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Mao Yunhe, Yang Yuan, Wang Xiang, Liu Yanhui, Mao Qing
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, which is the most common symptom accompanying gliomas, was reported as an independent favorable prognosis factor for glioma patients. However, the correlation between glioma location and epilepsy prognosis, genesis and genetic phenotypes of the glioma associated seizure (GAS) patients is far from clear, the purpose of the current study was to provide probabilistic radiographic atlases reflecting seizure susceptible regions, relationship between tumor associated biomarkers and seizure initiation and poor epilepsy prognosis areas...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Nora Weber, Anaëlle Hatsch, Ludivine Labagnere, Harald Heider
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has great potential as a whole-cell biocatalyst for multistep synthesis of various organic molecules. To date, however, few examples exist in the literature of the successful biosynthetic production of chemical compounds, in yeast, that do not exist in nature. Considering that more than 30% of all drugs on the market are purely chemical compounds, often produced by harsh synthetic chemistry or with very low yields, novel and environmentally sound production routes are highly desirable...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Syed Rizvi, Lady Diana Ladino, Lizbeth Hernandez-Ronquillo, José F Téllez-Zenteno
A single unprovoked seizure is a frequent phenomenon in the general population and the rate of seizure recurrence can vary widely. Individual risk prognostication is crucial in predicting patient outcomes and guiding treatment decisions. In this article, we review the most important risk factors associated with an increased likelihood of seizure recurrence after a single unprovoked seizure. In summary, the presence of focal seizure, nocturnal seizure, history of prior brain injury, family history of epilepsy, abnormal neurological exam, epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography and neuroimaging abnormalities, portend increased risk of seizure recurrence...
February 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Fei Chen, Yaqi Duan, Yongqin Li, Wenjie Han, Weilei Shi, Weiwei Zhang, Yonghua Huang
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common complication of cranioplasty. The present study was designed to explore the clinical effect of prophylactic anti-epilepsy drugs (AED) to control epileptic seizures associated with cranioplasty. METHODS: and design: This trial was a prospective, randomized, open-label, single-centre, active controlled study designed to investigate the use of antiepileptic drug to control epileptic seizures associated with cranioplasty. We tested the necessity and methods of drug use...
April 2017: International Journal of Surgery
Usman Abdulfatai, Adamu Uzairu, Sani Uba
Quantitative structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies were carried out on a series of quinazolinonyl analogues as anticonvulsant inhibitors. Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculation method was used to find the optimized geometry of the anticonvulsants inhibitors. Four types of molecular descriptors were used to derive a quantitative relation between anticonvulsant activity and structural properties. The relevant molecular descriptors were selected by Genetic Function Algorithm (GFA)...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
Yuri Nagai, Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Hironao Motoi, Sotaro Kanai, Takuya Yokota, Hideo Enoki, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Takamichi Yamamoto
PURPOSE: To perform an epilepsy surgery on a patient with drug resistant epilepsy secondary to bilateral brain malformation. The patient was a 2-year 9-month-old boy who had congenital bilateral multiple abnormalities. He developed a complex partial seizure at 9 months old. Based on the presurgical evaluations, he underwent a right hemispherotomy. RESULTS: Brain MRI revealed congenital bilateral polymicrogyria, right schizencephaly, and corpus callosum agenesis...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Xian-Qing Ren, Rong Ma, Chang-Quan Yang, Quan-Hui Liu, Ju Jiao, Xi-Lian Zhang, Ping Rong
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of Kangxian (KX) capsules on hippocampal neuron convulsive injuries. METHODS: An epileptic discharge model was prepared with hippocampal neurons and divided into groups that were subjected to control, Mg-free, MK801, or anti-epilepsy (KX) interventions for 6 or 24h. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel current was recorded with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and the decay tau was determined from the receptor channel attenuation...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
A Odawara, H Katoh, N Matsuda, I Suzuki
The functional network of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons is a potentially powerful in vitro model for evaluating disease mechanisms and drug responses. However, the culture time required for the full functional maturation of individual neurons and networks is uncertain. We investigated the development of spontaneous electrophysiological activity and pharmacological responses for over 1 year in culture using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The complete maturation of spontaneous firing, evoked responses, and modulation of activity by glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor antagonists/agonists required 20-30 weeks...
2016: Scientific Reports
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2016: Nursing Standard
Wei Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Lang Chen, Yujiao Zhang, Zucai Xu, Jing Liu, Guohui Jiang, Jie Li, Xiaogang Zhang, KeWei Wang, Jinghui Wang, Guojun Chen, Jing Luo
miR-124, a brain-specific microRNA, was originally considered as a key regulator in neuronal differentiation and the development of the nervous system. Here we showed that miR-124 expression was suppressed in patients with epilepsy and rats after drug induced-seizures. Intrahippocampal administration of a miR-124 duplex led to alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in two rat models (pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures), while miR-124 inhibitor led to shortened onset latency in pilocarpine-induced seizure rat models...
March 21, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Derek J Chong, Andrew M Lerman
Since 2010, the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of four new anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of epilepsy in the USA: clobazam (Onfi), ezogabine (Potiga), perampanel (Fycompa), and eslicarbazepine (Aptiom) as well as two extended release formulations, topiramate ER (Qudexy XR and Trokendi) and oxcarbazepine ER (Oxtellar). This not only provides practitioners ample choice to match medication profiles to their patients' preferences and co-morbidities better, but also challenges us to be proficient in the use of all...
