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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929474/-new-thalamic-potential-associated-with-somatosensory-evoked-potentials
#1
L Vega-Zelaya, C V Torres, M Navas-Garcia, R G Sola, J Pastor
INTRODUCTION: The response of the thalamus during the study with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) is not sufficiently understood. CASE REPORT: A 17-year-old man undergoing surgery for deep brain stimulation in the centromedian nucleus for drug-resistant epilepsy under complete sedation. During the intervention, the responses to SSEPs of the thalamic nuclei were recorded by means of four microelectrodes. These responses can be decomposed into three types: local field potentials (LFP), low amplitude fast oscillations (LFO), and high amplitude slow oscillations (HSO)...
October 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927833/modulation-of-hippocampal-activity-with-fornix-deep-brain-stimulation
#2
Paul H Stypulkowski, Scott R Stanslaski, Jonathon E Giftakis
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. OBJECTIVE: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927330/thalamocortical-neural-responses-during-hyperthermia-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#3
Jing Zhang, Shaowen Qian, Qingjun Jiang, Guanzhong Gong, Kai Liu, Bo Li, Yong Yin, Gang Sun
The neural responses during hyperthermia, once thought of as simple physiological processes (e.g. thermal sensation and regulation), have now been recognized involving more cognitive processes, which would be highly of importance to the management of those occupations during heavy heat exposure. Previous studies have demonstrated altered activity in localized subcortical clusters for thermal sensation and regulation, as well as cortical-cortical activity for behavioral tasks during hyperthermia. However, the involvement of cortical-subcortical activity during hyperthermia has not been investigated...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927207/surgical-approaches-to-the-temporal-horn-an-anatomic-analysis-of-white-matter-tract-interruption
#4
Paulo A S Kadri, Jean G de Oliveira, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Ugur Türe, Evandro P L de Oliveira, Ossama Al-Mefty, Guilherme C Ribas
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the temporal horn is necessary to treat tumors and vascular lesions, but is used mainly in patients with mediobasal temporal epilepsy. The surgical approaches to this cavity fall into 3 primary categories: lateral, inferior, and transsylvian. The current neurosurgical literature has underestimated the interruption of involved fiber bundles and the correlated clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the interruption of fiber bundles during the different approaches to the temporal horn...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926483/using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-detect-chronic-fatigue-in-patients-with-previous-traumatic-brain-injury-changes-linked-to-altered-striato-thalamic-cortical-functioning
#5
Nils Berginström, Peter Nordström, Urban Ekman, Johan Eriksson, Micael Andersson, Lars Nyberg, Anna Nordström
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to detect fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Neurorehabilitation clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with TBI (n = 57) and self-experienced fatigue more than 1 year postinjury, and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 27). MAIN MEASURES: Self-assessment scales of fatigue, a neuropsychological test battery, and fMRI scanning during performance of a fatiguing 27-minute attention task...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922889/microneurosurgical-removal-of-a-posterior-thalamic-glioma-via-posterior-interhemispheric-subsplenial-approach-in-lateral-oblique-position
#6
Mehmet Volkan Harput, Ugur Türe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922876/visual-deficit-from-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-anatomical-considerations
#7
Walter J Jermakowicz, Michael E Ivan, Iahn Cajigas, Ramses Ribot, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Mehul B Desai, Armando Ruiz, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Andres M Kanner, Jonathan R Jagid
BACKGROUND: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is quickly emerging as an effective surgical therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One of the most frequent complications of the procedure is postoperative visual field cuts, but the physiopathology of these deficits is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential causes of visual deficits after LITT for TLE in an attempt to minimize this complication. METHODS: This retrospective chart review compares the case of a 24-year-old male who developed homonymous hemianopsia following LITT for TLE to 17 prior patients who underwent the procedure and suffered no visual deficit...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922855/a%C3%A2-complex-code-of-extrinsic-influences-on-cortical-progenitor-cells-of-higher-mammals
#8
Isabel Reillo, Camino de Juan Romero, Adrián Cárdenas, Francisco Clascá, Maria Ángeles Martínez-Martinez, Víctor Borrell
