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Brain injury

Aline Sarturi Ponte, Elenir Fedosse
This study correlated the impact of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) on the labor activity of individuals of working age on their quality of life (QOL) and that of their relatives/caregivers. It involved qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative (descriptive) research. Forty-eight individuals with ABI and 27 relatives/caregivers were interviewed. The correlation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF (52...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Thaís Flôr da Rocha, Juliana Gibbon Neves, Karin Viegas
Objective: to identify the severity of patients admitted to an emergency trauma. Method: A cross-sectional and retrospective study with 115 trauma patients classified as orange (Manchester System), from June 2013 to July 2014. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation, in addition to the Pearson Chi-square test, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: from the sample, 81.7% were male with mean age of 39.46±19.71 years. Higher incidence of major trauma (48...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Susanne Falkner, Sofia Grade, Leda Dimou, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Magdalena Götz, Mark Hübener
The ability of the adult mammalian brain to compensate for neuronal loss caused by injury or disease is very limited. Transplantation aims to replace lost neurons, but the extent to which new neurons can integrate into existing circuits is unknown. Here, using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging, we show that embryonic neurons transplanted into the visual cortex of adult mice mature into bona fide pyramidal cells with selective pruning of basal dendrites, achieving adult-like densities of dendritic spines and axonal boutons within 4-8 weeks...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Ge Dang, Yuefan Yang, Gang Wu, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi
Erythrolysis occurs in the clot after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and the release of hemoglobin causes brain injury, but it is unclear when such lysis occurs. The present study examined early erythrolysis in rats. ICH rats had an intracaudate injection of 100 μl autologous blood, and sham rats had a needle insertion. All rats had T2 and T2* magnetic response imaging (MRI) scanning, and brains were used for histology and CD163 (a hemoglobin scavenger receptor) and DARPP-32 (a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry...
October 25, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
A V Morgun, N V Kuvacheva, E D Khilazheva, E A Pozhilenkova, Ya V Gorina, N A Malinovskaya, Yu K Komleva, O L Lopatina, Yu A Panina, E D Gasymly, A B Salmina
The peculiarities in expression of transport proteins and the proteins implicated in the control of glycolysis by the cellular components of neurovascular units were examined in animals of different age under normal conditions and after modeled perinatal stress or hypoxic brain injury. In both cases, the specialties in expression of transport proteins in ontogenesis were revealed. The perinatal hypoxic brain injury resulted in up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, and GLUT4 expression in endotheliocytes of hippocampal microvessels accompanied by transient elevation of HIF-1α and GSK3 expression...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jennifer Xu, Alejandro Sisniega, Wojciech Zbijewski, Hao Dang, J Webster Stayman, Michael Mow, Xiaohui Wang, David H Foos, Vassillis E Koliatsos, Nafi Aygun, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: A cone-beam CT scanner has been developed for detection and monitoring of traumatic brain injury and acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at the point of care. This work presents a technical assessment of imaging performance and dose for the scanner in phantom and cadaver studies as a prerequisite to clinical translation. METHODS: The scanner incorporates a compact, rotating-anode x-ray source and a flat-panel detector (43 × 43 cm(2)) on a mobile U-arm gantry with source-axis distance = 550 mm and source-detector distance = 1000 mm...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Ali Alawieh, Stephen Tomlinson
Cumulative evidence indicates a role for the complement system in both pathology and recovery after ischemic stroke. Here, we review the current understanding of the dual role of complement in poststroke injury and recovery, and discuss the challenges of anti-complement therapies. Most complement directed therapeutics currently under investigation or development systemically inhibit the complement system, but since complement is important for immune surveillance and is involved in various homeostatic activities, there are potential risks associated with systemic inhibition...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Ximin Zhu, Yongliang Cao, Lixiang Wei, Ping Cai, Haochen Xu, Haiyu Luo, Xiaofei Bai, Lu Lu, Jian-Ren Liu, Wenying Fan, Bing-Qiao Zhao
Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating stroke subtype and has no proven treatment. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has recently been demonstrated to promote inflammation processes. The present study investigated the pathophysiological role of VWF after experimental ICH. Functional outcomes, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, cerebral inflammation and levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured in a mouse model of ICH induced by autologous blood injection...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cindy T van Velthoven, Mark Dzietko, Michael F Wendland, Nikita Derugin, Joel Faustino, Cobi J Heijnen, Donna M Ferriero, Zinaida S Vexler
Cell therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and neonatal ischemic brain injury. Delayed intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after experimental hypoxia-ischemia and after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in neonatal rats has shown improvement in long-term functional outcomes, but the effects of MSCs on white matter injury (WMI) are insufficiently understood. In this study we used longitudinal T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize chronic injury after tMCAO induced in postnatal day 10 (P10) rats and examined the effects of delayed MSC administration on WMI, axonal coverage, and long-term somatosensory function...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hua Liu, Yong Liu, Jinbing Zhao, Hongyi Liu, Shengxue He
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses are correlated with secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a novel biomarker reflecting inflammation status, and its elevated circulating levels are associated with poor prognosis of some inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Gal-3 plasma levels and prognosis in a group of aSAH patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed plasma Gal-3 levels in 120 patients and 120 healthy individuals...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Yogi Chang-Yo Hsuan, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Mao-Tsun Lin
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been reported to improve neurological function following neural injury. Many physiological and molecular mechanisms involving MSC therapy-related neuroprotection have been identified. METHODS: A review is presented of articles that pertain to MSC therapy and diverse brain injuries including stroke, neural trauma, and heat stroke, which were identified using an electronic search (e.g., PubMed), emphasize mechanisms of MSC therapy-related neuroprotection...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Sebastian Jessberger
Acute or chronic injury of the adult mammalian brain is often associated with persistent functional deficits as its potential for regeneration and capacity to rebuild lost neural structures is limited. However, the discovery that neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life in discrete regions of the brain, novel approaches to induce the formation of neuronal and glial cells, and recently developed strategies to generate tissue for exogenous cell replacement strategies opened novel perspectives how to regenerate the adult brain...
