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Peritoneal equilibrium test

Dirk G Struijk
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and similar results in patient survival between PD and HD, the penetration of PD is decreasing in the Western world. SUMMARY: First the major events in the history of the development of PD are described...
December 2015: Kidney Diseases
Xiao-Dong Li, Dong-Lin Xia, Ling-Ling Shen, Hong He, Chao Chen, Yu-Fei Wang, Yan-Pei Chen, Ling-Yan Guo, Hai-Ying Gu
BACKGROUND: Postsurgical peritoneal adhesion is a major clinical problem. Numerous anti-adhesion products have been studied, but none could be easily used to provide a physical barrier. In this study, we developed a "phase change" anti-adhesion barrier for reducing peritoneal adhesion by cross-linked copolymerization of O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and CaCl2 and addition of cyclosporin A (CsA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CMC-CaCl2-CsA compound was characterized by equilibrium swelling rate, weight loss, releasing effect, and coagulation test, and its biosafety was characterized by acute oral toxicity, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Yun-Fang Zhang, Xun-Liang Zou, Jun Wu, Xue-Qing Yu, Xiao Yang
We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritonitis rat model. LPS was intraperitoneally injected into rats to establish peritonitis model. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to normal saline (the solvent of LPS), LPS, rosiglitazone plus LPS, and rosiglitazone alone. A simple peritoneal equilibrium test was performed with 20 ml 4.25 % peritoneal dialysis fluid. We measured the leukocyte count in dialysate and ultrafiltration volume...
December 2015: Inflammation
Hassan A Al-Malki, Ashraf A Fawzy, Awad H Rashid, Muhammad Asim, Omar M Fituri
Patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are routinely evaluated using the peritoneal equilibrium test (PET) to determine the best method for achieving target total dialysis clearance (T-Kt/V). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that standard CAPD prescription would achieve an initial T-Kt/V of more than 1.7 in all the patients regardless of their PET measurements. This is a retrospective study that included patients who started standard CAPD of four two-liter exchanges per day. The study included 118 patients; their mean age was 51...
July 2014: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Yi Tang, Hui Zhong, Yongshu Diao, Min Qin, Xueli Zhou
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal protein clearance (Pcl) is related to the mortality of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as well as technique failure. In this prospective observational study, we aimed to investigate factors associated with the level of Pcl. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 344 prevalent CAPD patients. A standard peritoneal equilibrium test was conducted for each patient. Baseline demographics, biochemistry, and Pcl were recorded...
November 2014: International Urology and Nephrology
Jahm Persaud, Michael Thomas, Andrew Davenport
Measurements of dialysate sodium are used to estimate peritoneal dialysis sodium losses and sodium sieving, a measure of hydraulic permeability of the peritoneum. Peritoneal dialysates differ from serum samples in terms of pH, osmolality, protein and glucose concentration. We wished to determine whether these factors affected sodium measurement. Dialysate samples were taken from 52 consecutive peritoneal dialysis patients attending for a standard peritoneal dialysis equilibrium test (PET), 20 with standard lactate dialysate and 32 with neutral pH dialysate and sodium was measured by both flame photometry and indirect ion selective electrode (ISE)...
August 2014: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Hiroyuki Terawaki, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Wan-Jun Zhu, Yukie Matsuyama, Tomoyoshi Terada, Shigeru Kabayama, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Seiichi Era, Bunpei Sato, Masaaki Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS) related to glucose degradation products such as methylglyoxal is reportedly associated with peritoneal deterioration in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the use of general antioxidant agents is limited due to their harmful effects. This study aimed to clarify the influence of the novel antioxidant molecular hydrogen (H2) on peritoneal OS using albumin redox state as a marker. METHODS: Effluent and blood samples of 6 regular PD patients were obtained during the peritoneal equilibrium test using standard dialysate and hydrogen-enriched dialysate...
2013: Medical Gas Research
Subhash Popli, Yijuan Sun, Hon-Lok Tang, Carl M Kjellstrand, Antonios H Tzamaloukas, Todd S Ing
BACKGROUND: Extreme hyperglycemia (serum glucose ≥ 800 mg/dL or 44.4 mmol/L) is infrequently associated with impaired consciousness in patients on maintenance dialysis. The purpose of this study was to determine features of extreme hyperglycemia that bring about coma in dialysis patients who do not have any of the potential conditions, other than hyperglycemia, that can affect the sensorium. METHODS: We analyzed 24 episodes of extreme dialysis-associated hyperglycemia in men who did not have neurological disease or sepsis...
