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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933676/white-matter-hyperintensities-are-associated-with-disproportionate-progressive-hippocampal-atrophy
#1
Cassidy M Fiford, Emily N Manning, Jonathan W Bartlett, David M Cash, Ian B Malone, Gerard R Ridgway, Manja Lehmann, Kelvin K Leung, Carole Sudre, Sebastien Ourselin, Geert Jan Biessels, Owen T Carmichael, Nick C Fox, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
This study investigates relationships between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology markers, and brain and hippocampal volume loss. Subjects included 198 controls, 345 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 154 AD subjects with serial volumetric 1.5T MRI. CSF Aβ42 and total tau were measured (n=353). Brain and hippocampal loss were quantified from serial MRI using the Boundary Shift Integral (BSI). Multiple linear regression models assessed the relationships between WMHs and hippocampal and brain atrophy rates...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929582/liquid-biopsy-on-chip-a-paradigm-shift-towards-the-understanding-of-cancer-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
Amogha Tadimety, Abeer Syed, Yuan Nie, Christina R Long, Kasia M Kready, John X J Zhang
This comprehensive review serves as a guide for developing scalable and robust liquid biopsies on chip for capture, detection, and analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Liquid biopsy, the detection of biomarkers from body fluids, has proven challenging because of CTC rarity and the heterogeneity of CTCs shed from tumors. The review starts with the underlying biological mechanisms that make liquid biopsy a challenge before moving into an evaluation of current technological progress. Then, a framework for evaluation of the technologies is presented with special attention to throughput, capture rate, and cell viability for analysis...
December 8, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926586/hypercapnic-conditions-after-experimental-blunt-chest-trauma-increase-efferocytosis-of-alveolar-macrophages-and-reduce-local-inflammation
#3
Annette Palmer, Michael S J Eichner, Anne Rittlinger, Daniel H Seitz, Florian Gebhard, Markus S Huber-Lang, Ulrike Niesler
Blunt chest trauma induces severe local and systemic inflammatory alterations and an accumulation of apoptotic polymorphonuclear granulocytes (aPMN) in the lungs, frequently followed by bacterial infection. Alveolar macrophages (AM) represent one of the main actors for their clearance. However, little is known regarding regulatory and influencing factors of AM efferocytic and phagocytic activities. In this context, we investigated the influence of impaired gas exchange on AM activity.Male rats underwent blunt chest trauma or sham procedure and aPMN or E...
December 6, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924706/analysis-of-inflammatory-markers-and-metals-in-nasal-lavage-fluid-of-welders
#4
Monika Raulf, Tobias Weiss, Anne Lotz, Martin Lehnert, Frank Hoffmeyer, Verena Liebers, Rainer Van Gelder, Heiko Udo Käfferlein, Andrea Hartwig, Beate Pesch, Thomas Brüning
Welding fumes may produce adverse health effects in the respiratory tract. To assess the relationship between exposure to welding fumes and inflammation in the upper airways, 190 male welders were examined from the WELDOX study (median age 40 yr, 54.7% smokers, and 32.9% atopics). Inhalable welding fumes were collected in the breathing zone of welders during a single shift. Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) were measured in the welding-fume samples and in postshift nasal lavage fluid (NALF)...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924360/perfusion-imaging-of-brain-gliomas-using-arterial-spin-labeling-correlation-with-histopathological-vascular-density-in-mri-guided-biopsies
#5
Di Ningning, Pang Haopeng, Dang Xuefei, Cheng Wenna, Ren Yan, Wu Jingsong, Yao Chengjun, Yao Zhenwei, Feng Xiaoyuan
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to determine if cerebral blood flow (CBF) derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging could be used to quantitatively evaluate the microvascular density (MVD) of brain gliomas on a "point-to-point" basis by matching CBF areas and surgical biopsy sites as accurate as possible. METHODS: The study enrolled 47 patients with treatment-naive brain gliomas who underwent preoperative ASL, 3D T1-weighted imaging with gadolinium contrast enhancement (3D T1C+), and T2 fluid acquisition of inversion recovery (T2FLAIR) sequences before stereotactic surgery...
