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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024871/brain-energetics-during-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#1
REVIEW
Mauro DiNuzzo, Maiken Nedergaard
Brain activity during wakefulness is associated with high metabolic rates that are believed to support information processing and memory encoding. In spite of loss of consciousness, sleep still carries a substantial energy cost. Experimental evidence supports a cerebral metabolic shift taking place during sleep that suppresses aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of environment-oriented waking behavior and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies reveal that glial astrocytes respond to the reduction of wake-promoting neuromodulators by regulating volume, composition and glymphatic drainage of interstitial fluid...
October 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023362/glycocalyx-shedding-is-enhanced-by-age-and-correlates-with-increased-fluid-requirement-in-patients-with-major-burns
#2
Akinori Osuka, Hirofumi Kusuki, Kazuhiro Yoneda, Hiroshi Matsuura, Hisatake Matsumoto, Hiroshi Ogura, Masashi Ueyama
BACKGROUND: Massive fluid shift following severe burn injury leads to edema and intravascular fluid loss that may result in burn-induced compartment syndrome (BICS) when corrected by aggressive fluid resuscitation. Factors causing this fluid shift remain unclear. Because glycocalyx regulates endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that glycocalyx shedding would increase fluid requirements in burn patients. This prospective cohort study aimed to identify relationships between shedding of the glycocalyx and fluid requirements following burn injury...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021160/off-axis-electron-holography-of-bacterial-cells-and-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-liquid
#3
Tanya Prozorov, Trevor P Almeida, András Kovács, Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski
The mapping of electrostatic potentials and magnetic fields in liquids using electron holography has been considered to be unrealistic. Here, we show that hydrated cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 and assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied using off-axis electron holography in a fluid cell specimen holder within the transmission electron microscope. Considering that the holographic object and reference wave both pass through liquid, the recorded electron holograms show sufficient interference fringe contrast to permit reconstruction of the phase shift of the electron wave and mapping of the magnetic induction from bacterial magnetite nanocrystals...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017976/outcomes-after-transcranial-and-endoscopic-endonasal-approach-for-tuberculum-meningiomas-a-retrospective-comparison
#4
Sang Woo Song, Yong Hwy Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Chul-Kee Park, Jung Eun Kim, Dong Gyu Kim, Young-Cho Koh, Hee-Won Jung
BACKGROUND: Degree of resection and visual outcome are the main concerns in the surgical resection of tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM). In addition to the transcranial approach (TCA), the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has been increasingly used. However, the controversy regarding the optimal surgical approach is not clearly resolved. METHODS: We compared the surgical outcomes of each approach for TSMs from 44 patients receiving EEA and 40 patients receiving TCA in two institutions between 2004 and 2015...
October 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016590/endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-approach-to-pituitary-adenoma-a-multi-disciplinary-approach
#5
Deepak Regmi, Amit Thapa, Bidur Kc, Bikram Shakya
BACKGROUND: The excellent visualization and minimally invasive approach employed in endoscopic endonasal procedures has now revolutionized the pituitary surgery, replacing the transnasal microscopic technique worldwide. However, it involves major shift in hand-eye co-ordination from static 3 dimensional images of microscope to 2 dimensional endoscopic images hence demands training and inter-disciplinary approach. Here we present our experiences in learning and developing a safe endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approach to resect pituitary adenomas...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992460/lipid-chain-saturation-and-the-cholesterol-in-the-phospholipid-membrane-affect-the-spectroscopic-properties-of-lipophilic-dye-nile-red
#6
Animesh Halder, Baishakhi Saha, Pabitra Maity, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar, Deepak Kumar Sinha, Sanat Karmakar
We have studied the effect of composition and the phase state of phospholipid membranes on the emission spectrum, anisotropy and lifetime of a lipophilic fluorescence probe nile red. Fluorescence spectrum of nile red in membranes containing cholesterol has also been investigated in order to get insights into the influence of cholesterol on the phospholipid membranes. Maximum emission wavelength (λem) of nile red in the fluid phase of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids was found to differ by ~10nm. The λem was also found to be independent of chain length and charge of the membrane...
October 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991621/central-island-formation-after-cataract-surgery-in-a-laser-in%C3%A2-situ-keratomileusis-eye-new-etiology
#7
Sylvain El-Khoury, Youssef Abdelmassih, George Cherfan, Johnny M Khoury
We report a case of central corneal steepness formation after cataract surgery in a post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eye. A 51-year-old woman with traumatic cataract and a history of myopic LASIK surgery had uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Postoperatively, the corneal topography difference map showed a central island formation of 2.1 diopters (D) compared with the preoperative level, which correlated with a clinical myopic shift of 2.00 D from the targeted emmetropia. At 4 months, most of the central island had resolved spontaneously...
