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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445874/erythropoietin-treatment-exacerbates-moderate-injury-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neonatal-superoxide-dismutase-transgenic-mice
#1
R Ann Sheldon, Christine Windsor, Byong Sop Lee, Olatz Arteaga Cabeza, Donna M Ferriero
The neonatal brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress as developing endogenous antioxidant mechanisms are overwhelmed. In the neonate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) overexpression worsens hypoxic-ischemic injury due to H2O2 accumulation in the brain. Erythropoietin (EPO) is upregulated in 2 phases after HI, early (4 h) and late (7 days), and exogenous EPO has been effective in reducing the injury, possibly through reducing oxidative stress. We hypothesized that exogenous EPO would limit injury from excess H2O2 seen in SOD1-overexpressing mice, and thus enhance recovery after HI...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445772/rosiglitazone-pretreatment-influences-thrombin-induced-phagocytosis-by-rat-microglia-via-activating-ppar%C3%AE-and-cd36
#2
Qiong Mu, Likun Wang, Hang Hang, Chunfeng Liu, Guofeng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective role of rosiglitazone against secondary brain injury after cerebral hemorrhage, we investigated the effect of rosiglitazone pretreatment on thrombin-induced microglial phagocytosis and described the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. METHODS: Primary microglial cells were obtained from the brain tissue of newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and were randomly divided into four groups: the normal, thrombin stimulation, thrombin-treated plus rosiglitazone, and thrombin-rosiglitazone plus proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) antagonist groups...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445595/ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-produces-a-chronic-striatal-hyperdopaminergic-state-that-is-worsened-by-methylphenidate-treatment
#3
Gerald J Nora, Rashed Harun, David F Fine, Daniel Hutchison, Adam C Grobart, Jason P Stezoski, Miranda Munoz, Patrick M Kochanek, Rehana K Leak, Tomas Drabek, Amy K Wagner
Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#4
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445478/delayed-histochemical-alterations-within-the-neurovascular-unit-due-to-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-experimental-treatment-with-neurotrophic-factors
#5
Dominik Michalski, Roman Pitsch, Deepu R Pillai, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Felix Schlachetzki, Wolfgang Härtig
Current stroke therapy is focused on recanalizing strategies, but neuroprotective co-treatments are still lacking. Modern concepts of the ischemia-affected neurovascular unit (NVU) and surrounding penumbra emphasize the complexity during the transition from initial damaging to regenerative processes. While early treatment with neurotrophic factors was shown to result in lesion size reduction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stabilization, cellular consequences from these treatments are poorly understood. This study explored delayed cellular responses not only to ischemic stroke, but also to an early treatment with neurotrophic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445296/a-case-of-cerebral-hyperperfusion-following-spontaneous-recanalization-of-occluded-middle-cerebral-artery-reperfusion-injury-or-true-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome
#6
Ziqi Xu, Jiajia Zhou, Hui Liang, Benyan Luo, Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) and reperfusion injury are distinct pathological phenomena. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a young ischemic stroke patient with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and spontaneous recanalization. Follow-up transcranial Doppler ultrasound showed high velocity flow in the left MCA, and neuroimaging revealed infarction, brain edema, artery dilatation, and hyperperfusion, consistent with both CHS and reperfusion injury...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445184/electroconvulsive-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-patient-with-depressive-disorder-after-traumatic-brain-injury-intracranial-bleeding-and-polytrauma
#7
Jana Hořínková, Richard Barteček, Sylvie Fedorová
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444780/fetal-brain-injury-in-complicated-monochorionic-pregnancies-diagnostic-yield-of-prenatal-mri-following-surveillance-ultrasound-and-influence-on-prognostic-counselling
#8
Alice Robinson, Mark Teoh, Andrew Edwards, Michael Fahey, Stacy Goergen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the additional diagnostic information provided by prenatal (fetal) magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) following tertiary ultrasound (US) for fetal cranial abnormalities in complicated monochorionic gestations (cMCGs) METHODS: Women with cMCGs complicated by twin - twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), co-twin demise (CD), selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), and / or twin anemia - polycythemia sequence (TAPS) who were referred for pMRI after tertiary US were included...
