during amnestic mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected from 24 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (12 men, 12 women; 66 ± 6 years; 0...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744943/internal-carotid-external-carotid-and-vertebral-artery-blood-flow-responses-to-a-3-day-of-head-out-dry-immersion
#17
Shigehiko Ogoh, Ai Hirasawa, Steven de Abreu, Pierre Denise, Hervé Normand
We have recently demonstrated that heterogeneous cerebral blood flow (CBF) response in each cerebral artery may contribute to the maintenance of circulatory homeostasis in the brain. However, to what extent weightlessness associated with fluid shift from peripheral to central circulations influences distribution of CBF in each cerebral artery remains unknown. We hypothesised that dry immersion-induced fluid shift (weightlessness condition) would cause heterogeneous CBF response in each cerebral artery. During and after a 3-day dry immersion, internal carotid (ICA), external carotid (ECA) and vertebral arteries (VA) blood flows were measured by Doppler ultrasonography using an 8-MHz linear transducer...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740603/an-atr-ftir-sensor-unraveling-the-drug-intervention-of-methylene-blue-congo-red-and-berberine-on-human-tau-and-a%C3%AE
#18
Jonas Schartner, Andreas Nabers, Brian Budde, Julia Lange, Nina Hoeck, Jens Wiltfang, Carsten Kötting, Klaus Gerwert
Alzheimer's disease affects millions of human beings worldwide. The disease progression is characterized by the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are based on aggregation processes of the Aβ peptide and tau protein. Today there is no cure and even no in vitro assay available for the identification of drug candidates, which provides direct information concerning the protein secondary structure label-free. Therefore, we developed an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) sensor, which uses surface bound antibodies to immobilize a desired target protein...
July 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738450/the-effect-of-pressure-on-organic-reactions-in-fluids-a-new-theoretical-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Bo Chen, Roald Hoffmann, Roberto Cammi
This Review brings a new perspective to the study of chemical reactions in compressed fluid media. We begin by reviewing the substantial insight gained from more than 50 years of experimental studies on organic reactions in solution under pressure. These led to a proper estimation of the critical roles of volume of activation (Δ(≠) V) and reaction volume (ΔV) in understanding pressure effect on rates and equilibria of organic reactions. A recently developed computational method, the XP-PCM (extreme pressure polarizable continuum model) method, capable of carrying out quantum mechanical calculations of reaction pathways of molecules under pressure, is introduced...
July 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738331/future-perspectives-in-sleep-medicine
#20
Leh-Kiong Anne Huon, Christian Guilleminault
"Sleep Medicine" is now a specialty in its own right. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the very negative impact sleep disorders have on learning, education, safety, and quality of life. Technological advances will help us to break down diagnoses (e.g., narcolepsy has now been subdivided into types 1 and 2, depending upon the hypocretin levels in the spinal fluid) and to discover relationships to other bodily systems (e.g., type 1 narcolepsy potentially being an autoimmune disorder). The modern lifestyle of many, as characterized by a shortening of sleep periods, shift work, jet lag, and the need to be constantly available, means that advances in sleep medicine may result in a major understanding of more balanced "work-rest lifestyle" modifications...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
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