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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730720/microstructural-white-matter-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-fecal-incontinence
#1
J Muthulingam, S Haas, T M Hansen, S Laurberg, L Lundby, H S Jørgensen, A M Drewes, K Krogh, J B Frøkjaer
BACKGROUND: Abnormal central nervous system processing of visceral sensation may be a part of the pathogenesis behind idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI). Our aim was to characterize brain differences in patients with IFI and healthy controls by means of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In 21 female patients with IFI and 15 female healthy controls, whole-brain structural differences in gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, and white matter tracts fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729685/nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-of-histone-deacetylase-9-controls-activity-dependent-thalamocortical-axon-branching
#2
Ricardo Alchini, Haruka Sato, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Tomomi Shimogori, Noriyuki Sugo, Nobuhiko Yamamoto
During development, thalamocortical (TC) axons form branches in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we investigated how neuronal activity is converted to molecular signals, focusing on an epigenetic mechanism involving histone deacetylases (HDACs). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that HDAC9 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of thalamic cells during the first postnatal week in rats. In organotypic co-cultures of the thalamus and cortex, fluorescent protein-tagged HDAC9 also exhibited nuclueocytoplasmic translocation in thalamic cells during culturing, which was reversed by tetrodotoxin treatment...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726769/activity-dependent-feedback-inhibition-may-maintain-head-direction-signals-in-mouse-presubiculum
#3
Jean Simonnet, Mérie Nassar, Federico Stella, Ivan Cohen, Bertrand Mathon, Charlotte N Boccara, Richard Miles, Desdemona Fricker
Orientation in space is represented in specialized brain circuits. Persistent head direction signals are transmitted from anterior thalamus to the presubiculum, but the identity of the presubicular target neurons, their connectivity and function in local microcircuits are unknown. Here, we examine how thalamic afferents recruit presubicular principal neurons and Martinotti interneurons, and the ensuing synaptic interactions between these cells. Pyramidal neuron activation of Martinotti cells in superficial layers is strongly facilitating such that high-frequency head directional stimulation efficiently unmutes synaptic excitation...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725550/dti-measures-identify-mild-and-moderate-tbi-cases-among-patients-with-complex-health-problems-a-receiver-operating-characteristic-analysis-of-u-s-veterans
#4
Keith L Main, Salil Soman, Franco Pestilli, Ansgar Furst, Art Noda, Beatriz Hernandez, Jennifer Kong, Jauhtai Cheng, Jennifer K Fairchild, Joy Taylor, Jerome Yesavage, J Wesson Ashford, Helena Kraemer, Maheen M Adamson
Standard MRI methods are often inadequate for identifying mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Advances in diffusion tensor imaging now provide potential biomarkers of TBI among white matter fascicles (tracts). However, it is still unclear which tracts are most pertinent to TBI diagnosis. This study ranked fiber tracts on their ability to discriminate patients with and without TBI. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data from military veterans admitted to a polytrauma clinic (Overall n = 109; Age: M = 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724360/injury-of-ascending-reticular-activating-system-associated-with-delayed-post-hypoxic-leukoencephalopathy-a-case-report
#5
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by neurological relapse after an initial recovery from hypoxic brain injury. We describe a patient with impaired consciousness following DPHL, concurrent with injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) shown using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old male patient was in a drowsy mental state after exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) for about ten hours...
