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Fluid shift*

C Nafati, M Gardette, M Leone, L Reydellet, V Blasco, A Lannelongue, F Sayagh, S Wiramus, F Antonini, J Albanèse, L Zieleskiewicz
BACKGROUND: In critical patients, left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening are used to reflect left ventricular systolic function. An emerging technique, two-dimensional-strain echocardiography, allows assessment of the left ventricle systolic longitudinal deformation (global longitudinal strain) and the speed at which this deformation occurs (systolic strain rate). This technique is of increasing use in critical patients in intensive care units and in the peri-operative period where preload constantly varies...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Nicolai Franzmeier, Emrah Düzel, Frank Jessen, Katharina Buerger, Johannes Levin, Marco Duering, Martin Dichgans, Christian Haass, Marc Suárez-Calvet, Anne M Fagan, Katrina Paumier, Tammie Benzinger, Colin L Masters, John C Morris, Robert Perneczky, Daniel Janowitz, Cihan Catak, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Michael Wagner, Stefan Teipel, Ingo Kilimann, Alfredo Ramirez, Martin Rossor, Mathias Jucker, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Annika Spottke, Henning Boecker, Frederic Brosseron, Peter Falkai, Klaus Fliessbach, Michael T Heneka, Christoph Laske, Peter Nestor, Oliver Peters, Manuel Fuentes, Felix Menne, Josef Priller, Eike J Spruth, Christiana Franke, Anja Schneider, Barbara Kofler, Christine Westerteicher, Oliver Speck, Jens Wiltfang, Claudia Bartels, Miguel Ángel Araque Caballero, Coraline Metzger, Daniel Bittner, Michael Weiner, Jae-Hong Lee, Stephen Salloway, Adrian Danek, Alison Goate, Peter R Schofield, Randall J Bateman, Michael Ewers
Patients with Alzheimer's disease vary in their ability to sustain cognitive abilities in the presence of brain pathology. A major open question is which brain mechanisms may support higher reserve capacity, i.e. relatively high cognitive performance at a given level of Alzheimer's pathology. Higher functional MRI-assessed functional connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex is a core candidate brain mechanism underlying reserve as it is associated with education (i.e. a protective factor often associated with higher reserve) and attenuated cognitive impairment in prodromal Alzheimer's disease...
February 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Roshni Patel, Meifang Zhu, Danielle M Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The human corneal epithelium expresses both the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (INSR) hybrid. Despite the previous identification of IGF-1 in human tear fluid, little is known regarding the regulation of IGF-1 in tear fluid and its role in corneal epithelial homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of biological parameters on the concentration of human tear levels of IGF-1. DESIGN: Tear levels of IGF-1 were measured in 41 healthy, human volunteers without any reported symptoms of dry eye...
February 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Seon-Yeong Park, D Han-Cheol Choe
The bon-like apatite formation on the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)-treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy in solution containing Si and Mg ions was studied using various experimental techniques. A Ti-6Al-4V ELI disk and implant was used as a substrate for PEO. A pulsed DC power supply was used to apply a potential of 280 V in the electrolyte for 3 min. To examine the bioactivity, the PEO films formed implant specimens were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for 12 h. PEO-treated surface has large micro-pores and small micro-pores, and 5 Mg/Si and 20 Mg/Si coated surfaces showed the more small micro-pores than that of CaP coated surface...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Øivind Wilhelmsen, Thuat T Trinh, Anders Lervik
Density gradient theory for fluids has played a key role in the study of interfacial phenomena for a century. In this work, we revisit its fundamentals by examining the vapor-liquid interface of argon, represented by the cut and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid. The starting point has traditionally been a Helmholtz energy functional using mass densities as arguments. By using rather the internal energy as starting point and including the entropy density as an additional argument, following thereby the phenomenological approach from classical thermodynamics, the extended theory suggests that the configurational part of the temperature has different contributions from the parallel and perpendicular directions at the interface, even at equilibrium...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Tongtong Tian, Qi Kang, Tao Wang, Jianhong Xiao, Li Yu
A series of cationic gemini surfactants with diverse chemical structures, that is, imidazolium-based gemini surface active ionic liquids (gemini IM-SAILs) with different alkyl chain length or spacer length, viz. 1,s-bis(3-alkylimidazolium-1-yl) ethane bromide ([C n -s-C n im]Br 2 ; s = 2, n = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16; n = 12, s = 2, 4, 6, 10), and quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants (gemini QASaa) with different symmetries, viz. 1,2-bisalkylquaternary ammonium bromide (m-2-n; m = 12, 14, 16, n = 8, 10, 12, m + n = 24), were synthesized and utilized to decorate aqueous/liquid crystal interfaces (ALI)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Casey J Galvin, Kentaro Shirai, Ali Rahmani, Kakuta Masaya, Amy Q Shen
Understanding nanoconfinement phenomena is necessary to develop nanofluidic technology platforms. One example of nanoconfinement phenomena are shifts in reaction equilibria toward reaction products in nanoconfined systems, which have been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally in DNA hybridization. Here we demonstrate a convection limited nanofluidic immunoassay that achieves total capture of a target analyte, and an apparent shift in the antibody-antigen reaction equilibrium due to nanoconfinement...