Development of the cerebral cortex depends critically on the regulation of progenitor cell proliferation and fate. Cortical progenitor cells are remarkably diverse with regard to their morphology as well as laminar and areal position. Extrinsic factors, such as thalamic axons, have been proposed to play key roles in progenitor cell regulation, but the diversity, extent and timing of interactions between extrinsic elements and each class of cortical progenitor cell in higher mammals remain undefined. Here we use the ferret to demonstrate the existence of a complex set of extrinsic elements that may interact, alone or in combination, with subpopulations of progenitor cells, defining a code of extrinsic influences...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921616/tangential-migration-of-corridor-guidepost-neurons-contributes-to-anxiety-circuits
#9
Andrea Tinterri, Marie Deck, Maryama Keita, Caroline Mailhes, Anna Noren Rubin, Nicoletta Kessaris, Ludmilla Lokmane, Franck Bielle, Sonia Garel
In mammals, thalamic axons are guided internally towards their neocortical target by corridor (Co) neurons that act as axonal guideposts. The existence of Co-like neurons in non-mammalian species, in which thalamic axons do not grow internally, raised the possibility that Co cells might have an ancestral role. Here, we investigated the contribution of corridor (Co) cells to mature brain circuits using a combination of genetic fate-mapping and assays in mice. We unexpectedly found that Co neurons contribute to striatal-like projection neurons in the central extended amygdala...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921161/deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-with-an-emphasis-on-alleviation-of-seizure-frequency-outcome
#10
Bowen Chang, Jiwen Xu
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting conclusions have been reported regarding predictors of deep brain stimulation (DBS) outcome in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The main goal of this meta-analysis study was to identify possible predictors of remarkable seizure reduction (RSR). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of English-language literature published since 1990 and indexed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library that addressed seizure outcomes in patients who underwent DBS for refractory TLE...
September 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920772/endogenous-attention-to-object-features-modulates-the-erp-c1-component
#11
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Converging neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence supports the notion that selective attention can modulate neural activity not only in V1 (BA17) - as early as 40-60 ms post-stimulus - but also at subcortical level (thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN). V1 modulation has been documented both in space-based and (especially) object-based selection conditions, most of all in endogenous orienting paradigms. It seems then that an attentional modulation of ERP C1 response - reflecting V1 modulation - would not be especially favoured by exogenous cuing as far as object-based attention is concerned...
September 18, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920084/effects-of-methamphetamine-on-locomotor-activity-and-thalamic-gene-expression-in-leptin-deficient-obese-mice
#12
Betina González, Candela González, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that regulates energy balance. Leptin receptors are expressed in extrahypothalamic sites and several reports showed that leptin can influence feeding and locomotor behavior via direct actions on dopaminergic neurons. The leptin deficient mouse (ob/ob) has been used as an animal model of blunted leptin action, and presents with obesity and mild type 2 diabetes. We used ob/ob mice to study the effect of repeated 7-day methamphetamine (METH) administration analyzing locomotion, behavioral sensitization, and somatosensory thalamic mRNA expression of voltage-gated calcium channels and glutamatergic receptors using RT-PCR...
July 2017: Translational Brain Rhythmicity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918702/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-deep-brain-stimulation-reduces-disruption-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-albumin-extravasation-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-rats
#13
Ying-Chuan Chen, Guan-Yu Zhu, Xiu Wang, Lin Shi, Ting-Ting Du, De-Feng Liu, Yu-Ye Liu, Yin Jiang, Xin Zhang, Jian-Guo Zhang
Objective The therapeutic efficacy of anterior thalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation (ATN-DBS) against seizures has been largely accepted; however, the effects of ATN-DBS on disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), albumin extravasation, inflammation and apoptosis still remain unclear. Methods Rats were distributed into four treatment groups: physiological saline (PS, N = 12), kainic acid (KA, N = 12), KA-sham-DBS (N = 12) and KA-DBS (N = 12). Seizures were monitored using video-electroencephalogram (EEG)...
September 18, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918463/apoptotic-mechanisms-after-repeated-noise-trauma-in-the-mouse-medial-geniculate-body-and-primary-auditory-cortex
#14
Felix Fröhlich, Arne Ernst, Ira Strübing, Dietmar Basta, Moritz Gröschel
A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss has previously been shown after a single noise exposure in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (AI). However, repeated noise exposure is the most common situation in humans and a major risk factor for the induction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The present investigation measured cell death pathways using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the dorsal, medial and ventral MGB (dMGB, mMGB and vMGB) and six layers of the AI (AI-1 to AI-6) in mice (NMRI strain) after a second noise exposure (double-exposure group)...