December 2013: International Urology and Nephrology
Ana Rodríguez-Carmona, Miguel Pérez-Fontán, Sonia Pértega-Díaz, Beatriz López-Calviño, Andrés López-Muñiz, Teresa García-Falcón
BACKGROUND: There is a deficit of information regarding the factors that influence peritoneal protein excretion (PPE) during PD therapy. In particular, the effects of the modality of PD and other conditions of the dialysis prescription remain unclear. METHOD: This prospective, observational study analysed the effects of prescription characteristics on 24-hour PPE (study variable) in a cohort of patients starting PD. Our statistical analysis included a multi-level mixed model and standardised estimations of peritoneal protein transport during serial four-hour peritoneal equilibrium tests in order to control for disparities in the characteristics of patients managed on different regimens...
2012: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Juan Pérez-Martínez, Francisco C Pérez-Martínez, Blanca Carrión, Jesús Masiá, Agustín Ortega, Esther Simarro, Syong H Nam-Cha, Valentín Ceña
The benefits of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) in patients with end-stage renal failure are short-lived due to structural and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. In this report, we provide evidence for the in vitro and in vivo participation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the signaling pathway leading to peritoneal fibrosis during PD. Exposure to high-glucose PD fluids (PDFs) increases damage and fibrosis markers in both isolated rat peritoneal mesothelial cells and in the peritoneum of rats after chronic dialysis...
2012: PloS One
Rumeyza Kazancioğlu, Derya Topcuoglu, Nese Kiricimli, Arzu Cinkilic, Huseyin Celik
Standard peritoneal equilibrium test (PET) is an implementation that requires hard work for peritoneal dialysis (PD) staff. We analysed the efficacy of the fast PET and compared its results with standard PET. Forty-nine patients on PD therapy were included in the study. For standard PET, glucose, urea and creatinine values of dialysate were analysed at zeroth, second and fourth hours, and the patient's serum glucose, urea and creatinine values were analysed at second hour. In the fast PET, urea, glucose and creatinine values in plasma and dialysate were analysed at the fourth hour only...
March 2012: Journal of Renal Care
Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Nopadol Puttipittayathorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Songkiat Lieusuwan, Pisut Katavetin, Nanta Mahatanan, Kanda Sriudom, Thanit Chirananthavat, Nisa Thongbor, Somchai Eiam-Ong
OBJECTIVE: Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) becomes the first option for peritoneal dialysis, nowadays overtaking continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in many countries. The comparison of peritoneal membrane alteration in CAPD and APD is inconclusive. The authors therefore compared the peritoneal membrane changes in patients undergoing CAPD and APD. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In naive end stage renal disease patients, the choice of PD modes (CAPD or APD) was dependent on the patient's decision...
September 2011: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Renske Raaijmakers, Annemieke Coester, Watske Smit, Raymond T Krediet, Cornelis H Schröder
BACKGROUND: Water transport in peritoneal dialysis occurs through small pores and aquaporins. Free water transport (FWT) occurs through aquaporins only and gives a reflection of peritoneal aquaporin function. In this study, FWT in children was calculated for the first time in different settings. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed; 87 peritoneal equilibrium tests (PETs) were analysed in 65 patients. Three subgroups were analysed: patients with their first PET; patients in their second year on dialysis; patients in their third year on dialysis or thereafter...
March 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Gaëlle Aubertin, Philippe Choquet, Céline Dheu, André Constantinesco, Charline Ratomponirina, Ariane Zaloszyc, Jutta Passlick-Deetjen, Michel Fischbach
This study compares different peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) in rats over a short contact time. For greater accuracy, net ultrafiltration (UF) and peritoneal transport indices, mass transfer area coefficient (MTAC) were scaled for the in vivo peritoneal surface area recruited (ivPSA) measured by microcomputerized tomography. Wistar rats underwent nephrectomy (5/6ths), were randomized into two groups and given 1.5% glucose PDF, either conventional acidic lactate (n = 14) or pH neutral bicarbonate (BicaVera) (n = 13); MTAC and UF were measured using a 90-min peritoneal equilibrium test (PET), fill volume (IPV) of 10 ml/100 g; small pore fluid transport was determined from sodium balance and used to calculate free water transport (FWT)...
