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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644288/massive-bilateral-chylothorax-post-blunt-trauma
#1
Christina Kozul, Karishma Jassal, Rodney Judson
Chylothorax caused by blunt trauma is extremely rare. We present a case of bilateral massive chylothorax post blunt trauma and a review of the literature regarding the identification and management of this rare diagnosis. An eighteen-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle crash where he sustained multiple injuries including a right, moderate to large, haemopneumothorax, a small left haemopneumothorax, left T8, T9, L1 and L2 acute transverse process fractures and fractures of bilateral 11th ribs. An intercostal catheter was inserted on the right side which initially drained blood-stained fluid however milky colour fluid was noted to be draining 11 h post insertion...
December 2017: Trauma Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627289/mechanisms-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-the-relative-roles-of-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-versus-blood-brain-barrier
#2
Sivan Gelb, Ariel D Stock, Shira Anzi, Chaim Putterman, Ayal Ben-Zvi
The pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) is believed to include the entry of circulating neuropathic antibodies to the brain via a pathologically permeable blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nevertheless, direct evidence of BBB pathology or mechanisms underlying BBB dysfunction is missing. Here, we examined BBB integrity in an established NPSLE mouse model (MRL/faslpr/lpr ). Surprisingly, challenging the barrier with various exogenous tracers demonstrated insignificant changes in BBB permeability. Furthermore, electron microscopy showed no ultrastructure changes supporting hyper-permeability...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627234/nasal-vaccination-with-r4m2e-hsp70c-antigen-encapsulated-into-n-trimethyl-chitosan-tmc-nanoparticulate-systems-preparation-and-immunogenicity-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Mehran Dabaghian, Ali Mohammad Latifi, Majid Tebianian, Hamid NajmiNejad, Seyyed Mahmoud Ebrahimi
In this study, the potential of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles as a carrier system for the nasal delivery of the r4M2e.HSP70c, as an M2e-based universal recombinant influenza virus vaccine candidate, was investigated in mice. The anti-M2e specific cellular and humoral immune responses were assessed and the protective efficacy against a 90% lethal dose (LD90) of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) in a mice model was evaluated. Our results showed that the intranasal immunization of mice with r4M2e.HSP70c+TMC rather than the control groups, r4M2e+TMC, r4M2e and PBS (Phosphate buffer saline), significantly elevated both longevity and serum level of the total M2e-specific IgG antibody with a significant shift in the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio toward IgG2a, induced a Th1 skewed humoral and cellular immune responses, increased IFN-γ, IgG, and IgA in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and promoted the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lower morbidity and mortality rate against viral challenge...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617956/microglia-activation-in-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-is-amendableto-therapeutic-intervention
#4
Antony Cougnoux, Rebecca A Drummond, Amanda L Collar, James R Iben, Alexander Salman, Harrison Westgarth, Christopher A Wassif, Niamh X Cawley, Nicole Y Farhat, Keiko Ozato, Mihalis S Lionakis, Forbes D Porter
Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative disorder with limited treatment options. NPC1 is associated with neuroinflammation; however, attempts to therapeutically target neuroinflammation in NPC1 have had mixed success. We show here that NPC1 neuroinflammation is characterized by an atypical microglia activation phenotype. Specifically, Npc1-/- microglia demonstrated altered morphology, reduced levels of lineage markers and a shift towards glycolytic metabolism. Treatment with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a drug currently being studied in a phase 3 clinical trial, reversed all microglia-associated defects in Npc1-/- animals...
March 30, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616352/efast-for-the-diagnosis-of-a-perioperative-complication-during-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#5
Achyut Sharma, Prajjwal Bhattarai, Apurb Sharma
A 29-year-old patient with normal preanesthetic evaluation was planned for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for right nephrolithiasis with right pyelolithiasis. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation with muscle relaxation. At the conclusion of surgery, when the patient was turned over to supine position, tense abdomen was noted. Immediately extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma (eFAST) was done in which both right and left quadrants of abdomen including pericardial and suprapubic region, right and left thoracic, and both lung basis were examined...
April 3, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609194/perhaps-quality-of-life-should-not-be-used-as-a-trigger-for-discussing-resuscitation-and-advance-care-plans
#6
Michael Rose, Martina Welz
As a subjective measure, quality of life should not be used as a trigger for discussing resuscitation, goals of care or advanced care plans. Limitations and challenges in measurement and assessment of quality of life have been recognised. It is a fluid construct and subject to changes and response shifts. Surrogate quality of life estimations may misrepresent individual worth and self-perceived quality of life. Disagreement over quality of life statements may cause harm.
