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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231464/different-modes-of-visual-integration-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-revealed-by-single-cell-initiated-transsynaptic-tracing
#1
Santiago B Rompani, Fiona E Müllner, Adrian Wanner, Chi Zhang, Chiara N Roth, Keisuke Yonehara, Botond Roska
The thalamus receives sensory input from different circuits in the periphery. How these sensory channels are integrated at the level of single thalamic cells is not well understood. We performed targeted single-cell-initiated transsynaptic tracing to label the retinal ganglion cells that provide input to individual principal cells in the mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). We identified three modes of sensory integration by single LGN cells. In the first, 1-5 ganglion cells of mostly the same type converged from one eye, indicating a relay mode...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229571/transnasal-transsphenoidal-brain-injury-by-a-fencing-foil-an-unusual-case-report-and-brief-literature-review
#2
Rafet Özay, Mehmet S Balkan, Çağhan Tönge, Zeki Şekerci
BACKGROUND: In this report, the authors present an unusual case of a 10-year-old child who suffered a severe headache and rhinorrhea that occurred as a result of fencing foil sports injury via transnasal-transsphenoidal (TNTS) pathway. METHODS: Following to trauma, the child had shown neurological symptoms such a pupil dilatation, change in consciousness and mild hemiparesia. Imaging demonstrated destruction of bone structures including posterior wall of sphenoid sinus and anterosuperior part of sella turcica, and also a contusion at right thalamic region...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229525/bilateral-thalamic-lesions-a-pictorial-review
#3
Anıl Özgür, Kaan Esen, Hakan Kaleağası, Arda Yılmaz, Engin Kara, Altan Yıldız
Bithalamic lesions are uncommon, however, both focal and systemic disorders may present bilateral abnormalities in the thalamus in different acute and chronic clinical situations. Neuroimaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging, plays an essential role in diagnostic approach. Imaging features such as signal alterations, diffusion restriction or contrast enhancement are helpful in characterization of these abnormalities. The location of the lesions may provide key information because some pathologies typically involve a certain part of the thalamus...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228719/plasticity-of-visual-pathways-and-function-in-the-developing-brain-is-the-pulvinar-a-crucial-player
#4
REVIEW
James A Bourne, Maria Concetta Morrone
The pulvinar is the largest of the thalamic nuclei in the primates, including humans. In the primates, two of the three major subdivisions, the lateral and inferior pulvinar, are heavily interconnected with a significant proportion of the visual association cortex. However, while we now have a better understanding of the bidirectional connectivity of these pulvinar subdivisions, its functions remain somewhat of an enigma. Over the past few years, researchers have started to tackle this problem by addressing it from the angle of development and visual cortical lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227738/tuning-electrical-stimulation-for-thalamic-visual-prosthesis-an-autoencoder-based-approach
#5
Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prosthesis holds hope of vision restoration for millions with retinal degenerative diseases. Machine learning techniques such as artificial neural networks could help in improving prosthetic devices as they could learn how the brain encodes information and imitate that code. This paper introduces an autoencoder-based approach for tuning thalamic visual prostheses. The objective of the proposed approach is to estimate electrical stimuli that are equivalent to a given natural visual stimulus, in a way such that they both elicit responses that are as similar as possible when introduced to a Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) population...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227564/moving-object-detection-and-background-enhancement-for-thalamic-visual-prostheses
#6
Hossam H Abolfotuh, Amr Jawwad, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh, Amr Jawwad, Bassem Abdullah, Hani M K Mahdi, Seif Eldawlatly, Amr Jawwad, Hani M K Mahdi, Bassem Abdullah, Seif Eldawlatly, Hossam H Abolfotuh
Visual prostheses open the door of hope to restore functional vision for the blind. One of the main challenges facing their development is the limited number of electrodes used in the stimulation process which limits the resolution of the perceived images. To improve the perception, the useful features in the scene need to be enhanced while the other features should be suppressed to achieve better resolution. This paper introduces an image processing method to enhance three main features detectable by the natural visual pathway; namely the contrast, the motion and the edges...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226768/thalamic-gamma-band-desynchronization-in-a-computational-model-of-the-auditory-pathway
