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Yuri Nagai, Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Hironao Motoi, Sotaro Kanai, Takuya Yokota, Hideo Enoki, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Takamichi Yamamoto
PURPOSE: To perform an epilepsy surgery on a patient with drug resistant epilepsy secondary to bilateral brain malformation. The patient was a 2-year 9-month-old boy who had congenital bilateral multiple abnormalities. He developed a complex partial seizure at 9 months old. Based on the presurgical evaluations, he underwent a right hemispherotomy. RESULTS: Brain MRI revealed congenital bilateral polymicrogyria, right schizencephaly, and corpus callosum agenesis...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Xian-Qing Ren, Rong Ma, Chang-Quan Yang, Quan-Hui Liu, Ju Jiao, Xi-Lian Zhang, Ping Rong
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of Kangxian (KX) capsules on hippocampal neuron convulsive injuries. METHODS: An epileptic discharge model was prepared with hippocampal neurons and divided into groups that were subjected to control, Mg-free, MK801, or anti-epilepsy (KX) interventions for 6 or 24h. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel current was recorded with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and the decay tau was determined from the receptor channel attenuation...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
A Odawara, H Katoh, N Matsuda, I Suzuki
The functional network of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons is a potentially powerful in vitro model for evaluating disease mechanisms and drug responses. However, the culture time required for the full functional maturation of individual neurons and networks is uncertain. We investigated the development of spontaneous electrophysiological activity and pharmacological responses for over 1 year in culture using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The complete maturation of spontaneous firing, evoked responses, and modulation of activity by glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor antagonists/agonists required 20-30 weeks...
2016: Scientific Reports
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2016: Nursing Standard
Wei Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Lang Chen, Yujiao Zhang, Zucai Xu, Jing Liu, Guohui Jiang, Jie Li, Xiaogang Zhang, KeWei Wang, Jinghui Wang, Guojun Chen, Jing Luo
miR-124, a brain-specific microRNA, was originally considered as a key regulator in neuronal differentiation and the development of the nervous system. Here we showed that miR-124 expression was suppressed in patients with epilepsy and rats after drug induced-seizures. Intrahippocampal administration of a miR-124 duplex led to alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in two rat models (pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures), while miR-124 inhibitor led to shortened onset latency in pilocarpine-induced seizure rat models...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Derek J Chong, Andrew M Lerman
Since 2010, the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of four new anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of epilepsy in the USA: clobazam (Onfi), ezogabine (Potiga), perampanel (Fycompa), and eslicarbazepine (Aptiom) as well as two extended release formulations, topiramate ER (Qudexy XR and Trokendi) and oxcarbazepine ER (Oxtellar). This not only provides practitioners ample choice to match medication profiles to their patients' preferences and co-morbidities better, but also challenges us to be proficient in the use of all...
April 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Ning-ning Zhang, Guang-zhi Ding
Valeriana jatamansi (syn. V. wallichii), a traditional Chinese medicine recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia (1977 and 2010 edition), has been used for treatment of a variety of conditions including sleep problems, obesity, nervous disorders, epilepsy, insanity, snake poisoning, eye trouble, and skin diseases. Also, it was used as an important substitute for the European V. officinalis, whose root preparation, popularly known as valerian, has been employed as a mild sedative for a long time. In recent years, much attention has been draw to the iridoids, one of the major bioactive constituents of V...
May 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Solomon Habtemariam, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Azadeh Manayi, Olga Gortzi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
The World Health Organization estimated that the proportion of older people (over 60 years) will increase from 11% to 22% during next 40 years throughout the world. With respect to this, the morbidity and mortality rates of age-related diseases will increase. Mental diseases are the most common and important health problems among elderly people. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the discovery of neuroprotective drugs with high efficacy and negligible adverse effects. A growing body of scientific evidence has shown that phytochemicals possess neuroprotective effects and also mitigate neurodegeneration under both in vivo and in vitro conditions...
November 2015: Neurochemistry International
Xin Xu, Yida Hu, Yan Xiong, Zhonggui Li, Wei Wang, Chao Du, Yong Yang, Yanke Zhang, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
Approximately 30 % of epilepsy cases are refractory to current pharmacological treatments through unknown mechanisms. Much work has been done on the role of synaptic components in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, but relatively little attention has been given to the potential role of the microtubules. We investigated the level of microtubule dynamic in 30 human epileptic tissues and two different chronic epilepsy rat models. The administration of microtubule-modulating agent attenuated the progression of chronic epilepsy...
September 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Lidia M V R Moura, Diego Yacaman Mendez, Jonathan De Jesus, Rogger A Andrade, Joel S Weissman, Barbara G Vickrey, Daniel B Hoch
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between adherence to epilepsy quality measures (EQM) and seizure control over 2-3 years in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: 6150 patients were identified at two large academic medical centers with a primary or secondary diagnosis of epilepsy, were 18-85 years old and seen in outpatient general neurology or epilepsy units between June 2011 and May 2014. Patients were included if: their initial visit was between June 2011 and June 2012, treatment was with ≥1 anti-seizure drug, there was ≥1 visit per year during the timeframe, and seizure frequency was documented at initial and final visits, yielding 162 patients/1055 visits from which socio-demographic, clinical and care quality data were abstracted...
November 2015: Epilepsy Research
Iraj Aghaei, Mohammad Rostampour, Mohammad Shabani, Nima Naderi, Fereshteh Motamedi, Parvin Babaei, Behrooz Khakpour-Taleghani
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Though there are effective medications available to reduce the symptoms of the disease, their side effects have limited their usage. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has been shown to attenuate seizure in different animal models. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors in this attenuation. Male wistar rats were used for the current experiment. PTZ was injected to induce chemical kindling in animals. After verification of kindling in animals, treatment was performed with PEA, AM251 and AM630 in different groups...