February 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
A Abdul-Wahhab Shahba, A Riaz Ahmed, K Mohsin, S Ibrahim Abdel-Rahman, F Kaed Alanazi
Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) offer an efficient choice to improve the poor dissolution and erratic bioavailability of poorly-water soluble drugs. However, liquid SNEDDS experience some manufacturing and stability limitations. To overcome these limitations, the current study aims to investigate and optimize the solidification of cinnarizine (CN) liquid SNEDDS onto pellets by fluid bed coating. The study involved optimization of process and formulation variables. The coated self-nanoemulsifying pellets (SNEP) were characterized, their droplet size and dissolution profiles were compared to the corresponding liquid SNEDDS...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
H A Alhazmi, M Al Bratty, S A Javed, K G Lalitha
Transferrins (TFs) consist of a large group of glycoproteins, whose function is to transport iron across the cell membrane. Apart from iron, serum transferrin can also bind several other metal ions and hence can offer a potential route for the delivery of these metal ions into the cellular fluids. In the present study the interaction behavior of nine noble metal ions, Ag+, Au+, Au3+, Os3+, Pd2+, Pt4+, Rh3+, Ru3+ and Ir3+ with transferrin was investigated by affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) using the dynamic mobility shift mode...
May 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Rex A Hess, Paul S Cooke
Estrogens have traditionally been considered female hormones. Nevertheless, the presence of estrogenic substances in males has been known for over 90 years. Initial work with estrogen suggested that it was deleterious to male reproduction because exogenous estrogen treatments induced developmental abnormalities. However, demonstrations of estrogen synthesis in the testis and high concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rete testis fluid suggested that the female hormone might have a function in normal male reproduction...
February 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Xiaolin Wang, Silas Alben
Over the past few decades, oscillating flexible foils have been used to study the physics of organismal propulsion in different fluid environments. Here, we extend this work to a study of flexible foils in a frictional environment. When the foil is oscillated by heaving at one end but is not free to locomote, the dynamics change from periodic to non-periodic and chaotic as the heaving amplitude increases or the bending rigidity decreases. For friction coefficients lying in a certain range, the transition passes through a sequence of N-periodic and asymmetric states before reaching chaotic dynamics...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Maria Promzeleva, Mikhail Chislov, Tatyana Volkova, Alexey Proshin, Roman Kumeev, Irina Terekhova
In this study, dissolution behaviour of 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivative (1-[5-(3-chloro-phenylamino)-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl]-propan-2-ol) displaying an anti-Alzheimer activity was examined in biorelevant media such as Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF, pH 1.2), Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid (FaSSGF, pH 1.6) and Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF, pH 6.5). It was found that solubility and dissolution rate of 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivative under consideration are not strongly dependent on pH, whereas these parameters are significantly affected by the buffer composition...