September 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918332/control-of-absence-epilepsy-seizures-in-specific-relay-nuclei-of-thalamus
#15
Bing Hu, Xiaoqiang Zou, Yu Guo, Zhejia Yang, Feng Shi, Wangyuan Dong
In this paper, we used a classic basal ganglia-corticothalamic model(BGCT) to study the onset and control mechanism of absence epilepsy in specific relay nuclei (SRN) of thalamus. It was found that the seizure state may appear in SRN by turning the coupling strength -vsr and signal transmission delay τ on the route "Thalamic reticular nuclei (TRN) of thalamus ⟶ SRN ". With increasing of -vsr, the seizure state appeared two times, and its onset mechanism has not been discussed in previous studies. The seizure activity can be well controlled by adjusting the activation level of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in basal ganglia, which is a main output tissue to the corticothalamic system through two direct inhibitory pathways "SNr ⟶ SRN" and "SNr ⟶ TRN " in our model...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917660/stereotaxic-18-f-fdg-pet-and-mri-templates-with-three-dimensional-digital-atlas-for-statistical-parametric-mapping-analysis-of-tree-shrew-brain
#16
Qi Huang, Binbin Nie, Chen Ma, Jing Wang, Tianhao Zhang, Shaofeng Duan, Shang Wu, Shengxiang Liang, Panlong Li, Hua Liu, Hua Sun, Jiangning Zhou, Lin Xu, Baoci Shan
BACKGROUND: Tree shrews are proposed as an alternative animal model to nonhuman primates due to their close affinity to primates. Neuroimaging techniques are widely used to study brain functions and structures of humans and animals. However, tree shrews are rarely applied in neuroimaging field partly due to the lack of available species specific analysis methods. NEW METHOD: In this study, 10 PET/CT and 10 MRI images of tree shrew brain were used to construct PET and MRI templates; based on histological atlas we reconstructed a three-dimensional digital atlas with 628 structures delineated; then the digital atlas and templates were aligned into a stereotaxic space...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916470/receptive-field-properties-of-cat-perigeniculate-neurons-correlate-with-excitatory-and-inhibitory-connectivity-to-lgn-relay-neurons
#17
Hironobu Osaki, Tomoyuki Naito, Shogo Soma, Hiromichi Sato
The cat perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) is a visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus that consists of GABAergic neurons. It receives excitatory axon-collateral input from relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to which it provides inhibitory input. Thus, it is usually argued that the PGN works as feedback inhibition to the LGN. At the single neuron level, however, this circuit can also provide lateral inhibition. Which inhibition dominates in the visual circuit of the thalamus has yet to be well characterized...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914724/the-role-of-brain-structure-in-predicting-adherence-to-a-physical-activity-regimen
#18
Swathi Gujral, Edward McAuley, Lauren E Oberlin, Arthur F Kramer, Kirk I Erickson
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is important for maintaining health throughout the lifespan. However, adherence to PA regimens is poor with approximately 50% of older adults terminating activity intervention programs within 6 months. In this study we tested whether gray matter volume and white matter microstructural integrity prior to the initiation of a PA intervention predicts PA adherence. METHODS: 159 adults aged 60-80 years were randomly assigned to a moderate-intensity aerobic walking condition or a non-aerobic stretching and toning condition...
September 13, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913326/improvement-in-white-matter-tract-reconstruction-with-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-and-track-density-mapping-in-low-angular-resolution-data-a-pediatric-study-and-literature-review
#19
Benedetta Toselli, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Gabriele Arnulfo, Andrea Canessa, Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi, Marco Massimo Fato
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) allows noninvasive investigation of brain structure in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a frequently used application of DW-MRI that assumes a single main diffusion direction per voxel, and is therefore not well suited for reconstructing crossing fiber tracts. Among the solutions developed to overcome this problem, constrained spherical deconvolution with probabilistic tractography (CSD-PT) has provided superior quality results in clinical settings on adult subjects; however, it requires particular acquisition parameters and long sequences, which may limit clinical usage in the pediatric age group...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912043/abnormal-segments-of-right-uncinate-fasciculus-and-left-anterior-thalamic-radiation-in-major-and-bipolar-depression
#20
Feng Deng, Ying Wang, Huiyuan Huang, Meiqi Niu, Shuming Zhong, Ling Zhao, Zhangzhang Qi, Xiaoyan Wu, Yao Sun, Chen Niu, Yuan He, Li Huang, Ruiwang Huang
Differential brain structural abnormalities between bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) may reflect different pathological mechanisms underlying these two brain disorders. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structural properties, especially in white matter (WM) tracts, between BD and MDD. Using automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ), we utilized diffusion tensor images (DTI) from 67 unmedicated depressed patients, including 31 BD and 36 MDD, and 45 healthy controls (HC) to create fractional anisotropy (FA) tract profiles along 20 major WM tracts...
September 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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