November 2015: Epilepsy Research
M Wassenaar, F S S Leijten, J W Sander, S G Uijl, A C G Egberts
OBJECTIVE: Changes in anti-epileptic drug (AED) regimens may indicate unsatisfactory treatment results such as insufficient seizure control or adverse effects. This inference underlies epilepsy management and research, yet current studies often do not account for AED changes. We assessed AED change patterns and their association with quality of life (QoL), as main outcome measure, in a community-based setting. METHODS: We assessed a cohort of 248 people with epilepsy identified from community pharmacy records from whom we retrieved AED dispensing history...
June 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Tetsuya Akaishi, Kazutaka Jin, Kazuhiro Kato, Hisashi Itabashi, Tatsuro Misu, Maki Tateyama, Masaki Iwasaki, Masashi Aoki, Nobukazu Nakasato
Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies are known to be associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), stiff-person syndrome, and other neurological symptoms including temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), known as autoimmune epilepsy. We treated four patients with TLE who had elevated titers of serum anti-GAD antibody (anti-GAD-Ab), higher than 100 U/ml. Three of the four patients started to have epileptic seizures in their 5th or 6th decade. Characteristic symptoms suggesting encephalitis or encephalopathy were absent at onset of these symptoms, which led to delayed diagnosis...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Tomoyuki Tanaka, Nana Yajima, Akihiko Tanitame, Tomoko Kiyoshi, Yoshiki Miura
In order to develop novel anti-epileptic drugs that are effective for both general and partial seizure, we conducted in vivo screening of our chemical library in the mice MES and sc-PTZ models and found the benzothiazine 1 as lead compound. Optimization of this compound led to the discovery of compound 7b, which showed potent anticonvulsant effect in the MES, scPTZ and rat amygdala kindling models. Since the chemical structure of 7b is different from that of any existing AED, it is suggested that 7b may have unique mechanism of action for relieving both partial and generalized epilepsy...
October 15, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Emmi Bruun, Lauri J Virta, Reetta Kälviäinen, Tapani Keränen
PURPOSE: The choice of initial anti-epileptic drug (AED) for elderly and younger adult patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy was assessed. METHODS: The pattern of initial prescription of AEDs between 2000 and 2013 was retrospectively studied in two community-dwelling cohorts, identified from the case records of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH): elderly subjects (aged 65 or above at the time of diagnosis; n = 529) and a random sample of younger adults (16-64 years old at the time of diagnosis; n = 201)...
September 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Kuang-Hsi Chang, Yi-Chao Hsu, Mei-Yin Chang, Cheng-Li Lin, Trong-Neng Wu, Bing-Fang Hwang, Chiu-Ying Chen, Hui-Chuan Liu, Chia-Hung Kao
Peripheral neuropathy and inflammatory reactions of the central nervous system may accompany rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammatory processes play a critical role in epilepsy. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the risk of epilepsy in patients with RA.The RA cohort comprised patients ages 20 years and older who were newly diagnosed with RA between 2000 and 2011, with data obtained from the Registry of Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database. Patients without RA were frequency matched with an RA cohort at a 1:1 ratio according to age, sex, and year of RA diagnosis...
September 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christoph Ott, Henrik Martens, Imam Hassouna, Bárbara Oliveira, Christian Erck, Maria-Patapia Zafeiriou, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Dörte Hesse, Simone Gerhart, Bekir Altas, Tekla Kolbow, Herbert Stadler, Hiroshi Kawabe, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Klaus-Armin Nave, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer, Olaf Jahn, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Erythropoietin (EPO) exerts potent neuroprotective, neuroregenerative and procognitive functions. However, unequivocal demonstration of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression in brain cells has remained difficult since previously available anti-EPOR antibodies (EPOR-AB) were unspecific. We report here a new, highly specific, polyclonal rabbit EPOR-AB directed against different epitopes in the cytoplasmic tail of human and murine EPOR and its characterization by mass spectrometric analysis of immunoprecipitated endogenous EPOR, Western blotting, immunostaining, and flow cytometry...
September 1, 2015: Molecular Medicine
Symon M Kariuki, Steven White, Eddie Chengo, Ryan G Wagner, Kenneth A Ae-Ngibise, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Honorati Masanja, Anthony K Ngugi, Josemir W Sander, Brian G Neville, Charles R Newton
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) features of epilepsy and the associated factors in Africans with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE). METHODS: We characterized electroencephalographic features and determined associated factors in a sample of people with ACE in five African sites. Mixed-effects modified Poisson regression model was used to determine factors associated with abnormal EEGs. RESULTS: Recordings were performed on 1426 people of whom 751 (53%) had abnormal EEGs, being an adjusted prevalence of 2...
February 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Hyman M Schipper
The effects of gonadal steroids on neurological well-being and disease constitute a rich and rapidly expanding area of basic and clinical neuroscience. Gonadal hormones exert potent effects on monoaminergic, cholinergic and peptidergic pathways as well as neurosteroidogenesis which, in turn, impact normal brain organization and function. A spectrum of human neurological conditions are influenced by hormonal fluctuations associated with the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the menopause and use of oral contraceptives...
2016: Neuroendocrinology
Zhen Zhang, Tao Sun, Jian-Guo Niu, Zhen-Quan He, Yang Liu, Feng Wang
Amentoflavone is a natural biflavone compound with many biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. We presumed that amentoflavone exerts a neuroprotective effect in epilepsy models. Prior to model establishment, mice were intragastrically administered 25 mg/kg amentoflavone for 3 consecutive days. Amentoflavone effectively prevented pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in a mouse kindling model, suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation and expression, inhibited excessive discharge of hippocampal neurons resulting in a reduction in epileptic seizures, shortened attack time, and diminished loss and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons...
July 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
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