September 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991475/cationic-charge-shift-exciplexes
#8
Joseph P Dinnocenzo, Paul B Merkel, Samir Farid
Of the many known examples of exciplexes, those formed from bimolecular encounter between a cationic, excited state electron acceptor and a neutral donor in fluid media have not been previously reported. We now show that emissive exciplexes formed from excited N-methyl isoquinolinium cation (NMiQ(+)) with alkyl benzene donors are readily detected in acetonitrile. These cationic exciplexes result in a charge shift (A(+)* + D → A(•)D(•+)) with no net change in charge, which differs fundamentally from the charge-generation of conventional exciplex formation (A* + D → A(•-)D(•+))...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990196/concentration-controlled-particle-focusing-in-spiral-elasto-inertial-microfluidic-devices
#9
Nan Xiang, Zhonghua Ni, Hong Yi
Herein, we proposed a strategy for controlling the particle focusing position in Dean-coupled elasto-inertial flows via adjusting the polymer concentration of viscoelastic fluids. The physics behind the control strategy was then explored and discussed. At high polymer concentrations, the flowing particles could be single-line focused exactly at the channel centerline under the dominated elastic force. The center-line focusing in our spiral channel may employed as a potential pretreatment scheme for microflow cytometry detection...
October 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984048/antibiotic-pretreatment-minimizes-dietary-effects-on-reconstructure-of-rumen-fluid-and-mucosal-microbiota-in-goats
#10
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zanming Shen
We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the posteffects of antibiotic treatment on the structure and metabolism of rumen microbiota. Twelve goats were randomly assigned into two groups, with one group receiving intramuscular streptomycin injection at 40 mg/kg bodyweight daily for 10 days. At 4 weeks after treatment with antibiotic, three goats were randomly selected from each group and switched to a 35% concentrate diet. The remaining six goats continued with the 10% concentrate diet. At 4 weeks after dietary shift, ruminal fluid and epithelium were collected to analyze the microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations of the rumen...
October 5, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983382/refeeding-syndrome-in-oncology-report-of-four-cases
#11
Martin Windpessl, Beate Mayrbaeurl, Christian Baldinger, Gernot Tiefenthaller, Friedrich C Prischl, Manfred Wallner, Josef Thaler
The term refeeding syndrome (RFS) refers to the metabolic perturbations and its attendant complications in subjects who are refed after fasting. The syndrome is characterized by profound shifts of electrolytes and fluids. Its consequences are widespread and sometimes fatal. Patients with malignancies are especially vulnerable due to the presence of multiple comorbidities. We report the course of four patients with malignant or hematological disorders who developed RFS while being treated for their underlying illness...
February 2017: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970630/valvular-heart-disease-and-anaesthesia
#12
REVIEW
Abhijit Paul, Sucharita Das
Valvular heart disease presents as mixed spectrum lesion in healthcare settings in the third-world and developing countries. Rheumatic heart disease still forms the bulk of the aetiopathology of valve lesions. Mitral and aortic valve lesions top the list of valvular pathology. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of valvular heart disease is essential while planning anaesthesia and perioperative care for such patients. Meticulous use of optimal fluids, close monitoring of the changing haemodynamics and avoidance of situations that can cause major reduction of cardiac output and fluid shifts are mandatory to achieve good clinical outcome...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967190/multimodality-imaging-characteristics-of-tension-pyopneumothorax-secondary-to-pulmonary-carcinoma-in-a-cat
#13
Jaehwan Kim, Hakyoung Yoon, Soyoung Kim, Kidong Eom
A 3-year-old Himalayan cat was presented with respiratory distress. Radiography showed multiple gas opacity foci, with the locations dependent on patient positioning, and severe pleural effusion with a contralateral mediastinal shift. A large volume of fluid and air was aspirated, and the fluid components were consistent with a nonseptic exudate. A pulmonary mass, pleural nodules, and an air-fluid interface with air bubbles trapped in fibrous septations were identified using thoracic ultrasonography and CT...