July 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722336/evidence-for-the-modulation-of-nociception-in-mice-by-central-mast-cells
#6
C L Kissel, K J Kovács, A A Larson
BACKGROUND: Hyperalgesia that develops following nerve ligation corresponds temporally and in magnitude with the number of thalamic mast cells located contralateral to the ligature. We tested the possibility that mast cells modulate nociception centrally, similar to their role in the periphery. METHODS: We examined the central effect of two hyperalgesic compounds that induce mast cell degranulation and of stabilized mast cells using cromolyn. RESULTS: Thermal hyperalgesia (tail flick) induced by nerve growth factor (NGF, a neurotrophic compound) and mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey) induced by dynorphin A (1-17) (opioid compound) each correlated with the per cent of thalamic mast cells that were degranulated...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720713/sensory-processing-of-deep-tissue-nociception-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-and-thalamic-ventrobasal-complex
#7
Shafaq Sikandar, Steven J West, Stephen B McMahon, David L Bennett, Anthony H Dickenson
Sensory processing of deep somatic tissue constitutes an important component of the nociceptive system, yet associated central processing pathways remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a novel electrophysiological characterization and immunohistochemical analysis of neural activation in the lateral spinal nucleus (LSN). These neurons show evoked activity to deep, but not cutaneous, stimulation. The evoked responses of neurons in the LSN can be sensitized to somatosensory stimulation following intramuscular hypertonic saline, an acute model of muscle pain, suggesting this is an important spinal relay site for the processing of deep tissue nociceptive inputs...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719733/characterizing-a-mouse-model-for-evaluation-of-countermeasures-against-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-neurotoxicity-and-neurological-sequelae
#8
Poojya Anantharam, Elizabeth M Whitley, Belinda Mahama, Dong-Suk Kim, Paula M Imerman, Dahai Shao, Monica R Langley, Arthi Kanthasamy, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a highly neurotoxic gas. It is the second most common cause of gas-induced deaths. Beyond mortality, surviving victims of acute exposure may suffer long-term neurological sequelae. There is a need to develop countermeasures against H2 S poisoning. However, no translational animal model of H2 S-induced neurological sequelae exists. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of H2 S-induced neurotoxicity for translational research. In paradigm I, C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 765 ppm H2 S for 40 min on day 1, followed by 15-min daily exposures for periods ranging from 1 to 6 days...
July 18, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717197/subcortical-volume-and-white-matter-integrity-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-findings-from-uk-biobank-imaging-data
#10
Xueyi Shen, Lianne M Reus, Simon R Cox, Mark J Adams, David C Liewald, Mark E Bastin, Daniel J Smith, Ian J Deary, Heather C Whalley, Andrew M McIntosh
Previous reports of altered grey and white matter structure in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been inconsistent. Recent meta-analyses have, however, reported reduced hippocampal grey matter volume in MDD and reduced white matter integrity in several brain regions. The use of different diagnostic criteria, scanners and imaging sequences may, however, obscure further anatomical differences. In this study, we tested for differences in subcortical grey matter volume (n = 1157) and white matter integrity (n = 1089) between depressed individuals and controls in the subset of 8590 UK Biobank Imaging study participants who had undergone depression assessments...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716961/the-structural-basis-of-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#11
Joanes Grandjean, Valerio Zerbi, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Markus Rudina
Translational neuroimaging requires approaches and techniques that can bridge between multiple different species and disease states. One candidate method, which offers insights into the brain's functional connectivity (FC), is resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI). In both humans and non-human primates, patterns of functional connectivity (often referred to as the functional connectome) have been related to the underlying structural connectivity (structural connectome). Given the recent rise in pre-clinical neuroimaging of mouse models it is an important question whether the mouse functional connectome conforms to the underlying structural connectivity...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715425/elimination-of-huntingtin-in-the-adult-mouse-leads-to-progressive-behavioral-deficits-bilateral-thalamic-calcification-and-altered-brain-iron-homeostasis
#12
Paula Dietrich, Irudayam Maria Johnson, Shanta Alli, Ioannis Dragatsis
Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive, behavioral and motor dysfunctions. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HD gene that is translated into an expanded polyglutamine tract in the encoded protein, huntingtin (HTT). While the most significant neuropathology of HD occurs in the striatum, other brain regions are also affected and play an important role in HD pathology. To date there is no cure for HD, and recently strategies aiming at silencing HTT expression have been initiated as possible therapeutics for HD...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714121/acetylcholine-dependent-upregulation-of-task-1-channels-in-thalamic-interneurons-by-a-smooth-muscle-like-signalling-pathway
#13
Michael Leist, Susanne Rinné, Maia Datunashvili, Ania Aissaoui, Hans-Christian Pape, Niels Decher, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
The dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the main thalamic site for state-dependent transmission of visual information. Non-retinal inputs from the ascending arousal system and inhibition provided by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic local circuit interneurons (INs) control neuronal activity within the dLGN. In particular, acetylcholine (ACh) depolarizes thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons by inhibiting two-pore domain potassium (K2P ) channels. Conversely, ACh also hyperpolarizes INs via an as-yet-unknown mechanism...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710748/longitudinal-changes-in-white-matter-fractional-anisotropy-in-adult-onset-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-patients-treated-with-miglustat
#14
Elizabeth A Bowman, Dennis Velakoulis, Patricia Desmond, Mark Walterfang
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurometabolic disorder resulting in impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. The only disease-modifying treatment currently available is miglustat, an iminosugar that inhibits the accumulation of lipid metabolites in neurons and other cells. This longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study examined how the rate of white matter change differed between treated and non-treated adult-onset NPC patient groups. Nine adult-onset NPC patients (seven undergoing treatment with miglustat, two not treated) underwent DTI neuroimaging...
