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Brain injury

Tetsuo Kiso, Toshihiro Sekizawa, Hiroshi Uchino, Mina Tsukamoto, Shuichiro Kakimoto
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids are a major class of stress hormones that have been reported to participate in stress-induced hyperalgesia. Although 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase1 (11β-HSD1) is known to be a key enzyme in the intracellular regeneration of glucocorticoids in the central nervous system (CNS), its role in pain perception has not been elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of ASP3662, a novel 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, on neuropathic and dysfunctional pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The enzyme inhibitory activities and pharmacokinetics of ASP3662 were examined, and its antinociceptive effects were evaluated in neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and inflammatory pain rat models...
July 14, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Despina Karasavvidou, Pierre Boutouyrie, Rigas Kalaitzidis, Hakim Kettab, Kosmas Pappas, Dimitrios Stagikas, Nikolaos Antonakis, Dimitrios Tsalikakis, Moses Elisaf, Stephane Laurent
In the general population aortic stiffening, assessed by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is associated with cognitive dysfunction (CO/DY). Data in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. This study tests the hypothesis that large artery stiffness and microvascular damage in CKD patients are related to the damage of brain microcirculation reflected by impaired cognitive function. A cross-sectional study enrolled 151 patients (mean age 58.4 years; 64.5% males; 44 patients with CKD stage 1; 47 with stage 2; 25 with stage 3; and 35 with stage 4)...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Maria Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Mari Paz Serrano, Elena Alberdi, Fernando Pérez-Cerdá, Carlos Matute
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and their loss or dysfunction is a hallmark of CNS demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), hypoxic-ischemic demyelination, or spinal cord injury. In the rodent CNS, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) arise in multiple ventral and dorsal locations of the forebrain during late embryogenesis and early postnatal periods. OPCs migrate out from these germinal zones and disperse throughout the CNS, to populate the developing white and gray matter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
W Brad Hubbard, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Shaylen Greenberg, Carly Norris, Joseph Eck, Erin Lavik, Pamela VandeVord
Explosions account for 79% of combat related injuries and often lead to polytrauma, a majority of which include blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). These injuries lead to internal bleeding in multiple organs and, in the case of bTBI, long term neurological deficits. Currently, there are no treatments for internal bleeding beyond fluid resuscitation and surgery. There is also a dearth of treatments for TBI. We have developed a novel approach using hemostatic nanoparticles that encapsulate an anti-inflammatory, dexamethasone, to stop the bleeding and reduce inflammation after injury...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pavlina Tsoka, Hidetaka Matsumoto, Daniel E Maidana, Keiko Kataoka, Irene Naoumidi, Achille Gravanis, Demetrios G Vavvas, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris
Retinal detachment (RD) leads to photoreceptor cell death secondary to the physical separation of the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Intensifying photoreceptor survival in the detached retina could be remarkably favorable for many retinopathies in which RD can be seen. BNN27, a blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeable, C17-spiroepoxy derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has shown promising neuroprotective activity through interaction with nerve growth factor receptors, TrkA and p75NTR ...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cheng Peng, Xiao-Hui Dong, Jia-Lin Liu, Yu-Long Tao, Chun-Fang Xu, Li-Ping Wang, Chun-Long Liu, Ding-Feng Su, Xia Tao, Chuan Zhang, Alex F Chen, He-Hui Xie
There is a pressing need for new approaches to preventing stroke. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote vascular repair and revascularization in the ischemic brain. This study sought to evaluate whether preventive delivery of EPCs could prevent or protect against stroke. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) received a single injection of EPCs, and their survival time was monitored. In addition, at 28 and/or 42 days after a single injection of EPCs, SHR-SP and mice were subjected to cerebral ischemia, and cerebral ischemic injury, local angiogenesis and in vivo EPC integration were determined...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Dan-Yang Liu, Tian-Yan Chi, Xue-Fei Ji, Peng Liu, Xiao-Xiao Qi, Lin Zhu, Zi-Qi Wang, Lin-Li, Ling Chen, Li-Bo Zou
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) activation has been shown to decrease infarct volume and enhance neuronal survival after brain ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in rodent models. The present study aims to investigate first the effect of Sig-1R activation on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption during experimental stroke. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 15 min, and the worst BBB leakage was observed on the 7th day after brain IR. To confirm the BBB protective role of Sig-1R, mice were divided into five groups (sham group, BCCAO group, PRE084 group, BD1047 group, PRE084 and BD1047 group; 29-35 mice for each group), and treated with agonist PRE084 (1 mg/kg) and/or antagonist BD1047 (1 mg/kg) for 7 days intraperitoneally once a day after BCCAO...
July 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Gen Hamanaka, Ryo Ohtomo, Hajime Takase, Josephine Lok, Ken Arai
White matter damage caused by neurodegenerative diseases is almost incurable at present and an effective treatment has been waited for a long time. Etiology of the white matter damage is attributed to the collapse of axon-myelin complex and the breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB), which result in disruption of the white matter function. While the white matter dysfunction cannot be repaired by itself, some compensative responses may occur after the damage. Oligodendrocyte lineage cells play an important role for the white matter function, and during the chronic phase of diseases, they aim to cooperate with other neurovascular component cells to repair the damaged white matter tissue...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Dhuleep S Wijayatilake, Dominic P D Nielsen, Elinor Baker, Vinod Patil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains an unfortunately common disease with potentially devastating consequences for patients and their families. However, it is important to remember that it is a spectrum of disease and thus, a one 'treatment fits all' approach is not appropriate to achieve optimal outcomes. This review aims to inform readers about recent updates in prehospital and neurocritical care management of patients with TBI. RECENT FINDINGS: Prehospital care teams which include a physician may reduce mortality...