April 26, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#9
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444554/relationships-between-environmental-factors-and-participation-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury-a-cross-sectional-multi-center-study
#10
Alex W K Wong, Sheryl Ng, Jessica Dashner, M Carolyn Baum, Joy Hammel, Susan Magasi, Jin-Shei Lai, Noelle E Carlozzi, David S Tulsky, Ana Miskovic, Arielle Goldsmith, Allen W Heinemann
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a model of environmental factors-participation relationships for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and spinal cord injury (SCI), and test whether this model differed across three diagnostic groups, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study included 545 community-dwelling adults with neurological disorders (TBI = 166; stroke = 189; SCI = 190) recruited at three academic medical centers...
April 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444463/cost-effectiveness-of-craniotomy-for-epidural-hematomas-at-a-major-government-hospital-in-cambodia
#11
Dane Moran, Mark G Shrime, Sam Nang, Iv Vycheth, Din Vuthy, Raksmey Hong, William V Padula, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common and potentially deadly occurrence following a severe traumatic brain injury. Our aim was to determine whether craniotomy is cost-effective when indicated for the treatment of EDH when a trained neurosurgeon is available. METHODS: A decision tree was used to model the cost-effectiveness of craniotomy available versus craniotomy unavailable for the management of traumatic EDH from a Cambodian societal and provider perspective...
April 25, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444144/congenital-zika-virus-infection-induces-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Fernando S Ramalho, Aparecida Y Yamamoto, Luis L da Silva, Luiz Tm Figueiredo, Lenaldo B Rocha, Luciano Neder, Sara R Teixeira, Letícia A Apolinário, Leandra Nz Ramalho, Deisy M Silva, Conrado M Coutinho, Patrícia P Melli, Marlei J Augusto, Ligia B Santoro, Geraldo Duarte, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata
We reported two fatal cases of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Brain anomalies including atrophy of the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and cerebellar aplasia were observed. The spinal cord showed architectural distortion, severe neuronal loss and microcalcifications. The ZIKV proteins and flavivirus-like particles were detected in cytoplasm of spinal neurons, and spinal cord samples were positive for the ZIKV RNA.
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444141/imaging-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-as-a-biomarker-for-epileptogenesis
#13
Guy Bar-Klein, Svetlana Lublinsky, Lyn Kamintsky, Iris Noyman, Ronel Veksler, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Vladimir V Senatorov, Evyatar Swissa, Dror Rosenbach, Netta Elazary, Dan Z Milikovsky, Nadav Milk, Michael Kassirer, Yossi Rosman, Yonatan Serlin, Arik Eisenkraft, Yoash Chassidim, Yisrael Parmet, Daniela Kaufer, Alon Friedman
A biomarker that will enable the identification of patients at high-risk for developing post-injury epilepsy is critically required. Microvascular pathology and related blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation were shown to be associated with epileptogenesis after injury. Here we used prospective, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively follow blood-brain barrier pathology in rats following status epilepticus, late electrocorticography to identify epileptic animals and post-mortem immunohistochemistry to confirm blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation...