#7
Ana E Uriarte, Lars Haab, Narsis Salafzoon, Daniel J Strauss, Ana E Uriarte, Lars Haab, Narsis Salafzoon, Daniel J Strauss, Ana E Uriarte, Lars Haab, Narsis Salafzoon, Daniel J Strauss
Recent studies have focused on modeling the response of the early auditory processing stages to sound stimuli. However, the influence of sound on the higher stages like the auditory thalamus are not well identified. To understand how different sound stimuli affect the response of neurons in these higher stages, it is necessary to model the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve (AN) through the different stages up to the cortex. In this article we present a model of one of the paths through which sound travels from the AN to the cortex...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224285/abnormal-effective-connectivity-in-the-brain-is-involved-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#8
Baojuan Li, Long-Biao Cui, Yi-Bin Xi, Karl J Friston, Fan Guo, Hua-Ning Wang, Lin-Chuan Zhang, Yuan-Han Bai, Qing-Rong Tan, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu
Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223713/reduced-white-matter-integrity-in-antisocial-personality-disorder-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#9
Weixiong Jiang, Feng Shi, Huasheng Liu, Gang Li, Zhongxiang Ding, Hui Shen, Celina Shen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dewen Hu, Wei Wang, Dinggang Shen
Emerging neuroimaging research suggests that antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be linked to abnormal brain anatomy, but little is known about possible impairments of white matter microstructure in ASPD, as well as their relationship with impulsivity or risky behaviors. In this study, we systematically investigated white matter abnormalities of ASPD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures: fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Then, we further investigated their correlations with the scores of impulsivity or risky behaviors...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220891/nmda-receptor-expression-in-the-thalamus-of-the-stargazer-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#10
Z Barad, D R Grattan, B Leitch
In the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy, altered corticothalamic excitation of reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) neurons has been suggested to contribute to abnormal synchronicity in the corticothalamic-thalamocortical circuit, leading to spike-wave discharges, the hallmark of absence seizures. AMPA receptor expression and function are decreased in stargazer RTN, due to a mutation of AMPAR auxiliary subunit stargazin. It is unresolved and debated, however, if decreased excitation of RTN is compatible with epileptogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219951/generation-of-thalamic-neurons-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Atsushi Shiraishi, Keiko Muguruma, Yoshiki Sasai
Thalamus is a diencephalic structure that plays crucial roles in relaying and modulating sensory and motor information to the neocortex. The thalamus develops in the dorsal part of the neural tube at the level of the caudal forebrain. However, the molecular mechanisms that are essential for thalamic differentiation are still unknown. Here we have succeeded in the generation of thalamic neurons from mouse ES cells (mESCs) by modifying the default method that induces the most-anterior neural type in self-organizing culture...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#12
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217956/child-with-radiologically-recurrent-thalamic-tumor
#13
Tafadzwa Mandiwanza, Chandrasekaran Kaliaperumal, Linda Mulligan, Elizabeth Ryan, Seamus Looby, John Caird, Francesca Brett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217893/geniculohypothalamic-gabaergic-projections-gate-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-responses-to-retinal-input
#14
Lydia Hanna, Lauren Walmsley, Abigail Pienaar, Michael Howarth, Timothy M Brown
Sensory input to the master mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is vital in allowing animals to optimise physiology and behaviour alongside daily changes in the environment. Retinal inputs encoding changes in external illumination provide the principle source of such information. The SCN also receives input from other retinorecipient brain regions, primarily via the geniculohypothalamic tract (GHT), but the contribution of these indirect projections to circadian photoreception are currently poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217085/resting-state-fmri-in-mice-reveals-anesthesia-specific-signatures-of-brain-functional-networks-and-their-interactions
#15