July 15, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710525/differential-role-of-the-anterior-and-intralaminar-lateral-thalamic-nuclei-in-systems-consolidation-and-reconsolidation
#15
Joëlle Lopez, Karine Gamache, Carmelo Milo, Karim Nader
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and the intralaminar/lateral thalamic nuclei (ILN/LT) play different roles in memory processes. The ATN are believed to be part of an extended hippocampal system, and the ILN/LT have strong connections with the medial prefrontal cortex. It was shown that the ILN/LT are involved in systems consolidation. However, whether they are necessary for memory retrieval as well remains unclear. We, therefore, used c-Fos immunohistochemistry and reversible inactivations to investigate the role of the ATN and ILN/LT in recent and remote contextual fear memory retrieval in rats...
July 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707035/cerebellar-ataxia-and-obstructive-hydrocephalus-rare-neurologic-presentations-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
REVIEW
Hamdy Mohamed Abdelaziz Ahmed, Rasmia El-Gohary, Fatema Fayed, Hala El-Gendy
The first cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with effects on the nervous system were reported more than 100 years ago. Cerebellar involvement and obstructive hydrocephalus are rarely encountered in patients with SLE. We report two patients with SLE who developed cerebellar ataxia. The first patient presented with significant headache at time of SLE diagnosis and negative brain imaging studies on initial evaluation. The headache recurred with findings of cerebellar ataxia and obstructive hydrocephalus...
July 13, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706064/history-of-winning-remodels-thalamo-pfc-circuit-to-reinforce-social-dominance
#17
Tingting Zhou, Hong Zhu, Zhengxiao Fan, Fei Wang, Yang Chen, Hexing Liang, Zhongfei Yang, Lu Zhang, Longnian Lin, Yang Zhan, Zheng Wang, Hailan Hu
Mental strength and history of winning play an important role in the determination of social dominance. However, the neural circuits mediating these intrinsic and extrinsic factors have remained unclear. Working in mice, we identified a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) neural population showing "effort"-related firing during moment-to-moment competition in the dominance tube test. Activation or inhibition of the dmPFC induces instant winning or losing, respectively. In vivo optogenetic-based long-term potentiation and depression experiments establish that the mediodorsal thalamic input to the dmPFC mediates long-lasting changes in the social dominance status that are affected by history of winning...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702354/white-matter-integrity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-relationship-with-intelligence-quotient-and-executive-function
#18
Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Kerstin Pannek, Júlia Ballester-Plané, Lee B Reid, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Carme Junqué, Roslyn Boyd, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most disabling motor types of CP and has been classically associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalamus. Although cognitive dysfunction is common in CP, there is a paucity of published quantitative analyses investigating the relationship between white matter (WM) microstructure and cognition in this CP type. AIMS: This study aims (1) to compare brain WM microstructure between people with dyskinetic CP and healthy controls, (2) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to intelligence and (3) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to executive function in people with dyskinetic CP and (4) to identify brain regions where the correlations are different between controls and people with CP in IQ and executive functions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701546/fast-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-rat-granular-retrosplenial-cortex
#19
Ken'ichi Nixima, Kazuo Okanoya, Noritaka Ichinohe, Tohru Kurotani
Rodent granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) has dense connections between the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and hippocampal formation. GRS superficial pyramidal neurons exhibit distinctive late spiking (LS) firing property and form patchy clusters with prominent apical dendritic bundles. The aim of this study was to investigate spatio-temporal dynamics of signal transduction in the GRS induced by ATN afferent stimulation by using fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging in rat brain slices. In coronal slices, layer 1a stimulation, which presumably activated thalamic fibers, evoked propagation of excitatory synaptic signals from layers 2-4 to layers 5-6 in a direction perpendicular to the layer axis, followed by transverse signal propagation within each layer...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701494/loss-of-phosphodiesterase-4-in-parkinson-disease-relevance-to-cognitive-deficits
#20
Flavia Niccolini, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Christopher Coello, Mitul A Mehta, Graham E Searle, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Thomas Foltynie, Marios Politis
OBJECTIVE: To assess in vivo the expression of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and its relevance to cognitive symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) using [(11)C]rolipram PET. METHODS: We studied 12 levodopa-treated patients with PD with no concurrent diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Their data were compared with those from 12 healthy controls. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessment using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
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