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Aditya Choudhary, Manoj K Goyal, Rajveer Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
G Fenu, L Lorefice, L Loi, V Sechi, F Contu, G Coghe, J Frau, G Spinicci, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is associated with reduced brain and deep grey matter volume in comparison with that in healthy controls and individuals with adult onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of POMS on adult brain volume with adjustment for other parameters, such as disease duration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 20 POMS and 40 AOMS patients and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Kathleen S Rockland
Recent commentaries on the role of the thalamus consider a wide sphere of influence beyond sensory-motor transformation, to include task-relevant cognitive processes. In this short review, I reconsider known anatomic features of corticothalamic connectivity, primarily for macaque monkey, and discuss these as part of an intricate network architecture consistent with multiple connectional re-combinations and a diversity of functional tasks. Drawing mainly on results from single axon analysis for the two broad classes of corticothalamic (CT) connections, I review the strikingly complementary spatial parameters of their extrinsic CT arbors in relation to intrinsic cortical collaterals...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bo Jin, Wenhan Hu, Linmei Ye, Balu Krishnan, Thandar Aung, Stephen E Jones, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Kai Zhang, Junming Zhu, Jianguo Zhang, Meiping Ding, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang, Zhong Irene Wang
Objective: To investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE) in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II. Methods: Patients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Menno M Schoonheim, Olga Ciccarelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Daigo Kojima, Nobukazu Komoribayashi, Shinichi Omama, Kohki Oikawa, Shunrou Fujiwara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kazunori Terasaki, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: Whereas SPECT images obtained 180 minutes after administration of I-iomazenil (IMZ) (late images) are proportional to the distribution of central benzodiazepine receptor-binding potential, SPECT images obtained within 30 minutes after I-IMZ administration (early images) correlate with regional brain perfusion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether crossed cerebellar tracer uptake on acute-stage I-IMZ SPECT imaging predicts 3-month functional outcome in patients with nonfatal hypertensive putaminal or thalamic hemorrhage...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Daphne Stam, Yun-An Huang, Jan Van den Stock
Personality reflects the set of psychological traits and mechanisms characteristic for an individual. Geno-neuro-biologically inspired personality accounts have proposed a set of temperaments and characters that jointly compose personality profiles. The present study addresses the link between neurobiology and personality and investigates the association between temperament traits and regional gray matter volume. Furthermore, the specificity of these associations as well as the underlying components that drive the association are addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Aditya Jain, Aaron F Struck, Kaitlin M Woo, Christine J Jaskowiak, Lance T Hall
The aim of this study was to investigate thalamic and basal ganglia (BG) metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on interictal18 F-FDG PET using standardized uptake value (SUV). Retrospective review of data was undertaken for patients who were surgically treated for medically intractable TLE. All patients underwent18 F-FDG PET, MRI brain and EEG as preoperative workup, and subsequently underwent temporal lobe resection. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed as without or with residual disabling seizures. SUVmax and SUVpeak values were calculated for thalamus and BG...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Logan T Dowdle, Truman R Brown, Mark S George, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In the 20 years since our group established the feasibility of performing interleaved TMS/fMRI, no studies have reported direct comparisons of active prefrontal stimulation with a matched sham. Thus, for all studies there is concern about what is truly the TMS effect on cortical neurons. OBJECTIVE: After developing a sham control for use within the MRI scanner, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis of greater regional BOLD responses for active versus control stimulation...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Benjamin R Pittman-Polletta, Allison Quach, Ali I Mohammed, Michael Romano, Krishnakanth Kondabolu, Nancy J Kopell, Xue Han, Michelle M McCarthy
Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15-30 Hz) are ele- vated in Parkinson's disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively increased β oscillations in mouse striatum and motor cortex. In individuals showing simultaneous β increases in both striatum and M1, β partial directed coherence (PDC) increased from striatum to M1 (but not in the reverse direction)...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lisa Kinnavane, Seralynne D Vann, Andrew J D Nelson, Shane M O'Mara, John P Aggleton
To understand the hippocampus, it is necessary to understand the subiculum. Unlike other hippocampal subfields, the subiculum projects to almost all distal hippocampal targets, highlighting its critical importance for external networks. The present studies, in male rats and mice, reveal a new category of dorsal subiculum neurons that innervate both the mammillary bodies (MBs) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSP). These bifurcating neurons comprise almost half of the hippocampal cells that project to RSP. The termination of these numerous collateral projections was visualized within the medial mammillary nucleus and the granular RSP (area 29)...