Qasim Bukhari, Aileen Schroeter, David M Cole, Markus Rudin
fMRI studies in mice typically require the use of anesthetics. Yet, it is known that anesthesia alters responses to stimuli or functional networks at rest. In this work, we have used Dual Regression analysis Network Modeling to investigate the effects of two commonly used anesthetics, isoflurane and medetomidine, on rs-fMRI derived functional networks, and in particular to what extent anesthesia affected the interaction within and between these networks. Experimental data have been used from a previous study (Grandjean et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216336/pathophysiology-of-absence-epilepsy-insights-from-genetic-models
#16
REVIEW
Antoine Depaulis, Stéphane Charpier
Absence Epilepsy (AE) is a prototypic epileptic syndrome that develops during brain maturation but cannot be fully explored in human patients. Genetic animal models, especially rats with spike-and-wave discharges recorded on the electroencephalogram, the hallmark of absence seizures, offer strong face validity with the human pathology that allows precise exploration of the pathophysiology of this form of epilepsy. Using an array of different methods, recent studies have demonstrated that spike-and-wave discharges are initiated in the primary somatosensory cortex and then rapidly propagate to motor cortices and thalamic nuclei...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214577/parafascicular-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-decreases-nmda-receptor-glun1-subunit-gene-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Mónica R Fernández-Cabrera, Abraham Selvas, Miguel Miguéns, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Anna Vale-Martínez, Emilio Ambrosio, Margarita Martí-Nicolovius, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch
The rodent parafascicular nucleus (PFn) or the centromedian-parafascicular complex of primates is a posterior intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus related to cortical activation and maintenance of states of consciousness underlying attention, learning and memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFn has been proved to restore arousal and consciousness in humans and to enhance performance in learning and memory tasks in rats. The primary expected effect of PFn DBS is to induce plastic changes in target neurons of brain areas associated with cognitive function...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210849/developmental-changes-in-notch1-and-nle1-expression-in-a-genetic-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#18
Fariba Karimzadeh, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Hassan Hosseini Ravandi, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an epilepsy syndrome with seizures occurring in the early childhood, highlighting that seizures susceptibility in CAE is dependent on brain development. The Notch 1 signalling pathway is important in brain development, yet the role of the Notch1 signalling pathway in CAE remains elusive. We here explored Notch1 and its modulator notchless homologue 1 (NLE1) expression in WAG/Rij and control rats using immunohistochemistry. Functional Notch 1 effects were assessed in WAG/Rij rats in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210848/prefrontal-hippocampal-coupling-by-theta-rhythm-and-by-2-5%C3%A2-hz-oscillation-in-the-delta-band-the-role-of-the-nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus
#19
Alexis Roy, Frans Pettersson Svensson, Amna Mazeh, Bernat Kocsis
Rhythmic synchronizations of hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) at theta frequencies (4-8 Hz) are thought to mediate key cognitive functions, and disruptions of HC-PFC coupling were implicated in psychiatric diseases. Theta coupling is thought to represent a HC-to-PFC drive transmitted via the well-described unidirectional HC projection to PFC. In comparison, communication in the PFC-to-HC direction is less understood, partly because no known direct anatomical connection exists. Two recent findings, i...
February 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208139/mri-based-neuroanatomical-predictors-of-dysphagia-dysarthria-and-aphasia-in-patients-with-first-acute-ischemic-stroke%C3%A2
#20
Heather L Flowers, Mohammed A AlHarbi, David Mikulis, Frank L Silver, Elizabeth Rochon, David Streiner, Rosemary Martino
BACKGROUND: Due to the high post-stroke frequency of dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia, we developed comprehensive neuroanatomical, clinical, and demographic models to predict their presence after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The sample included 160 randomly selected first-ever stroke patients with confirmed infarction on magnetic resonance imaging from 1 tertiary stroke center. We documented acute lesions within 12 neuroanatomical regions and their associated volumes...
February 16, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
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