April 2, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603993/performance-of-heterodyne-differential-phase-shift-keying-underwater-wireless-optical-communication-systems-in-gamma-gamma-distributed-turbulence
#7
Yuqing Fu, Yongzhao Du
The analytical expressions for the average bit error rate and the outage probability of a heterodyne differential phase-shift-keying underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system are derived with proper consideration of all of the channel-degrading effects, including absorption, scattering, and turbulence-induced fading. The scintillation index of a spherical wave is evaluated in order to quantify the underwater system performance in a strong turbulence regime. The spherical wave propagating through the strong underwater turbulence environment is modeled as gamma-gamma distribution...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599644/does-space-time-torsion-determine-the-minimum-mass-of-gravitating-particles
#8
Christian G Böhmer, Piyabut Burikham, Tiberiu Harko, Matthew J Lake
We derive upper and lower limits for the mass-radius ratio of spin-fluid spheres in Einstein-Cartan theory, with matter satisfying a linear barotropic equation of state, and in the presence of a cosmological constant. Adopting a spherically symmetric interior geometry, we obtain the generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for a Weyssenhoff spin fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium, expressed in terms of the effective mass, density and pressure, all of which contain additional contributions from the spin...
2018: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596338/non-invasive-electromagnetic-skin-patch-sensor-to-measure-intracranial-fluid-volume-shifts
#9
Jacob Griffith, Kim Cluff, Brandon Eckerman, Jessica Aldrich, Ryan Becker, Peer Moore-Jansen, Jeremy Patterson
Elevated intracranial fluid volume can drive intracranial pressure increases, which can potentially result in numerous neurological complications or death. This study's focus was to develop a passive skin patch sensor for the head that would non-invasively measure cranial fluid volume shifts. The sensor consists of a single baseline component configured into a rectangular planar spiral with a self-resonant frequency response when impinged upon by external radio frequency sweeps. Fluid volume changes (10 mL increments) were detected through cranial bone using the sensor on a dry human skull model...
March 29, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576392/clinical-outcome-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-profiles-in-patients-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-and-prior-vaccination-history
#10
Thorsten Lenhard, Daniela Ott, Nurith J Jakob, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Uta Meyding-Lamadé
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in southern and eastern districts of Germany. Approximately 10-14% of the infected individuals suffer from long-term disability and in 1.5-3.6% the course is fatal. Two well-tolerated vaccines are available, which provide high protection and which have been confirmed in several field studies. Here we investigate clinical course, long-term outcome and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics of TBE cases with a prior history of any vaccination as well as real vaccination breakthrough (VBT)...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573211/tannerella-forsythia-produced-methylglyoxal-causes-advanced-glycation-endproducts-ages-accumulation-to-trigger-cytokine-secretion-in-human-monocytes
#11
Rajendra P Settem, Kiyonobu Honma, Mira Shankar, Miaomiao Li, Michael LaMonte, Ding Xu, Robert J Genco, Richard W Browne, Ashu Sharma
The periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia has the unique ability to produce methylglyoxal (MGO) an electrophilic compound, which can covalently modify amino acid side chains and generate inflammatory adducts known as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In periodontitis, the concentrations of gingival-crevicular fluid MGO increase, and correlate with the levels of T. forsythia load. However, the source of MGO and the extent to which MGO may contribute to periodontal inflammation has not been fully explored...
March 23, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564192/herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-atypical-presentation-as-a-right-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke
#12
Maria Shoaib, Jacqueline J Kraus, Muhammad T Khan
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Definitive diagnosis is established by history, clinical examination, neuroimaging studies, supportive electroencephalogram (EEG) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We report a case of HSVE presenting as a stroke mimic in a 76-year-old female with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin. She was admitted to our medical intensive care unit with intermittent fever, lethargy, and new onset left-sided hemiparesis...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564151/analysis-of-trends-and-prospects-regarding-stents-for-human-blood-vessels
#13
Jeong Hee Lee, Eung Do Kim, Eun Jung Jun, Hyoung Sun Yoo, Joon Woo Lee
Background: The purpose of this paper is to provide technology trends and information regarding market and prospects in stents used for human blood vessels in Korea and the world.A stent is a medical device in the form of a cylindrical metal net used to normalize flow when blood or other bodily fluids such as biliary fluids are obstructed in blood vessels, gastrointestinal tracts, etc. by inserting the stent into a narrowed or clogged area. Stents are classified into vascular and non-vascular stents...
