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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214722/when-high-pressure-system-constraints-and-a-social-justice-mission-collide-a-socio-structural-analysis-of-emergency-department-social-work-services
#1
Megan Moore, Margaret Cristofalo, Danae Dotolo, Nicole Torres, Alexandra Lahdya, Leyna Ho, Mia Vogel, Mollie Forrester, Bonnie Conley, Susan Fouts
The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10)...
February 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210847/ethical-considerations-in-the-long-term-ventricular-assist-device-patient
#2
REVIEW
Amanda Cai, Howard J Eisen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the heart failure population continues to age, the need for definitive therapies such as ventricular assist devices (VADs) to extend life and alleviate suffering from end-stage disease directly increases. The goal of this article is to examine the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice within the context of long-term VAD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Survival rates in VAD-implanted patients have improved in parallel with modernization of device design and surgical technique, reaching that of cardiac transplantation at 1 year post-procedure...
February 16, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205259/professional-values-and-competencies-as-explanatory-factors-for-the-use-of-evidence-based-practice-in-nursing
#3
Brigita Skela-Savič, Simona Hvalič-Touzery, Katja Pesjak
AIM: To establish the connection between values, competencies, selected job characteristics and evidence-based practice use. BACKGROUND: Nurses rarely apply evidence-based practice in everyday work. A recent body of research has looked at various variables explaining the use of evidence-based practice, but not values and competencies. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, non-experimental quantitative explorative research design. METHODS: Standardized instruments were used (Nurse Professional Values Scale-R, Nurse Competence Scale, Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Implementation Scale)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198932/eugenics-sterilization-and-historical-memory-in-the-united-states
#4
Alexandra Minna Stern
From the 1920s to the 1950s, California sterilized approximately 20,000 people in state homes and hospitals based on a eugenic law that authorized medical superintendents to perform reproductive surgeries on patients deemed unfit and "suffering from a mental affliction likely to be inherited." Working with a unique resource - a dataset created from 19,000 sterilization recommendations - my team and I have reconstructed patterns and experiences of institutionalization of sterilizations. This article presents several of our important initial findings related to ethnic and gender bias in sterilization policies, and reflects on the relevance of the history for contemporary issues in genomics and social justice...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198319/committed-the-battle-over-involuntary-psychiatric-care-miller-dinah-and-johns-annette-hanson-committed-the-battle-over-involuntary-psychiatric-care-328pp-us%C3%A2-22-95-%C3%A2-15-99-hopkins-university-press-9781421420783-1421420783-hardback-edition-formula-see-text
#5
(no author information available yet)
In this book the authors, practising psychiatrists, provide a well-balanced account of the difficulties faced by patients, carers, health professionals and criminal justice workers in deciding whether someone should receive involuntary or voluntary psychiatric care.
February 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193888/interleukin-37-reverses-the-metabolic-cost-of-inflammation-increases-oxidative-respiration-and-improves-exercise-tolerance
#6
Giulio Cavalli, Jamie N Justice, Kristen E Boyle, Angelo D'Alessandro, Elan Z Eisenmesser, Jonathan J Herrera, Kirk C Hansen, Travis Nemkov, Rinke Stienstra, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani, Douglas R Seals, Lorenzo Dagna, Leo A B Joosten, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello
IL-1 family member interleukin 37 (IL-37) has broad antiinflammatory properties and functions as a natural suppressor of innate inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with recombinant human IL-37 reverses the decrease in exercise performance observed during systemic inflammation. This effect was associated with a decrease in the levels of plasma and muscle cytokines, comparable in extent to that obtained upon IL-1 receptor blockade. Exogenous administration of IL-37 to healthy mice, not subjected to an inflammatory challenge, also improved exercise performance by 82% compared with vehicle-treated mice (P = 0...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193627/adoptive-transfer-of-invariant-nkt-cells-as-immunotherapy-for-advanced-melanoma-a-phase-1-clinical-trial
#7
Mark A Exley, Philip Friedlander, Nadia Alatrakchi, Lianne Vriend, Simon C Yue, Tetsuro Sasada, Wanyong Zang, Yo Mizukami, Justice Clark, David Nemer, Ken LeClair, Christine Canning, Heather Daley, Glenn Dranoff, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, F Stephen Hodi, Jerome Ritz, Steven P Balk
PURPOSE: Invariant NKT cells (iNKT) are innate-like CD1d-restricted T cells with immunoregulatory activity in diseases including cancer. iNKT from advanced cancer patients can have reversible defects including IFNγ production, and iNKT IFNγ production may stratify for survival. Previous clinical trials using iNKT cell activating ligand α-galactosylceramide have shown responses. Therefore, a phase 1 clinical trial was performed of autologous in vitro expanded iNKT cells in stage IIIB-IV melanoma...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191999/chronic-and-episodic-anger-and-gratitude-toward-the-organization-relationships-with-organizational-and-supervisor-supportiveness-and-extrarole-behavior
#8
Michael T Ford, Yanxia Wang, Jiafei Jin, Robert Eisenberger
Gratitude and anger represent 2 fundamental moral emotions in response to help or harm. Research suggests that individuals perceive organizations to have humanlike qualities and thus hold them responsible for helpful or harmful treatment. Given this line of reasoning, we hypothesized that workers direct gratitude toward their organizations in response to supportive treatment and anger toward their organizations in response to unsupportive treatment. Gratitude and anger, in turn, were expected to influence daily extrarole behavior...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190696/ethical-issues-in-research
#9
REVIEW
Raul Artal, Sheldon Rubenfeld
Biomedical research is currently guided by ethical standards that have evolved over many centuries. Historical and political events, social and legal considerations, and continuous medical and technological advances have led to the prevailing research ethics and practice. Currently, patients and research subjects have complete autonomy while under medical care or when volunteering as research subjects. Enrolling volunteers in human subjects research includes a detailed and meaningful informed consent process that follows the cardinal principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice...