April 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Ning-ning Zhang, Guang-zhi Ding
Valeriana jatamansi (syn. V. wallichii), a traditional Chinese medicine recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia (1977 and 2010 edition), has been used for treatment of a variety of conditions including sleep problems, obesity, nervous disorders, epilepsy, insanity, snake poisoning, eye trouble, and skin diseases. Also, it was used as an important substitute for the European V. officinalis, whose root preparation, popularly known as valerian, has been employed as a mild sedative for a long time. In recent years, much attention has been draw to the iridoids, one of the major bioactive constituents of V...
May 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Solomon Habtemariam, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Azadeh Manayi, Olga Gortzi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
The World Health Organization estimated that the proportion of older people (over 60 years) will increase from 11% to 22% during next 40 years throughout the world. With respect to this, the morbidity and mortality rates of age-related diseases will increase. Mental diseases are the most common and important health problems among elderly people. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the discovery of neuroprotective drugs with high efficacy and negligible adverse effects. A growing body of scientific evidence has shown that phytochemicals possess neuroprotective effects and also mitigate neurodegeneration under both in vivo and in vitro conditions...
November 2015: Neurochemistry International
Xin Xu, Yida Hu, Yan Xiong, Zhonggui Li, Wei Wang, Chao Du, Yong Yang, Yanke Zhang, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
Approximately 30 % of epilepsy cases are refractory to current pharmacological treatments through unknown mechanisms. Much work has been done on the role of synaptic components in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, but relatively little attention has been given to the potential role of the microtubules. We investigated the level of microtubule dynamic in 30 human epileptic tissues and two different chronic epilepsy rat models. The administration of microtubule-modulating agent attenuated the progression of chronic epilepsy...
September 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Lidia M V R Moura, Diego Yacaman Mendez, Jonathan De Jesus, Rogger A Andrade, Joel S Weissman, Barbara G Vickrey, Daniel B Hoch
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between adherence to epilepsy quality measures (EQM) and seizure control over 2-3 years in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: 6150 patients were identified at two large academic medical centers with a primary or secondary diagnosis of epilepsy, were 18-85 years old and seen in outpatient general neurology or epilepsy units between June 2011 and May 2014. Patients were included if: their initial visit was between June 2011 and June 2012, treatment was with ≥1 anti-seizure drug, there was ≥1 visit per year during the timeframe, and seizure frequency was documented at initial and final visits, yielding 162 patients/1055 visits from which socio-demographic, clinical and care quality data were abstracted...
November 2015: Epilepsy Research
Iraj Aghaei, Mohammad Rostampour, Mohammad Shabani, Nima Naderi, Fereshteh Motamedi, Parvin Babaei, Behrooz Khakpour-Taleghani
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Though there are effective medications available to reduce the symptoms of the disease, their side effects have limited their usage. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to attenuate seizure in different animal models. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in this attenuation. Male wistar rats were used for the current experiment. PTZ was injected to induce chemical kindling in animals. After verification of kindling in animals, treatment was performed with PEA, AM251 and AM630 in different groups...
November 2015: Epilepsy Research
M Wassenaar, F S S Leijten, J W Sander, S G Uijl, A C G Egberts
OBJECTIVE: Changes in anti-epileptic drug (AED) regimens may indicate unsatisfactory treatment results such as insufficient seizure control or adverse effects. This inference underlies epilepsy management and research, yet current studies often do not account for AED changes. We assessed AED change patterns and their association with quality of life (QoL), as main outcome measure, in a community-based setting. METHODS: We assessed a cohort of 248 people with epilepsy identified from community pharmacy records from whom we retrieved AED dispensing history...
June 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Tetsuya Akaishi, Kazutaka Jin, Kazuhiro Kato, Hisashi Itabashi, Tatsuro Misu, Maki Tateyama, Masaki Iwasaki, Masashi Aoki, Nobukazu Nakasato
Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies are known to be associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), stiff-person syndrome, and other neurological symptoms including temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), known as autoimmune epilepsy. We treated four patients with TLE who had elevated titers of serum anti-GAD antibody (anti-GAD-Ab), higher than 100 U/ml. Three of the four patients started to have epileptic seizures in their 5th or 6th decade. Characteristic symptoms suggesting encephalitis or encephalopathy were absent at onset of these symptoms, which led to delayed diagnosis...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Tomoyuki Tanaka, Nana Yajima, Akihiko Tanitame, Tomoko Kiyoshi, Yoshiki Miura
In order to develop novel anti-epileptic drugs that are effective for both general and partial seizure, we conducted in vivo screening of our chemical library in the mice MES and sc-PTZ models and found the benzothiazine 1 as lead compound. Optimization of this compound led to the discovery of compound 7b, which showed potent anticonvulsant effect in the MES, scPTZ and rat amygdala kindling models. Since the chemical structure of 7b is different from that of any existing AED, it is suggested that 7b may have unique mechanism of action for relieving both partial and generalized epilepsy...
October 15, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Emmi Bruun, Lauri J Virta, Reetta Kälviäinen, Tapani Keränen
PURPOSE: The choice of initial anti-epileptic drug (AED) for elderly and younger adult patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy was assessed. METHODS: The pattern of initial prescription of AEDs between 2000 and 2013 was retrospectively studied in two community-dwelling cohorts, identified from the case records of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH): elderly subjects (aged 65 or above at the time of diagnosis; n = 529) and a random sample of younger adults (16-64 years old at the time of diagnosis; n = 201)...
September 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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