December 6, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916392/a-case-of-z-e-isomers-elution-order-inversion-caused-by-cosolvent-percentage-change-in-supercritical-fluid-chromatography
#6
Oleg I Pokrovskiy, Konstantin B Ustinovich, Oleg I Usovich, Olga O Parenago, Valeriy V Lunin, Denis V Ovchinnikov, Dmitry S Kosyakov
A case of elution order inversion caused by cosolvent percentage change in supercritical fluid chromatography was observed and investigated in some detail. Z- and E-isomers of phenylisobutylketone oxime experience an elution order reversal on most columns if the mobile phase consists of CO2 and alcohol. At lower percentages of alcohol Z-oxime is retained less, somewhere at 2-5% coelution occurs and at larger cosolvent volume elution order reverses - Z-oxime is eluted later than E-oxime. We suppose inversion with CO2-ROH phases happens due to a shift in balance between two main interactions governing retention...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916361/oral-omega-3-fatty-acids-promote-resolution-in-chemical-peritonitis
#7
Alexander C Chacon, Brett E Phillips, Miranda A Chacon, Deborah Brunke-Reese, Shannon L Kelleher, David I Soybel
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that purified omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate acute inflammation and hasten the transition to healing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with omega-3-rich fish oil (FO) would promote resolution of peritoneal inflammation through production of specific lipid mediators. METHODS: C57/BL6 mice were given a daily 200-μL oral gavage of saline (CTL) or FO (1.0-1.5 g/kg/d docosahexaenoic acid and 1.3-2.0 g/kg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) for 7 d before chemical peritonitis was induced with thioglycollate...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913993/antifreeze-glycopeptides-from-structure-and-activity-studies-to-current-approaches-in-chemical-synthesis
#8
REVIEW
Małgorzata Urbańczyk, Jerzy Góra, Rafał Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a class of biological antifreeze agents found predominantly in Arctic and Antarctic species of fish. They possess the ability to regulate ice nucleation and ice crystal growth, thus creating viable life conditions at temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids. AFGPs usually consist of 4-55 repetitions of the tripeptide unit Ala-Ala-Thr that is O-glycosylated at the threonine side chains with β-D-galactosyl-(1 → 3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Due to their interesting properties and high antifreeze activity, they have many potential applications, e...
December 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908715/development-and-characterization-of-bacterial-cellulose-reinforced-biocomposite-films-based-on-protein-from-buckwheat-distiller-s-dried-grains
#9
Xuejiao Wang, Niamat Ullah, Xuchun Sun, Yan Guo, Lin Chen, Zhixi Li, Xianchao Feng
Biocomposite films were manufactured by combining protein extracted from buckwheat distiller's dried grains with bacterial cellulose (BC). The film microstructures showed that BC is compatible with protein matrix and endows the film with high rigidity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that BC can promote thermal stability of the composite films. BC promoted the transition from a Newtonian to a non-Newtonian fluid and the shear thinning behavior of protein-BC solution. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the main functional groups' absorption peaks shifted to lower wavenumbers...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906243/magnetically-controllable-silicon-microring-with-ferrofluid-cladding
#10
A El Amili, M C M M Souza, F Vallini, N C Frateschi, Y Fainman
We experimentally investigate the application of magnetic fluids (MFs) on integrated silicon photonics. Using a ferrofluid-clad silicon microring resonator, we demonstrate active control of resonances by applying an external magnetic field. Relatively high loaded quality factors on the order of 6000 are achieved, despite the optical losses introduced by the magnetic nanoparticles. We demonstrate resonance shifts of 185 pm in response to a 110 Oe strong magnetic field, corresponding to an overall refractive index change of -3...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904980/a-resolved-two-way-coupled-cfd-6-dof-approach-for-predicting-embolus-transport-and-the-embolus-trapping-efficiency-of-ivc-filters
#11
Kenneth I Aycock, Robert L Campbell, Keefe B Manning, Brent A Craven
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are medical devices designed to provide a mechanical barrier to the passage of emboli from the deep veins of the legs to the heart and lungs. Despite decades of development and clinical use, IVC filters still fail to prevent the passage of all hazardous emboli. The objective of this study is to (1) develop a resolved two-way computational model of embolus transport, (2) provide verification and validation evidence for the model, and (3) demonstrate the ability of the model to predict the embolus-trapping efficiency of an IVC filter...
November 30, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901279/dopamine-agonists-for-preventing-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Huilin Tang, Selma Mourad, Suo-Di Zhai, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially serious complication of ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction technology (ART). It is characterised by enlarged ovaries and an acute fluid shift from the intravascular space to the third space, resulting in bloating, increased risk of venous thromboembolism and decreased organ perfusion. Most cases are mild, but forms of moderate or severe OHSS appear in 3% to 8% of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The dopamine agonist cabergoline was introduced as a secondary prevention intervention for OHSS in women at high risk of OHSS undergoing ART treatment...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894494/optimal-fluid-therapy-for-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#13
REVIEW
Ronald Chang, John B Holcomb
The resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock has undergone a paradigm shift in the last 20 years with the advent of damage control resuscitation (DCR). Major principles of DCR include minimization of crystalloid, permissive hypotension, transfusion of a balanced ratio of blood products, and goal-directed correction of coagulopathy. In particular, plasma has replaced crystalloid as the primary means for volume expansion for traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Predicting which patient will require DCR by prompt and accurate activation of a massive transfusion protocol, however, remains a challenge...