December 16, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Matthew R Ponte, Alexander D Hudson, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu
Many of the extraordinary three-dimensional architectures that pattern our physical world emerge from complex nonlinear systems or dynamic populations whose individual constituents are only weakly correlated to each other. Shoals of fish, murmuration behaviours in birds, congestion patterns in traffic and even networks of social conventions are examples of spontaneous pattern formation, which cannot be predicted from the properties of individual elements alone. Pattern formation at a different scale has been observed or predicted in weakly correlated systems including superconductors, atomic gases near Bose Einstein condensation and incoherent optical fields...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Majid Bayatian, Khosro Ashrafi, Mansour Rezazadeh Azari, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Yadollah Mehrabi
There has been an increasing concern about the continuous and the sudden release of volatile organic pollutants from petroleum refineries and occupational and environmental exposures. Benzene is one of the most prevalent volatile compounds, and it has been addressed by many authors for its potential toxicity in occupational and environmental settings. Due to the complexities of sampling and analysis of benzene in routine and accidental situations, a reliable estimation of the benzene concentration in the outdoor setting of refinery using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be instrumental for risk assessment of occupational exposure...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maria Oranges, Rita Guzzi, Derek Marsh, Rosa Bartucci
Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of site-specifically spin-labelled phospholipids are used to investigate the effect of ether-linked chains on the water-penetration and polarity profiles, as well as the phase behaviour and chain flexibility profiles, of phospholipid membranes. D2O-ESEEM reveals that water exposure of the terminal methyl groups in the interdigitated phase of dihexadecyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) is comparable to that of the methylene groups at the polar head-group end of the chains...
February 1, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Ladan Golestaneh
Hospitalizations drive up to 35% of the astronomical costs of care for patients on hemodialysis and are associated with poor outcomes. We describe outpatient care-sensitive categories of hospitalization risks in an effort to engage stakeholders and patients, as stakeholders, in mitigating hospitalizations. These categories include: (1) fluid (interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and chronic volume status), (2) infection (vascular access and malnutrition/inflammation resilience), and c) psychosocial (poor social support, poor self-efficacy, and mood disorders) risks...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Benedikt Hogan, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Oumou Maiga-Ascofaré, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Charity Wiafe Akenten, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
Background: The epidemiology of pediatric febrile illness is shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, but malaria remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The present study describes causes of febrile illness in hospitalized children in Ghana and aims to determine the burden of malaria coinfections and their association with parasite densities. Methods: In a prospective study, children (aged ≥30 days and ≤15 years) with fever ≥38.0°C were recruited after admission to the pediatric ward of a primary hospital in Ghana...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ruili Shi, Jiancheng Zhang, Zhang Peng, Shiying Yuan, Sumin Gao, Lin Chen, Yin Yuan
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a critical illness with a high morbidity and mortality rate due to severe inflammation in the lungs. The effects and underlying mechanism of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells‑1 (TREM‑1)‑like transcript‑1‑derived peptide (LR12) on ALI remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether LR12 attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ALI and elucidate the mechanism underlying it. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups as follows: Sham group, LPS + scramble group and LPS + LR12 group...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Masoud Naghdi, Farhad Farzbod
One way to break acoustic reciprocity is to have a moving wave propagation medium. If the acoustic wave vector and the moving fluid velocity are collinear, the wave vector shift caused by the fluid flow can be used to break. In this paper, an alternative approach is investigated in which the fluid velocity enters the differential equation of the system as a cross product term with the wave vector. A circular field where the fluid velocity increases radially has a Coriolis acceleration term. In such a system, the acoustic wave enters from the central wall and exits from the perimeter wall...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Venkatesh Thammishetti, Anupama Kaul, Dharmendra S Bhadauria, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Narayan Prasad, Amit Gupta, Raj K Sharma
BACKGROUND: Refractory peritonitis is defined as failure of clearance of peritoneal fluid despite 5 days of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Catheter removal decreases morbidity and mortality. Data on the outcomes of refractory peritonitis and of reinitiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in this group of patients are sparse. The present study analyzed etiology, outcomes, and prognostic factors of refractory peritonitis as well as survival of the reinitiation of the technique. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study that included 90 patients of refractory continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) peritonitis at a tertiary care center in North India...
January 31, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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