September 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Mushfiquddin Khan, Tajinder S Dhammu, Mauhamad Baarine, Jinsu Kim, Manjeet K Paintlia, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes sustained disability due to compromised neurorepair mechanisms. Crucial to neurorepair and functional recovery following both TBI and stroke is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Based on reports that HIF-1α could be stabilized via S-nitrosylation, we tested the hypothesis that the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) would stabilize HIF-1α, thereby stimulating neurorepair mechanisms and aiding in functional recovery. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult rats...
October 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Julie Bergeron, Noha Gerges, Clémence Guiraut, Djordje Grbic, Marie-Julie Allard, Louis-Charles Fortier, Cathy Vaillancourt, Guillaume Sébire
Infection or inflammation during pregnancy is known to lead to maternal immune activation triggering a fetal inflammatory response syndrome associated with deleterious effects, such as brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) - one of the most common bacterium colonizing pregnant women - can be responsible for chorioamnionitis. Given that interleukin (IL)-1β has a major role in anti-GBS host defense, we hypothesized that IL-1β-driven innate immune response is implicated in GBS-induced chorioamnionitis...
November 2016: Placenta
Hao Zhang, Xiao-Nian Zhang, Hui-Li Zhang, Liang Huang, Qian-Qian Chi, Xin Zhang, Xiao-Ping Yun
PURPOSE: To investigate the profiles of cognitive impairment through Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) or stroke and to evaluate the sensitivity of the two scales in patients with TBI. METHODS: In this cohort study, a total of 230 patients were evaluated, including TBI group (n = 103) and stroke group (n = 127). The cognitive functions of two groups were evaluated by designated specialists using MoCA (Beijing version) and MMSE (Chinese version)...
October 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Xiang Li, Handong Wang, Yongyue Gao, Liwen Li, Chao Tang, Guodao Wen, Yuan Zhou, Mengliang Zhou, Lei Mao, Youwu Fan
The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood...
2016: PloS One
Marco Franceschini, Maria Pia Massimiani, Stefano Paravati, Maurizio Agosti
Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients...
2016: PloS One
Alexander C Schwed, Monica M Boggs, Drew Watanabe, David S Plurad, Brant A Putnam, Dennis Y Kim
Consensus is lacking for ideal management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Patients are often monitored in the intensive care unit (ICU) without additional interventions. We sought to identify admission variables associated with a favorable outcome (ICU admission for 24 hours, no neurosurgical interventions, no complications or mortality) to divert these patients to a non-ICU setting in the future. We reviewed all patients with mTBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) = 13-15] and concomitant ICH between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Joseph J Ryan, David S Kreiner, Laura Glass Umfleet, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Allison Myers-Fabian
We examined relationships between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in two clinical samples. The mean pattern produced by 42 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 47 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the same, GAI > CPI. This pattern occurred in 61.9% and 78.7% of the protocols of patients with MS or TBI, respectively. The MS sample earned a significantly larger CPI mean than did patients with TBI...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Kavita Singh, Richa Trivedi, Seenu Haridas, Kailash Manda, Subash Khushu
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of TBI (70-90%) with consequences of anxiety-like behavioral alterations in approximately 23% of mTBI cases. This study aimed to assess whether mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior is a consequence of neurometabolic alterations. mTBI was induced using a weight drop model to simulate mild human brain injury in rodents. Based on injury induction and dosage of anesthesia, four animal groups were included in this study: (i) injury with anesthesia (IA); (ii) sham1 (injury only, IO); (iii) sham2 (only anesthesia, OA); and (iv) control rats...
October 25, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
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