2018: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562966/non-invasive-intracranial-pressure-estimation-during-combined-exposure-to-co%C3%A2-and-head-down-tilt
#14
Takuya Kurazumi, Yojiro Ogawa, Ryo Yanagida, Hiroshi Morisaki, Ken-Ichi Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and cephalad fluid shift are considered factors that affect intracranial pressure (ICP) during spaceflight. Increases in ICP were reported during cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt (HDT), while little is known regarding the effect of additional CO2 during HDT on ICP. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this combination increases ICP more than HDT alone. METHODS: There were 15 healthy male volunteers who underwent 4 types of 10-min interventions consisting of Placebo/Supine (air and supine), CO2/Supine (3% CO2 and supine, CO2 alone), Placebo/HDT (air and -10° HDT, HDT alone), and CO2/HDT (3% CO2 and -10° HDT, combination)...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562594/glycoform-modification-of-secreted-recombinant-glycoproteins-through-kifunensine-addition-during-transient-vacuum-agroinfiltration
#15
Yongao Xiong, Qiongyu Li, Muchena J Kailemia, Carlito B Lebrilla, Somen Nandi, Karen A McDonald
Kifunensine, a potent and selective inhibitor of class I α-mannosidases, prevents α-mannosidases I from trimming mannose residues on glycoproteins, thus resulting in oligomannose-type glycans. We report for the first time that through one-time vacuum infiltration of kifunensine in plant tissue, N-linked glycosylation of a recombinant protein transiently produced in whole-plants shifted completely from complex-type to oligomannose-type. Fc-fused capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2-Fc) containing one N -glycosylation site on the Fc domain, produced in Nicotiana benthamiana whole plants, served as a model protein...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562531/the-rationale-behind-the-new-alzheimer-s-disease-conceptualization-lessons-learned-during-the-last-decades
#16
José Luis Molinuevo, Carolina Minguillon, Lorena Rami, Juan Domingo Gispert
In the last decades, progress in neuroimaging techniques and cerebrospinal fluid assays has enabled the characterization of several Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers. This knowledge has shifted the conceptualization of AD from a clinical-pathological construct, where its diagnosis required the presence of dementia with distinct pathologic features, toward a clinical-biological one that recognizes AD as a pathological continuum with a clinical picture that ranges from normal cognition to a dementia stage. Specifically, AD is now divided into three stages: preclinical (abnormal biomarkers and no or only subtle cognitive impairment), mild cognitive impairment or prodromal AD (abnormal pathophysiological biomarkers and episodic memory impairment), and dementia (abnormal biomarkers and clear cognitive and functional impairment)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559713/skeletal-changes-during-and-after-spaceflight
#17
REVIEW
Laurence Vico, Alan Hargens
Space sojourns are challenging for life. The ability of the human body to adapt to these extreme conditions has been noted since the beginning of human space travel. Skeletal alterations that occur during spaceflight are now better understood owing to tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and murine models help researchers to understand cellular and matrix changes that occur in bone and that are difficult to measure in humans. However, questions remain with regard to bone adaptation and osteocyte fate, as well as to interactions of the skeleton with fluid shifts towards the head and with the vascular system...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557753/hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-a-pragmatic-approach-to-properly-manage-sodium-derangements
#18
Marco Baldrighi, Pier Paolo Sainaghi, Mattia Bellan, Ettore Bartoli, Luigi Mario Castello
INTRODUCTION: Although hypovolemia remains the most relevant problem during acute decompensated diabetes in its clinical manifestations (diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, HHS), the electrolyte derangements caused by the global hydroelectrolytic imbalance usually complicate the clinical picture at presentation and may be worsened by treatment itself. AIM: This review article is focused on the management of dysnatremias during hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state with the aim of providing clinicians a useful tool to early indentify the sodium derangement in order to address properly its treatment...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550391/antidepressant-like-effect-of-losartan-involves-trkb-transactivation-from-angiotensin-receptor-type-2-agtr2-and-recruitment-of-fyn
#19
Cassiano R A F Diniz, Plinio C Casarotto, Senem M Fred, Caroline Biojone, Eero Castrén, Sâmia R L Joca
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with peripheral fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function, but recent evidence also suggests a functional role in the brain. RAS regulates physiological and behavioral parameters related to the stress response, including depressive symptoms. Apparently, RAS can modulate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TRKB, which are important in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. However, the interaction between the BDNF/TRKB system and RAS in depression has not been investigated before...
March 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541488/a-case-of-a-mobile-choroid-plexus-cyst-presenting-with-different-types-of-obstructive-hydrocephalus
#20
Sho Tamai, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Yasuo Sasagawa, Masahiro Oishi, Mitsutoshi Nakada
Background: Although it is well known that most choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) are asymptomatic, previous studies have reported that they can infrequently cause progressive hydrocephalus along with their increasing sizes. Among those cases, some patients needed cyst fenestration or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion to recover neurological deterioration. Meanwhile, some CPCs revealed spontaneous resolution, and in rare cases, they developed re-accumulation. Some reports have described series of radiological findings about their changes in location...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
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