April 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444123/a-comparison-of-four-computerized-neurocognitive-assessment-tools%C3%A2-to-a-traditional-neuropsychological-test-battery-in-service-members-with-and-without-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Wesley R Cole, Jacques P Arrieux, Brian J Ivins, Karen A Schwab, Felicia M Qashu
Objective: Computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATS) are often used as a screening tool to identify cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, differing methodology across studies renders it difficult to identify a consensus regarding the validity of NCATs. Thus, studies where multiple NCATs are administered in the same sample using the same methodology are warranted. Method: We investigated the validity of four NCATs: the ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443270/brain-lesions-among-orally-fed-and-gastrostomy-fed-dysphagic-preterm-infants-can-routine-qualitative-or-volumetric-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predict-feeding-outcomes
#15
Nasser H Kashou, Irfaan A Dar, Mohamed A El-Mahdy, Charles Pluto, Mark Smith, Ish K Gulati, Warren Lo, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
INTRODUCTION: The usefulness of qualitative or quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early detection of brain structural changes and prediction of adverse outcomes in neonatal illnesses warrants further investigation. Our aim was to correlate certain brain injuries and the brain volume of feeding-related cortical and subcortical regions with feeding method at discharge among preterm dysphagic infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective observational study design, we examined MRI data among 43 (22 male; born at 31...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443058/predicting-outcome-12-months-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-admitted-to-a-neurosurgery-service
#16
Torgeir Hellstrøm, Tobias Kaufmann, Nada Andelic, Helene L Soberg, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Eirik Helseth, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: Accurate outcome prediction models for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are key for prognostic assessment and clinical decision-making. Using multivariate machine learning, we tested the unique and added predictive value of (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain morphometric and volumetric characterization at 4-week postinjury and (2) demographic, preinjury, injury-related, and postinjury variables on 12-month outcomes, including global functioning level, postconcussion symptoms, and mental health in patients with MTBI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442989/perinatal-brain-injury-as-a-consequence-of-preterm-birth-and-intrauterine-inflammation-designing-targeted-stem-cell-therapies
#17
REVIEW
Madison C B Paton, Courtney A McDonald, Beth J Allison, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of preterm birth and brain injury. Bacterial invasion of the chorion and amnion, and/or the placenta, can lead to a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn has significant adverse consequences for the developing fetal brain. Accordingly, there is a strong causal link between chorioamnionitis, preterm brain injury and the pathogenesis of severe postnatal neurological deficits and cerebral palsy. Currently there are no treatments to protect or repair against brain injury in preterm infants born after pregnancy compromised by intrauterine infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442781/spreading-depolarization-remarkably-exacerbates-ischemia-induced-tissue-acidosis-in-the-young-and-aged-rat-brain
#18
Ákos Menyhárt, Dániel Zölei-Szénási, Tamás Puskás, Péter Makra, M Tóth Orsolya, Borbála É Szepes, Réka Tóth, Orsolya Ivánkovits-Kiss, Tihomir P Obrenovitch, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the cerebral cortex of subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke or traumatic brain injury patients. Accumulating evidence prove that SDs exacerbate focal ischemic injury by converting zones of the viable but non-functional ischemic penumbra to the core region beyond rescue. Yet the SD-related mechanisms to mediate neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. Here we show in the cerebral cortex of isoflurane-anesthetized, young and old laboratory rats, that SDs propagating under ischemic penumbra-like conditions decrease intra and- extracellular tissue pH transiently to levels, which have been recognized to cause tissue damage...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442737/structural-and-biochemical-insights-of-cypa-and-aif-interaction
#19
Biancamaria Farina, Gianluigi Di Sorbo, Angela Chambery, Andrea Caporale, Guido Leoni, Rosita Russo, Fabiola Mascanzoni, Domenico Raimondo, Roberto Fattorusso, Menotti Ruvo, Nunzianna Doti
The Cyclophilin A (CypA)/Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) complex is implicated in the DNA degradation in response to various cellular stress conditions, such as oxidative stress, cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and traumatic brain injury. The pro-apoptotic form of AIF (AIF(Δ1-121)) mainly interacts with CypA through the amino acid region 370-394. The AIF(370-394) synthetic peptide inhibits complex formation in vitro by binding to CypA and exerts neuroprotection in a model of glutamate-mediated oxidative stress. Here, the binding site of AIF(Δ1-121) and AIF(370-394) on CypA has been mapped by NMR spectroscopy and biochemical studies, and a molecular model of the complex has been proposed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442392/4-chlorodiazepam-is-neuroprotective-against-amyloid-beta-in-organotypic-hippocampal-cultures
#20
B D Arbo, J B Hoppe, K Rodrigues, L M Garcia-Segura, C G Salbego, M F Ribeiro
The translocator protein (TSPO) is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein involved in the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria, which is the first step for the synthesis of steroid hormones, as well as in the regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis. Studies have shown that the activation of TSPO may promote neuroprotective actions in experimental models of neurodegeneration and brain injury. In a previous study, our group showed that 4'-chlorodiazepam (4'-CD), a TSPO ligand, was neuroprotective against amyloid-beta (Aβ) in SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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