October 1, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966674/tlr4-antagonist-suppresses-airway-remodeling-in-asthma-by-inhibiting-the-t-helper-2-response
#14
Ming Li, Zhao-Ni Wang, Li-Fen Yang, Yan Yan, Liang-Ming Cai, Ya-Ting Li, Yong-Kang Qiao, Zhuang-Gui Chen
Airway remodeling is a hallmark of bronchial asthma. Our group has previously reported that the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an airway epithelial-derived cytokine, has a central role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling, and that toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling in epithelial cells may trigger T-helper 2 (Th2) immune responses by overexpression of TSLP. However, it is currently unclear whether TLR4 is a target in the treatment of airway remodeling in asthma. The present study established a house dust mite (HDM)-induced chronic asthmatic model in female BALB/c mice and treated the HDM-exposed mice with 3 mg/kg TAK242, as a TLR4 antagonist, 30 min prior to HDM challenge for up to 2 weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964882/the-effects-of-major-burn-related-pathophysiological-changes-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-drug-use-an-appraisal-utilizing-antibiotics
#15
Andrew A Udy, Jason A Roberts, Jeffrey Lipman, Stijn Blot
Patients suffering major burn injury represent a unique population of critically ill patients. Widespread skin and tissue damage causes release of systemic inflammatory mediators that promote endothelial leak, extravascular fluid shifts, and cardiovascular derangement. This phase is characterized by relative intra-vascular hypovolaemia and poor peripheral perfusion. Large volume intravenous fluid resuscitation is generally required. The patients' clinical course is then typically complicated by ongoing inflammation, protein catabolism, and marked haemodynamic perturbation...
September 28, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959231/demographic-clinical-and-immunologic-features-of-389-children-with-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Michael R Pranzatelli, Elizabeth D Tate, Nathan R McGee
Pediatric-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a devastating neuroinflammatory, often paraneoplastic, disorder. The objective was to characterize demographic, clinical, and immunologic aspects in the largest cohort reported to date. Cross-sectional data were collected on 389 children in an IRB-approved, observational study at the National Pediatric Myoclonus Center. Non-parametric statistical analysis was used. OMS manifested in major racial/ethnic groups, paralleling US population densities. Median onset age was 1...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951924/wrinkled-labyrinths-in-critical-demixing-ferrofluid
#17
Natalia Wilke, Jonas Bugase, Lisa-Marie Treffenstädt, Thomas M Fischer
A thin film of a critical ferrofluid mixture undergoes a sequence of transitions in a magnetic field. First the application of a field induces a critical demixing of the fluid into cylindrical droplets of the minority phase immersed in an extended majority phase. At a second critical field the cylindrical shape is destabilized and transforms into a labyrinth pattern. A third wrinkling transition occurs at even higher field if the liquid has a liquid/air interface. The wrinkling is absent if the droplet has a cover-slide on top...
September 27, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949731/mass-and-moment-of-inertia-govern-the-transition-in-the-dynamics-and-wakes-of-freely-rising-and-falling-cylinders
#18
Varghese Mathai, Xiaojue Zhu, Chao Sun, Detlef Lohse
In this Letter, we study the motion and wake patterns of freely rising and falling cylinders in quiescent fluid. We show that the amplitude of oscillation and the overall system dynamics are intricately linked to two parameters: the particle's mass density relative to the fluid m^{*}≡ρ_{p}/ρ_{f} and its relative moment of inertia I^{*}≡I_{p}/I_{f}. This supersedes the current understanding that a critical mass density (m^{*}≈0.54) alone triggers the sudden onset of vigorous vibrations. Using over 144 combinations of m^{*} and I^{*}, we comprehensively map out the parameter space covering very heavy (m^{*}>10) to very buoyant (m^{*}<0...
August 4, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938512/numerical-simulation-of-scaling-up-for-aec-mbrs-regarding-membrane-module-configurations-and-cyclic-aeration-modes
#19
Min Yang, Mengmeng Liu, Dawei Yu, Jiaxi Zheng, Zhichao Wu, Shuguang Zhao, Jiang Chang, Yuansong Wei
The airlift external circulation membrane bioreactors (AEC-MBRs) have been attracting attentions due to their capabilities of nutrient removal with lower energy demand and smaller footprint. The gap between laboratory study and full-scale AEC-MBRs regarding hydrodynamics needs to be addressed. In this study, impacts of seven design variables and cyclic aeration modes on hydrodynamics were studied for the scale-up of AEC-MBRs with computational fluid dynamics modelling. The results demonstrated that shear stress on membranes was 14...
September 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933837/quartz-crystal-microbalance-model-for-quantitatively-probing-the-deformation-of-adsorbed-particles-at-low-surface-coverage
#20
Jurriaan J J Gillissen, Joshua A Jackman, Seyed R Tabaei, Bo Kyeong Yoon, Nam-Joon Cho
Characterizing the deformation of nanoscale, soft-matter particulates at solid-liquid interfaces is a demanding task, and there are limited experimental options to perform quantitative measurements in a nonperturbative manner. Previous attempts, based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, focused on the high surface coverage regime and modeled the adsorbed particles as a homogeneous film, while not considering the coupling between particles and surrounding fluid and hence resulting in an underestimation of the known particle height...
October 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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