January 23, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188460/gender-differences-in-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-persons-involved-in-the-u-s-criminal-justice-system-and-living-with-hiv-or-at-risk-for-hiv-a-seek-test-treat-and-retain-harmonization-consortium
#10
Kelsey B Loeliger, Mary L Biggs, Rebekah Young, David W Seal, Curt G Beckwith, Irene Kuo, Michael S Gordon, Frederick L Altice, Lawrence J Ouellet, William E Cunningham, Jeremy D Young, Sandra A Springer
The U.S. female criminal justice (CJ) population is rapidly growing, yet large-scale studies exploring gender-specific HIV risk behaviors in the CJ population are lacking. This analysis uses baseline data on adults with a CJ history from eight U.S. studies in an NIH-funded "Seek, Test, Treat, Retain" harmonization consortium. Data were collected using a standardized HIV risk behavior assessment tool and pooled across studies to describe participants' characteristics and risk behaviors. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to test for gender-based behavior differences...
February 10, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188459/erratum-to-trends-in-any-and-high-dose-opioid-analgesic-receipt-among-aging-patients-with-and-without-hiv
#11
William C Becker, Kirsha Gordon, E Jennifer Edelman, Robert D Kerns, Stephen Crystal, James D Dziura, Lynn E Fiellin, Adam J Gordon, Joseph L Goulet, Amy C Justice, David A Fiellin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185995/study-protocol-community-links-to-establish-alcohol-recovery-clear-for-women-leaving-jail
#12
Jennifer E Johnson, Yael Chatav Schonbrun, Bradley Anderson, Megan Kurth, Christine Timko, Michael Stein
PURPOSE: This article describes the protocol for a randomized effectiveness trial of a method to link alcohol use disordered women who are in pretrial jail detention with post-release 12-step mutual help groups. BACKGROUND: Jails serve 15 times more people per year than do prisons and have very short stays, posing few opportunities for treatment or treatment planning. Alcohol use is associated with poor post-jail psychosocial and health outcomes including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, especially for women...
February 7, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185590/how-can-health-systems-research-reach-the-worst-off-a-conceptual-exploration
#13
REVIEW
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Health systems research is increasingly being conducted in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Such research should aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries as a matter of global justice. For such research to do so, ethical guidance that is consistent with egalitarian theories of social justice proposes it ought to (amongst other things) focus on worst-off countries and research populations. Yet who constitutes the worst-off is not well-defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: By applying existing work on disadvantage from political philosophy, the paper demonstrates that (at least) two options exist for how to define the worst-off upon whom equity-oriented health systems research should focus: those who are worst-off in terms of health or those who are systematically disadvantaged...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184313/juvenile-delinquency-welfare-justice-and-therapeutic-interventions-a-global-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Susan Young, Ben Greer, Richard Church
This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields...
February 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182296/ways-out-of-the-patenting-prohibition-human-parthenogenetic-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Hannah Schickl, Matthias Braun, Peter Dabrock
According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term 'human embryo' to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities based on the criterion of totipotency, are becoming increasingly unclear...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182288/the-place-of-crowdfunding-in-the-discovery-of-scientific-and-social-value-of-medical-research
#16
Lorenzo Del Savio
Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178977/diagnostic-performance-and-optimal-cut-off-scores-of-the-massachusetts-youth-screening-instrument-second-version-in-a-sample-of-swiss-youths-in-welfare-and-juvenile-justice-institutions
#17
Claudia Dölitzsch, Laura E W Leenarts, Klaus Schmeck, Jorg M Fegert, Thomas Grisso, Marc Schmid
BACKGROUND: There is a growing consensus about the importance of mental health screening of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2) was specifically designed, normed and validated to assist juvenile justice facilities in the United States of America (USA), in identifying youths with potential emotional or behavioral problems. However, it is not known if the USA norm-based cut-off scores can be used in Switzerland...
February 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178880/runaway-inequality-leopold-les-2015-runaway-inequality-an-activist-s-guide-to-economic-justice-new-york-ny-labor-institute-press-314-pp-19-95-pbk-isbn-9780692436301
#18
Harris Gruman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176637/personalized-medicine-applied-to-forensic-sciences-new-advances-and-perspectives-for-a-tailored-forensic-approach
#19
Alessandro Santurro, Anna Maria Vullo, Marina Borro, Giovanna Gentile, Raffaele La Russa, Maurizio Simmaco, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy"...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172581/first-occurrence-of-diabetes-chronic-kidney-disease-and-hypertension-among-north-american-hiv-infected-adults-2000-2013
#20
Cherise Wong, Stephen J Gange, Kate Buchacz, Richard D Moore, Amy C Justice, Michael A Horberg, M John Gill, John R Koethe, Peter F Rebeiro, Michael J Silverberg, Frank J Palella, Pragna Patel, Mari M Kitahata, Heidi M Crane, Alison G Abraham, Hasina Samji, Sonia Napravnik, Tareq Ahmed, Jennifer E Thorne, Ronald J Bosch, Angel M Mayor, Keri N Althoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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