January 2012: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Cheng-Hsien Wu, Li-Jen Wang, Yon-Cheong Wong, Jen-Feng Fang, Being-Chuan Lin, Huan-Wu Chen, Chen-Chih Huang, Sheng-Che Hung
BACKGROUND: Active mesenteric hemorrhage and bowel perforation after blunt abdominal trauma warrant immediate surgical intervention. We investigate whether findings on multiphasic computed tomography (CT) can identify life-threatening mesenteric hemorrhage and bowel injuries. METHODS: Within 1-year period, 106 patients underwent multiphasic CT for evaluation of blunt abdominal injuries. Images obtained at arterial phase, portal phase, and equilibrium phase were retrospectively reviewed with special focus on mesentery and bowel injuries...
September 2011: Journal of Trauma
Kwan-Hyun Lee, Hyo-Wook Gil, Jong-Oh Yang, Eun-Young Lee, Sae-Yong Hong
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) metabolism in end-stage renal disease may be linked to the rate of protein turnover and to the vast pool of amino acids. In order to determine a correlation between the plasma levels of ADMA and the protein catabolic rate, we measured the ADMA levels as well as nutritional markers such as the normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) in patients with newly initiated continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)...
September 2010: Nephrology
Keng-Hee Koh, Hin-Seng Wong, Kuan-Weng Go, Zaki Morad
BACKGROUND: While phase angle of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has great survival-predicting value in dialysis populations, it is known to be higher in male than in female subjects. In this study, we aimed to explore the factors influencing the predictive value of phase angle and to identify the appropriate physics terms for normalizing capacitance (C) and resistance (R). METHODS: We formulated body capacitive index (BCI), C(BMI) (capacitance × height(2)/weight), body resistive index (BRI), R(BMI) (resistance × weight/height(2)), and CH(2) (capacitance × height(2))...
September 2011: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Francisco Cano, Lorena Sanchez, Anabella Rebori, Lily Quiroz, Angela Delucchi, Iris Delgado, Maria Alejandra Aguilar, Marta Azócar, Florencia Castro, Maria José Ibacache, Mónica Cuevas, Maria Esquivel
The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) is the gold standard method for defining peritoneal membrane permeability and for prescribing peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy on an individual basis. However, it is laborious, consumes nursing time, and requires many hours to be performed. Therefore, several authors have attempted to validate a short PET protocol, with controversial results. To evaluate the concordance between the 2-h (short) and 4-h (classical) peritoneal equilibrium test, a prospective observational protocol was applied in three PD centers (Mexico, Chile, and Uruguay) between July 1, 2008 and July 31 2009...
October 2010: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Ana Marta Gomes, Miguel Pérez-Fontán, Ana Rodríguez-Carmona, Andrés López-Muñiz, Marcos Fernández-Villar, Javier Peteiro-Cartelle, Teresa García-Falcón
BACKGROUND: The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) permits assessment of peritoneal protein transport, but this potential marker of outcome in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients lacks adequate standardization. ♢ OBJECTIVES: To assess various approaches for estimation of peritoneal protein transport in PD patients during 2.27% and 3.86% glucose-based PETs, and to uncover the demographic, clinical, and biochemical correlates of this phenomenon. ♢ PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 90 PD patients who underwent 2...
September 2010: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Chih-Chiang Chien, Hsien-Yi Wang, Tsair-Wei Chien, Wei-Chih Kan, Shih-Bin Su, Ching-Yih Lin
OBJECTIVES: Few studies mention how to objectively adjust peritoneal dialysis (PD) dwell volume for adult continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We proposed a reference equation composed of parameters from the peritoneal equilibrium test (PET) for adjusting daily dialysate dwell volume to obtain more ultrafiltration volume. Better fluid control could reduce more fluid overload-related complications. DESIGN: We used body mass index, waist circumference, intraperitoneal pressure, and other parameters from peritoneal equilibrium test to compose a reference equation for fine-tuning daily dwell volume...
January 2010: Renal Failure
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