January 2018: ENeuro
Evangelia Tsolaki, Angela Downes, William Speier, W Jeff Elias, Nader Pouratian
Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused UltraSound (MRgFUS) offers an incisionless approach to treat essential tremor (ET). Due to lack of evident internal anatomy on traditional structural imaging, indirect targeting must still be used to localize the lesion. Here, we investigate the potential predictive value of probabilistic tractography guided thalamic targeting by defining how tractography-defined targets, lesion size and location, and clinical outcomes interrelate. MR imaging and clinical outcomes from 12 ET patients that underwent MRgFUS thalamotomy in a pilot study at the University of Virginia were evaluated in this analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Stefania Evangelisti, Claudia Testa, Lorenzo Ferri, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, David Neil Manners, Giovanni Rizzo, Daniel Remondini, Gastone Castellani, Ilaria Naldi, Francesca Bisulli, Caterina Tonon, Paolo Tinuper, Raffaele Lodi
Objectives: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) in patients with sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) compared to healthy controls. Methods: Resting state fMRI was performed in 13 patients with a clinical diagnosis of SHE (age = 38.3 ± 11.8 years, 6 M) and 13 matched healthy controls (age = 38.5 ± 10.8 years, 6 M).Data were first analysed using probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA), then a graph theoretical approach was applied to assess topological and organizational properties at the whole brain level...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Cheima Bouziane, Matthan W A Caan, Hyke G H Tamminga, Anouk Schrantee, Marco A Bottelier, Michiel B de Ruiter, Sandra J J Kooij, Liesbeth Reneman
Several diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown a delay in brain white matter (WM) development. Because these studies were mainly conducted in children and adolescents, these WM abnormalities have been assumed, but not proven to progress into adulthood. To provide further insight in the natural history of WM maturation delay in ADHD, we here investigated the modulating effect of age on WM in children and adults. 120 stimulant-treatment naive male ADHD children (10-12 years of age) and adults (23-40 years of age) with ADHD (according to DSM-IV; all subtypes) were included, along with 23 age and gender matched controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
R L van den Brink, S Nieuwenhuis, G J M van Boxtel, G van Luijtelaar, H J Eilander, V J M Wijnen
For some patients, coma is followed by a state of unresponsiveness, while other patients develop signs of awareness. In practice, detecting signs of awareness may be hindered by possible impairments in the patient's motoric, sensory, or cognitive abilities, resulting in a substantial proportion of misdiagnosed disorders of consciousness. Task-free paradigms that are independent of the patient's sensorimotor and neurocognitive abilities may offer a solution to this challenge. A limitation of previous research is that the large majority of studies on the pathophysiological processes underlying disorders of consciousness have been conducted using cross-sectional designs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yayuan Liu, Li Chen, Jinseng Zeng, Wenmei Li, Sudan Zeng, Bin Ye, Zhijian Liang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the reorganization in ipsilesional and contralesional thalamic radiation fibers after unilateral focal thalamic stroke in sensory disturbance patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 12 patients with acute unilateral thalamic infarction and sensory disturbance and 12 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. All patients underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and were assessed with National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), Barthel index (BI), and paragraph 8 of NIHSS (NIHSS8) at 1 week (W1), 4 weeks (W4), 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6) after thalamic infraction...
March 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Dorita H F Chang, Hiroshi Ban, Yuji Ikegaya, Ichiro Fujita, Nikolaus F Troje
Using fMRI and multivariate analyses we sought to understand the neural representations of articulated body shape and local kinematics in biological motion. We show that in addition to a cortical network that includes areas identified previously for biological motion perception, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus, and ventral body areas, the ventral lateral nucleus, a presumably motoric thalamic area is sensitive to both form and kinematic information in biological motion...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
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