January 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893731/observation-of-extreme-phase-transition-temperatures-of-water-confined-inside-isolated-carbon-nanotubes
#14
Kumar Varoon Agrawal, Steven Shimizu, Lee W Drahushuk, Daniel Kilcoyne, Michael S Strano
Fluid phase transitions inside single, isolated carbon nanotubes are predicted to deviate substantially from classical thermodynamics. This behaviour enables the study of ice nanotubes and the exploration of their potential applications. Here we report measurements of the phase boundaries of water confined within six isolated carbon nanotubes of different diameters (1.05, 1.06, 1.15, 1.24, 1.44 and 1.52 nm) using Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal an exquisite sensitivity to diameter and substantially larger temperature elevations of the freezing transition (by as much as 100 °C) than have been theoretically predicted...
November 28, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890776/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-alleviates-paraquat-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-inhibits-upregulation-of-toll-like-receptors
#15
Haitao Shen, Na Wu, Zhenning Liu, Hongyu Zhao, Min Zhao
AIMS: To evaluate the detoxifying effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung injury in mice, and to explore the action mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Following administration of PQ, the mice received a low, a medium or a high dose of EGCG daily for three days. Histopathology of the lungs were examined by H&E staining. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 24, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890677/time-course-of-organ-of-corti-degeneration-after-noise-exposure
#16
Barbara A Bohne, Melissa Kimlinger, Gary W Harding
From our permanent collection of plastic-embedded flat preparations of chinchilla cochleae, 22 controls and 199 ears from noise-exposed animals were used to determine when, postexposure, hair cell (HC) and supporting cell (SC) degeneration were completed. The exposed ears were divided into four groups based on exposure parameters: 0.5- or 4-kHz octave band of noise at moderate (M) or high (H) intensities. Postexposure survival ranged from <1 h to 2.5 y. Ears fixed ≤ 0-12 h postexposure were called 'acute'...
November 24, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890032/ageism-we-are-our-own-worst-enemy
#17
Kerry Sargent-Cox
In 1969, Butler (1969) first coined the term "ageism" to confront "prejudice by one age group toward other age groups" (pp. 243). As with other "isms," such as racism and sexism, ageism leads to bigotry and discrimination, though it is a very distinct beast in that, for the most part, other "isms" refer to those different from ourselves: distinct, mutually exclusive, and impervious groups. Conversely, age is a fluid social construct in which we are all intimately bound as we move through the lifespan, transitioning in and out of different age-groups...
November 28, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889614/competitive-replication-kinetics-and-pathogenicity-in-pigs-co-infected-with-historical-and-newly-invading-classical-swine-fever-viruses
#18
Yu-Liang Huang, Ming-Chung Deng, Kuo-Jung Tsai, Hsin-Meng Liu, Chin-Cheng Huang, Fun-In Wang, Chia-Yi Chang
Classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs, is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In Taiwan, CSFVs from field outbreaks belong to two distinct genotypes. The historical genotype 3.4 dominated from the 1920s to 1996, and since 1996, the newly invading genotype 2.1 has dominated. To explain the phenomenon of this virus shift in the field, representative viruses belonging to genotypes 2.1 and 3.4 were either inoculated alone (single infection) or co-inoculated (co-infection), both in vivo and in vitro, to compare the virus replication and pathogenesis...
November 23, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888143/dissolution-behavior-of-co-amorphous-amino-acid-indomethacin-mixtures-the-ability-of-amino-acids-to-stabilize-the-supersaturated-state-of-indomethacin
#19
Rami Ojarinta, Aki T Heikkinen, Elina Sievänen, Riikka Laitinen
Arginine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan have been previously shown to improve the solid-state stability of amorphous indomethacin. The present study investigates the ability of these amino acids to prolong the supersaturation of indomethacin in both aqueous and biorelevant conditions either when freely in solution or when formulated as co-amorphous mixtures. The co-amorphous amino acid-indomethacin mixtures (molar ratio 1:1) and amorphous indomethacin were prepared by cryomilling. Dissolution and precipitation tests were performed in buffer solutions (pH 5 and 6...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882737/neonatal-bowel-strangulation-rare-presentation-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Salvatore Arena, Gianfranco Scalfari, Nunzio Turiaco, Lucia Marseglia, Patrizia Perrone, Eloisa Gitto, Carmelo Romeo
We report a case of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with perinatal bowel strangulation requiring intestinal resection. Ten hours after birth, the newborn started to be lethargic and developed bilious emesis. X-ray documented distended loops of bowel with air fluid levels in the abdomen and a gasless, non-homogeneous opacity of the left hemithorax, a right mediastinal shift and loss of the sharp left hemidiaphram line. On gastrographin enema the left colon was above the adjacent left diaphragm. Emergency surgery was performed at 16 h of age...
November 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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