July 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Chang-Hyun Lee, Hae-Won Koo, Seong Rok Han, Chan-Young Choi, Moon-Jun Sohn, Chae-Heuck Lee
OBJECTIVE De novo seizure following craniotomy (DSC) for nontraumatic pathology may adversely affect medical and neurological outcomes in patients with no history of seizures who have undergone craniotomies. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are commonly used prophylactically in patients undergoing craniotomy; however, evidence supporting this practice is limited and mixed. The authors aimed to collate the available evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam monotherapy and compare it with that of the classic AED, phenytoin, for DSC...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Michael Brainin
Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation with neurotrophic factor-like effects and promotes recovery after brain injury. Its preclinical profile promises wide applications due to multi-target effects. Currently, Cerebrolysin is used for treatment of cerebral ischemia and neurodegeneration. Areas covered: In stroke, early clinical trials with Cerebrolysin were performed mostly in mildly affected stroke populations, which usually have a favourable prognosis. Due to this selection, a likely floor or ceiling effect of recovery measures in the mild cases may have prevented to show a clear benefit between treatment groups...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Sarah A Kissiwaa, Elena E Bagley
Pain is an important defence against dangers in our environment, however some clinical conditions produce pain that outlasts this useful role and persist even after the injury has healed. The experience of pain consists of somatosensory elements of intensity and location, negative emotional/aversive feelings and subsequent restrictions on lifestyle due to learned association between certain activities and pain. The amygdala contributes negative emotional value to nociceptive sensory information and forms the association between an aversive response and the environment in which it occurs...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kalliopi Sofou, Pashtun Shahim, Már Tulinius, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Niklas Mattsson, Niklas Darin
We studied the biomarker patterns related to axonal injury, astrogliosis and amyloid metabolism in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children and adolescents with mitochondrial encephalopathy and identified correlations with phenotype and survival outcome. Forty-six pediatric patients with genetically verified mitochondrial encephalopathy and twenty-two controls investigated at the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sweden, were included. CSF lactate and neurofilament light (NF-L) were significantly increased in patients with mitochondrial encephalopathy compared to controls...
July 9, 2018: Mitochondrion
Chiara Sueri, Sara Gasparini, Simona Balestrini, Angelo Labate, Antonio Gambardella, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Silvia Casarotto, Francesca Pittau, Michele Trimboli, Vittoria Cianci, Michele Ascoli, Salvatore M Cavalli, Giulia Ferrigno, Umberto Aguglia, Edoardo Ferlazzo
BACKGROUND: diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy are objectively measurable variables associated to the development of epilepsy or the propensity to generate seizures. Identification of biomarkers could be helpful for differential diagnosis and for tailored therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVE: this review focuses on diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy, including genetic, serological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological variables. METHODS: references were mainly identified through PubMed search until December 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies...
July 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Maria Kovalska, Barbara Tothova, Libusa Kovalska, Zuzana Tatarkova, Dagmar Kalenska, Anna Tomascova, Marian Adamkov, Jan Lehotsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that results in massive hippocampal and neocortical neuronal loss leading to dementia and eventual death. The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is not fully explored, although a number of risk factors have been recognized, including high plasma concentration of homocysteine (Hcy). Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) is considered a strong, independent risk factor for stroke and dementia. However, the molecular background underlying these mechanisms linked with hHcy and ischemic stroke is not fully understood...
July 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Chengyan Chu, Yue Gao, Xiaoyan Lan, Aline Thomas, Shen Li
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system via homophilic (NCAM-NCAM) and heterophilic (NCAM-other molecules) interactions. Many synthetic peptides have been engineered to mimic these interactions and induce NCAM-downstream signaling pathways. Such NCAM mimetics have displayed neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties, as well as synaptic modulation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they have been used successfully in preclinical studies to treat neurological disorders including stroke, traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease...
July 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Per-Ola Rike, Line Aksdal Eriksen, Anne-Kristine Schanke
OBJECTIVES: To investigate self and informant ratings of everyday executive functions and their correlation with driving behaviour after acquired brain injury. METHODS: A 1-year follow-up study of 24 adults with stroke and 10 adults with traumatic brain injury deemed fit to drive after a multidisciplinary driving assessment. Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and self and informant reports of everyday executive function (Behavior Rating of Executive Function; BRIEF-A)...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Anna Holmqvist, Märta Berthold Lindstedt, Marika C Möller
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue after acquired brain injury may be related to the subcortico-frontal attention network. Depression is also strongly related to fatigue. This study investigates whether injury localization, diagnosis and depression are related to self-rated mental fatigue in patients with an acquired brain injury. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. SUBJECTS: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with stroke, subarachnoidal haemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, or brain tumour were included in the study...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Lisa Finkel, Katharina Hogrefe, Scott H Frey, Georg Goldenberg, Jennifer Randerath
For over a century, pantomime of tool use has been employed to diagnose limb apraxia, a disorder of motor cognition primarily induced by left brain damage. While research consistently implicates damage to a left fronto-temporo-parietal network in limb apraxia, findings are inconsistent regarding the impact of damage to anterior versus posterior nodes within this network on pantomime. Complicating matters is the fact that tool use pantomime can be affected and evaluated at multiple levels. For instance, the production of tool use gestures requires the consideration of semantic characteristics (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rutger Heinen, Naomi Vlegels, Jeroen de Bresser, Alexander Leemans, Geert Jan Biessels, Yael D Reijmer
Background and purpose: Mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are still unknown. We hypothesized that cognition is affected by the cumulative effect of multiple SVD-related lesions on brain connectivity. We therefore assessed the relationship between the total SVD burden on MRI, global brain network efficiency, and cognition in memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury. Methods: 173 patients from the memory clinic of the University Medical Center Utrecht underwent a 3 T brain MRI scan (including diffusion MRI sequences) and neuropsychological testing...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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